[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent and biotinylated squalene–gemcitabine prodrug nanoparticles exhibiting high drug payloads have been prepared and successfully used to target different cancer cell lines, resulting in increased cell uptake and improved anticancer efficiency, which represents the first targeted system derived from the squalenoylation approach.
Chemical Communications 01/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squalene-based nucleolipids, including anticancer or antiviral prodrugs, gave rise to nanoparticles displaying a diversity of structures upon nanoprecipitation in water. Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-TEM imaging revealed that both the nature of the nucleoside and the position of the squalene moiety relative to the nucleobase determined the self-assembly of the corresponding bioconjugates. It was found that tiny chemical differences resulted in major differences in the self-organization of nucleolipids when squalene was grafted onto the nucleobase whereas only lamellar phases were observed when squalene was linked to the sugar moiety. The key role of hydrogen bonds between nucleobases in the formation of the lamellar phases was suggested, in agreement with molecular simulations. These findings open a way towards a fine tuning of the supramolecular organization of squalene-based prodrugs, with the aim of improving their pharmacological activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new paclitaxel (Ptx) prodrug was designed by coupling a single terpene unit (MIP) to the hydroxyl group in position 2' of the drug molecule. Using a squalene derivative of polyethylene glycol (SQ-PEG) as surface active agent, the resulting bioconjugate (PtxMIP) self-assembled in water leading to the formation of stable nanoparticles (PtxMIP_SQ-PEG NPs) with an impressively high drug loading (82%). In vivo, the anticancer activity of this novel Ptx nanoassembled prodrug was compared to the conventional Cremophor-containing formulation (Taxol) on a murine model of breast cancer lung metastasis induced by intravenous injection of 4T1 tumor cells, genetically modified to stably express firefly luciferase. Cell growth was assessed noninvasively by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) which enabled monitoring tumor metastatic burden in the same animals. PtxMIP_SQ-PEG nanoparticles slowed metastatic spread and were better tolerated than the Cremophor-containing formulation (i.e., free drug), thus demonstrating the potential of terpene-based nanoassembled prodrugs in the improvement of the therapeutic index of Ptx in balb/c mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the design and synthesis of novel bolaform prodrugs in which the two headgroups are constituted of gemcitabine and/or paclitaxel anticancer drugs bound together through short polyisoprenoyl spacers. Thanks to the unique auto-assembling properties of the polyisoprenoyl linker, these bolaform prodrugs were found to self-assemble in aqueous media into 100–200 nm nanoassemblies. The synthesis of the prodrugs and the characterization of the nanoassemblies by DLS, TEM and cryoTEM are described. These gemcitabine/paclitaxel nanodevices with high drug payloads displayed improved in vitro activities on several human and murine cancer cell lines comparatively to nanoassemblies of the corresponding squalenoyl drugs alone or in combination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: RET/PTC1 is the most prevalent type of gene rearrangement found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previously, we introduced a new non-cationic nanosystem for targeted RET/PTC1 silencing by efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) using the "squalenoylation" approach. With the aim to further improve these results, we designed new squalenoyl nanostructures consisting of fusogenic peptide GALA-Cholesterol (GALA-Chol) and squalene (SQ) nanoparticles (NPs) of siRNA RET/PTC1. Methods: The siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ bio-conjugate was synthesized. The corresponding NPs were prepared with or without GALA-Chol by nanoprecipitation and then characterised for their size and Zeta potential. The effects of NPs on BHP 10-3 SCmice and TPC-1 cell viability (MTT assay), gene and protein silencing (RT-qPCR, Western blot) and cellular uptake (fluorescent microscopy) were studied. In vivo gene silencing efficiency of siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ NPs was assessed by administration in nude mice either via intratumoral (i.t.) or intravenous (i.v.) routes. Tumour growth was followed during 19 days. Tumours were then collected and RET/PTC1 gene and protein inhibitions were assessed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Results: The combination of siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ bio-conjugate and GALA-Chol leads to stable nanoparticles of around 200 nm diameter. In vitro, the results revealed that GALA-Chol combination with siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ NPs decreased cell viability, enhanced cellular internalization and induced gene silencing efficiency in both human PTC (BHP 10-3 SCmice and TPC-1) cell lines. On the contrary, the siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ GALA-Chol NPs were found efficient in vivo neither in gene silencing nor in tumour growth inhibition compared to siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ NPs both via i.t. or i.v. routes (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Conversely to siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ NPs, the siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ GALA-Chol NPs are efficient in vitro but not in vivo. Finally, nanoparticles of siRNA RET/PTC1-SQ were accredited as an efficient therapy for RET/PTC1 fusion oncogene for in vivo applications even at lower concentration than used in previously published study.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 07/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a novel class of polymer prodrug nanoparticles with anticancer activity is reported by using squalene, a naturally occurring isoprenoid, as building block by the reversible addition-fragmentation (RAFT) technique. The RAFT agent was functionalized by gemcitabine (Gem) as anticancer drug, and the polymerization of squalene-methacrylate (SqMA) led to well-defined macromolecular prodrugs comprising one Gem at the extremity of each polymer chain. The amphiphilic nature of the resulting Gem-PSqMA conjugates allowed them to self-assemble into long-term stable and narrowly dispersed nanoparticles with significant anticancer activity in vitro on various cancer cell lines. To confer stealth properties on these nanoparticles, their PEGylation was successfully performed, as confirmed by XPS and complement activation assay. It was also shown that the PEGylated nanoparticles could be internalized in cancer cells to a greater extent than their non-PEGylated counterparts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to their hydrophilic nature, most nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) display a variable bioavailability after oral administration and a poor control over their biodistribution, thus hampering their access to HIV sanctuaries. The limited cellular uptake and activation in the triphosphate form of NRTIs further restrict their efficacy and favour the emergence of viral resistance. We have shown that the conjugation of squalene (sq) to the nucleoside analogues dideoxycytidine (ddC) and didanosine (ddI) leads to amphiphilic prodrugs (ddC-sq and ddI-sq) that spontaneously self-organize in water as stable nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm. These nanoassemblies can also be formulated with polyethylene glycol coupled to either cholesterol (Chol-PEG) or squalene (sq-PEG). When incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro infected with HIV, the NRTI-sq prodrugs enhanced the antiviral efficacy of the parent NRTIs, with a 2- to 3-fold decrease of the 50% effective doses and a nearly 2-fold increase of the selectivity index. This was also the case with HIV-1 strains resistant to ddC and/or ddI. The enhanced antiviral activity of ddI-sq was correlated with an up to 5-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of the corresponding pharmacologically active metabolite ddA-TP. The ddI-sq prodrug was further investigated in vivo by the oral route, the preferred route of administration of NRTIs. Pharmacokinetics studies performed on rats showed that the prodrug maintained low amounts of free ddI in the plasma. Administration of (3)H-ddI-sq led to radioactivity levels higher in the plasma and relevant organs in HIV infection as compared to administration of free (3)H-ddI. Taken together, these results show the potential of the squalenoylated prodrugs of NRTIs to enhance their absorption and improve their biodistribution, but also to enhance their intracellular delivery and antiviral efficacy towards HIV-infected cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of new lipid prodrugs of paclitaxel, which can be formulated as nanoassemblies, are described. These prodrugs which are designed to overcome the limitations due to the systemic toxicity and low water solubility of paclitaxel consist of a squalene chain bound to the 2'-OH of paclitaxel through a 1,4-cis,cis-dienic linker. This design allows the squalene-conjugates to self-assemble as nanoparticular systems while preserving an efficient release of the free drug, thanks to the dienic spacer. The size, steric hindrance, and functional groups of the spacer have been modulated. All these prodrugs self-assemble into nanosized aggregates in aqueous solution as characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy and appear stable in water for several days as determined by particle size measurement. In vitro biological assessment shows that these squalenoyl-paclitaxel nanoparticles display notable cytotoxicity on several tumor cell lines including A549 lung cell line, colon cell line HT-29, or KB 3.1 nasopharyngeal epidermoid cell line. The cis,cis-squalenyl-deca-5,8-dienoate prodrug show improved activity over simple 2'-squalenoyl-paclitaxel prodrug highlighting the favourable effect of the dienic linker. The antitumor efficacy of the nanoassemblies constructed with the more active prodrugs has been investigated on human lung (A549) carcinoma xenograft model in mice. The prodrug bearing the cis,cis-deca-5,8-dienoyl linker shows comparable antitumor efficacy to the parent drug, but reveals a much lower subacute toxicity as seen in body weight loss. Thus, nanoparticles with the incorporated squalenoyl paclitaxel prodrug may prove useful for replacement of the toxic Cremophor EL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of new polyisoprenoyl prodrugs of gemcitabine, which can be formulated as nanoassemblies are described. These prodrugs were designed to improve gemcitabine efficacy and to overcome the limitations due to the systemic toxicity of this anticancer compound. In vitro biological assessment showed that these polyisoprenoyl gemcitabine nanoassemblies displayed notable cytotoxicity on several cancer cell lines, including murine melanoma cell line B16F10, human pancreatic carcinoma cell line MiaPaCa-2, human lung carcinoma cell line A549 and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7. Interestingly, it was observed that the anticancer efficacy of these nanoassemblies was dependant on the size of polyisoprenoyl moiety. The polyisoprenoyl prodrug of gemcitabine containing three isoprene units (2d) was the more active on all the cancer cell lines tested. The antitumor efficacy of the nanoassemblies (NAs) constructed with the most active prodrug 2d was further evaluated on a human pancreatic (MiaPaCa-2) carcinoma xenograft model in mice. The prodrug 2d NAs showed an increased antitumor efficacy as compared to free gemcitabine or to squalene-gemcitabine (SQ-gem, 2a) nanoassemblies. Interestingly, MiaPaCa-2 tumors that did not respond to gemcitabine were inhibited by 76% after treatment with prodrug 2d NAs, whereas SQ-gem-treated MiaPaCa-2 tumor xenografts decreased only by 41% compared to saline or to gemcitabine-treated mice. Together, these findings demonstrated that the modulation of the length of nanoassemblies polyisoprenoyl moiety made tumor cells more sensitive to gemcitabine treatment without flagrant toxicity, thus providing a significant improvement in the drug therapeutic index.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platinum is well known for its anticancer activity, firstly used as cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP), with a wide range of activity. Its main mechanism of action involves its binding to DNA. Gallium, another metal, has also demonstrated apoptotic effects on malignant cells, but through interaction with targets other than DNA, such as the membrane, cytoskeleton and proteasome, and on enzyme activities. An antitumor synergism between CDDP and both gallium and rhenium compounds has been demonstrated. For these reasons, we proposed to combine these three metals and to determine at which doses each compound could be administered without major toxicity. CDDP, tetrakis(1-octanol) tris(5-aminosalicylate)gallium(III), and a diseleno-ether rhenium(I) complex were used in this experimental study in breast cancer MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice. CDDP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice a week at the dose of 3 mg/kg. Tetrakis(1-octanol) tris(5-aminosalicylate) gallium (III) and rhenium(I) diseleno-ether complexes were administered orally, daily, five days a week for three weeks, at doses ranging from 20 to 100 mg/kg for the gallium compound and from 10 to 50 mg/kg for the rhenium compound. Doses of 10 mg/kg of rhenium(I) diseleno-ether, and 100 mg/kg of the salicylate gallium compound, in combination with CDDP induced a significant decrease of 50% of the tumor volume, by comparison with the control group. In contrast, the decrease of the tumor volume in mice treated by CDDP alone was less than 25%. Changes in the sequence of administration of the three metals will be discussed to improve the therapeutic index.
Anticancer research 07/2012; 32(7):2769-81. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe here new nanoparticles based on the bioconjugation of penicillin G to squalene in order to overcome severe intracellular infections by pathogen bacteria whose mechanism of resistance arises from the poor intracellular diffusion of several antibiotics. Two different squalene-penicillin G conjugates were synthesized (pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive), and their self-assembly as nanoparticles was investigated through morphology and stability studies. These nanoparticles had a size of 140 ± 10 nm (polydispersity index of 0.1) and a negative charge, and they did not display any supramolecular organization. Furthermore, they were found stable in water and in different culture medium. The cellular uptake and localization of these fluorescently labeled nanoparticles were explored on the macrophage cell line J774 by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis. The squalenoylated nanoparticles were found to be cell internalized through clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytic pathways. Moreover, they induced an improved intracellular antibacterial activity on the facultative intracellular pathogen S. aureus, compared with free penicillin G, despite the absence of co-localization between the bacteria and the nanoparticles in the cells. This study suggests that the bioconjugation of an antibiotic to a squalene template could be a valuable approach for overcoming the antibiotic resistance due to intracellular bacterial infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides, including antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA, are promising therapeutic agents against a variety of diseases. Effective delivery of these molecules is critical in view of their clinical application. Therefore, cation-based nanoplexes have been developed to improve the stability as well as the intracellular penetration of these short fragments of nucleic acids. However, this approach is clearly limited by the strong interaction with proteins after administration and by the inherent toxicity of these positively charged transfection materials. Neutral lipid-oligonucleotide conjugates have become a subject of considerable interest to improve the safe delivery of oligonucleotides. These molecules have been chemically conjugated to hydrophobic moieties such as cholesterol, squalene, or fatty acids to enhance their pharmacokinetic behavior and trans-membrane delivery. The present review gives an account of the main synthetic methods available to conjugate lipids to oligonucleotides and will discuss the pharmacological efficacy of this approach.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squalene is a triterpene widely distributed in nature that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. The remarkable dynamic folded conformation of squalene has been used to chemically conjugate this lipid with various therapeutic molecules to construct nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm. In this review, we discuss the new concept of "squalenoylation" through application to anticancer (i.e. gemcitabine, paclitaxel, cisplatin etc.…) or antiviral (ddI, ddC) compounds. In a lego-type approach, it is also possible to construct multifunctional nanoparticles endowed with additional imaging functionalities (i.e. "Nanotheragnostics"). This new nanotechnology platform is expected to have important applications in pharmacology.
Journal of Controlled Release 08/2011; 161(2):609-18. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have designed an amphiphilic prodrug of the anticancer agent gemcitabine (dFdC), by covalent coupling to squalene. This bioconjugate, which self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) in water, was previously found to display an impressive anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims to investigate the impact of SQdFdC nanoparticles on cellular membranes. MTT assays showed that, in the nanomolar range, squalenoyl gemcitabine (SQdFdC) was slightly less active than dFdC on a panel of human cancer cell lines, in vitro. However, above 10 μmol L(-1) SQdFdC was considerably more cytotoxic than dFdC. Contrarily to its parent drug, SQdFdC also induced cell lysis in a few hours, as evidenced by LDH release assays. Erythrocytes were used as an experimental model insensitive to the antimetabolic activity of dFdC to further investigate the putative membrane-related cytotoxic activity of SQdFdC. The bioconjugate also induced hemolysis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, unlike squalene or dFdC, which clearly proved that SQdFdC could permeabilize cellular membranes. Structural X-ray diffraction and calorimetry studies were conducted in order to elucidate the mechanism accounting for these observations. They confirmed that SQdFdC could be transferred from NPs to phospholipid bilayers and that the insertion of the prodrug within model membranes resulted in the formation of nonlamellar structures, which are known to promote membrane leakage. As a whole, our results suggested that due to its amphiphilic nature, the cell uptake of SQdFdC resulted in its insertion into cellular membranes, which could lead to the formation of nonlamellar structures and to membrane permeation. Whether this mechanism could be the source of toxicity in vivo, however, remains to be established, since preclinical studies have clearly proven that squalenoyl gemcitabine displayed a good toxicity profile.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 07/2011; 79(3):612-20. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the conjugation of the natural lipid squalene (SQ) with a small interfering RNA (siRNA), against the junction oncogene RET/PTC1, usually found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The acyclic isoprenoid chain of squalene has been covalently coupled with siRNA RET/PTC1 at the 3'-terminus of the sense strand via maleimide-sulfhydryl chemistry. Remarkably, the linkage of siRNA RET/PTC1 to squalene led to an amphiphilic molecule that self-organized in H(2)O as siRNA-SQ RET/PTC1 nanoparticles (NPs). The siRNA-SQ RET/PTC1 NPs, stable in H(2)O, were used for biological studies. In vitro, they did not show any cytotoxicity. Interestingly, in vivo, on a mice xenografted RET/PTC1 experimental model, RET/PTC1-SQ NPs were found to inhibit tumor growth and RET/PTC1 oncogene and oncoprotein expression after 2.5 mg/kg cumulative dose intravenous injections. In conclusion, these results showed that the "squalenoylation" offers a new noncationic plate-form for the siRNA delivery.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2011; 54(12):4067-76. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A family of novel amphiphilic gadolinium chelates was successfully obtained by coupling the hydrophilic DOTA ligand [1,4,7,10-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane] to squalenoyl moieties. Thanks to the self-assembling properties of their squalenoyl lipophilic moieties, all these derivatives were able to form, without any adjuvant, micellar or liposome-like supramolecular nanoassemblies, endowed with high relaxivities (r(1) = 15-22 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 MHz and 37 °C). The remarkably high payloads of Gd(3+) ions reached 10 to 17 wt %. Moreover, one of these derivatives interacted with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed micelles, which induced a remarkable increase in relaxivity. Liposome-like structures were obtained when the Gd(3+) complex of DOTA was coupled to two squalene units. These liposomal structures were characterized by a high loading of Gd(3+) (about 74,000 gadolinium ions per particle of 100 nm). The supramolecular architecture of these nano-objects has been investigated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Squalenoylation of gadolinium derivatives offers a platform to conceive contrast agents (CAs) in mild conditions (no toxic solvents, no surfactants, no energy input). These new amphiphilic gadolinium chelates could also find potential applications in theranostics, by forming mixed systems with other squalenoylated drugs, or to delineate blood vessels owing to the interaction with HSA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New nanomedicines could improve drug accumulation in HIV sanctuaries and ameliorate their antiretroviral efficiency. In this view, we propose herein a combined strategy based on a biomimetic prodrug of ddI and its formulation in well-characterized lipid nanoobjects. The glycerolipidic prodrug of ddI (ProddINP) has been synthesized and its bulk structure was characterized. An appropriate formulation of this prodrug has been designed using a rational approach combining different physicochemical techniques. The high incorporation ratio of the prodrug into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers was determined by DSC. Then two liposome preparation methods were compared, with respect to size, incorporation yield and molecular/supramolecular organization of vesicles. The best liposomal formulation of ProddINP has been checked to keep intact the anti-HIV activity of ddI. This formulation was finally compared to ddI after oral route in rat. The animal experiments evidenced the increase of ddI blood half life (3-fold) and its enhanced accumulation as prodrug form at 24h in numerous organs and especially intestine after administration of ProddINP in comparison with free drug. Finally, the tested liposomal formulation of ProddINP seems to be a promising approach to eradicate HIV infection from intestinal sanctuaries where the virus can concentrate.
International journal of pharmaceutics 05/2011; 414(1-2):285-97. · 2.96 Impact Factor