R de Vries

Ziekenhuis Tjongerschans, Heerenveen, Friesland, Netherlands

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Publications (85)264.21 Total impact

  • European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2013; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether a single optimal vaccination strategy exists across countries to deal with a future influenza pandemic by comparing the cost effectiveness of different strategies in various pandemic scenarios for three European countries. Economic and epidemic modelling study. General populations in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Country specific patterns of social contact and demographic data. An age structured susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered transmission model that describes how an influenza A virus will spread in the populations of Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Comparison of four vaccination strategies: no vaccination, blanket vaccination, vaccination of elderly people (≥ 65 years), and vaccination of high transmitters (5-19 years). The four strategies were evaluated for scenarios in which a vaccine became available early or at the peak of the pandemic, and in which either everyone was initially susceptible or older age groups had pre-existing immunity. Cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. All vaccination strategies were cost effective (incremental cost per QALY gained, comparing intervention with non-intervention). In scenarios where the vaccine became available at the peak of the pandemic and there was pre-existing immunity among elderly people the incremental cost effectiveness ratios for vaccinating high transmitters were €7325 (£5815; $10,470) per QALY gained for Germany, €10,216 per QALY gained for the Netherlands, and €7280 per QALY gained for the United Kingdom. The most cost effective strategy not only differed across the pandemic scenarios but also between countries. Specifically, when the vaccine was available early in the pandemic and there was no pre-existing immunity, in Germany it would be most cost effective to vaccinate elderly people ( €940 per QALY gained), whereas it would be most cost effective to vaccinate high transmitters in both the Netherlands (€525 per QALY gained) and the United Kingdom (€163 per QALY gained). This difference in optimal strategies was due to differences in the demographic characteristics of the countries: Germany has a significantly higher proportion of elderly people compared with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. No single vaccination strategy was most cost effective across countries. With aging populations, pre-existing immunity in particular could be of crucial importance for the cost effectiveness of options to mitigate a future influenza pandemic.
    BMJ Clinical Research 07/2012; 345:e4445. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal pertussis booster vaccination strategy for The Netherlands. A realistic age-structured deterministic model was designed. Assuming a steady-state situation and correcting for underreporting, the model was calibrated using notification data from the period 1996-2000. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the impact of different assumptions for parameters surrounded by uncertainty (e.g. duration of protection after natural infection, underreporting factors, and transmission probabilities). The optimal age of an additional booster dose is in the range of 10-15 years, and implementation of this booster dose will reduce both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, although the incidence of symptomatic infections in older age groups will increase. The impact of the different assumptions used in the model was in general limited. We conclude that over a wide range of assumptions, an additional booster dose can reduce the incidence of pertussis in the population.
    Epidemiology and Infection 11/2011; 140(8):1503-14. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardiometabolic risk marker that is important in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride metabolism. Plasma PLTP activity is elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas glucose may regulate PLTP gene transcription in vitro. Of interest, common PLTP variations that predict cardiovascular disease have been identified recently. We investigated whether the diabetic state is able to amplify relationships between obesity and PLTP gene variations with circulating PLTP levels. Plasma PLTP activity (using a phospholipid vesicles-HDL system), PLTP gene score [number of PLTP activity-decreasing alleles based on two tagging polymorphisms (rs378114 and rs60- 65904)] and waist circumference were determined in two Dutch cohorts comprising 237 patients with type 2 diabetes and 78 control subjects. Patients with diabetes were more obese (P < 0.001 for prevalence of increased waist circumference) and had 13% higher plasma PLTP activity (P < 0.001). PLTP gene score was not different in diabetic and control subjects (P = 0.40). PLTP activity was highest in patients with diabetes with an enlarged waist and lowest in control subjects with a normal waist circumference (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a positive interaction between diabetes status and waist circumference on PLTP activity (β = 0.200, P = 0.005). Furthermore, diabetes status (β = -0.485, P = 0.046) or HbA1c (β = -0.240, P = 0.035) interacted with PLTP gene score to affect PLTP activity. Type 2 diabetes and enlarged waist circumference interact to impact on plasma PLTP activity. Diabetes may also amplify the association between plasma PLTP activity and common PLTP gene variations. Our findings support the hypothesis that diabetes-environment and diabetes-gene interactions govern plasma PLTP activity.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 10/2011; 271(5):490-8. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a large increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) over the past decades, largely because of the increasing size of the population at risk. One of the major risk groups for IFIs are patients with haematological malignancies treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These IFIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Consequently, as the diagnosis of IFIs is difficult, antifungal prophylaxis is desirable in high-risk patients. Furthermore, as the economic impact of IFIs is also significant, it is important to assess the cost benefit and cost effectiveness of each prophylactic agent in order to aid decisions concerning which prophylactic agent provides the best value for limited healthcare resources. This article systematically reviews the available pharmacoeconomic evidence regarding antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients treated for haematological malignancies. Furthermore, specific points of interest concerning economic analyses of antifungal prophylaxis are briefly discussed. Considering the available evidence, antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients treated for haematological malignancies seems to be an intervention with favourable cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-saving potential. Furthermore, recently introduced antifungal agents seem to be attractive alternatives to fluconazole from a pharmacoeconomic point of view. However, due to wide heterogeneity in patient characteristics, underlying diseases, hospital settings and study methods in the included economic studies, as well as the lack of 'head-to-head' trials, it is difficult to find clear evidence of the economic advantages of a single prophylactic agent. Furthermore, we show that the results of cost-effectiveness analyses are highly dependent on several crucial factors that influence the baseline IFI incidence rates and, therefore, differ per patient population or region.
    PharmacoEconomics 06/2011; 29(9):737-51. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in the skin are increased in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and are related to the presence of disease-related and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods. Skin autofluorescence, as a measure for the accumulation of AGEs, was assessed by measuring UV-A light excitation-emission matrices (AF-EEMS) in 41 SSc patients and 41 age- and sex-matched controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-related risk factors were recorded. Results. Skin AF-EEMS did not differ between SSc patients and controls (1.68 ± 0.58 a.u. versus 1.63 ± 0.41 a.u., P = 0.684). Skin AF-EEMS in SSc patients was associated with levels of CRP (r = 0.44, P = 0.004), Medsger's severity scale (r = 0.45, P = 0.006), and use of agents intervening in the renin-angiotensin system (r = 0.33, P = 0.027). When analysing SSc patients and controls together, in multivariate analysis, only age and use of agents intervening in the renin-angiotensin system were independently associated with AF-EEMS. Conclusion. These data demonstrate that skin AGEs are not increased in SSc patients.
    International Journal of Rheumatology 01/2011; 2011:417813.
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2011; 12(1):46-46.
  • Value in Health 11/2010; 13(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 11/2010; 13(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in primary headaches, and CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in migraine treatment. CGRP is a potent vasodilator, raising the possibility that antagonism of its receptor could have cardiovascular effects. We therefore investigated the effects of the antimigraine CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant (MK-0974) [N-[(3R,6S)-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)azepan-3-yl]-4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-1-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamide] on human isolated coronary arteries. Arteries with different internal diameters were studied to assess the potential for differential effects across the coronary vascular bed. The concentration-dependent relaxation responses to human alphaCGRP were greater in distal coronary arteries (i.d. 600-1000 microm; E(max) = 83 +/- 7%) than proximal coronary arteries (i.d. 2-3 mm; E(max) = 23 +/- 9%), coronary arteries from explanted hearts (i.d. 3-5 mm; E(max) = 11 +/- 3%), and coronary arterioles (i.d. 200-300 microm; E(max) = 15 +/- 7%). Telcagepant alone did not induce contraction or relaxation of these coronary blood vessels. Pretreatment with telcagepant (10 nM to 1 microM) antagonized alphaCGRP-induced relaxation competitively in distal coronary arteries (pA(2) = 8.43 +/- 0.24) and proximal coronary arteries and coronary arterioles (1 microM telcagepant, giving pK(B) = 7.89 +/- 0.13 and 7.78 +/- 0.16, respectively). alphaCGRP significantly increased cAMP levels in distal, but not proximal, coronary arteries, and this was abolished by pretreatment with telcagepant. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression and colocalization of the CGRP receptor elements calcitonin-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 in the smooth muscle cells in the media layer of human coronary arteries. These findings in vitro support the cardiovascular safety of CGRP receptor antagonists and suggest that telcagepant is unlikely to induce coronary side effects under normal cardiovascular conditions.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2010; 334(3):746-52. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease. Despite a high rate of vaccine coverage through the Dutch national immunization program, the incidence of pertussis remains high in the Netherlands and the risk of infection continues. Because pertussis is most severe in unimmunized infants and infants who have only received some of the recommended doses, new pertussis immunization strategies should be considered to protect this vulnerable population. This study was designed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 3 new immunization strategies for possible addition to the current Dutch national immunization program: immunization of the infant at birth, immunization of the parents immediately after birth of the child (cocooning), and maternal immunization during the third trimester of pregnancy. A literature search was performed in the PubMed database for articles published in English, German, and Dutch using the following terms: pertussis, whooping cough, vaccination strategies, maternal immunization, cocooning, at birth, vaccine efficacy, mortality, underreporting, prevalence, incidence, and cost-effectiveness. A decision-tree model was developed for this analysis, and data on pertussis morbidity and costs were collected consistently for different age groups (infants <1 year of age and adults 25 to 34 years of age). The size of the infant cohort was set at 200,000 to approximate previous Dutch birth cohorts. The size of the adult cohort was set at 401,380 parents for the cocooning strategy and 201,380 mothers for the maternal immunization strategy. Health benefits (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and costs were estimated in both cohorts for each of the 3 immunization strate- gies. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated from both a payer's and a societal perspective. The robustness of the results was determined through sensitivity analysis. In the base-case analysis, cocooning and maternal immunization were found to be effective in reducing the incidence of pertussis among infants (123 and 174 infant cases were expected to be prevented, respectively). Furthermore, cocooning and maternal immunization were estimated to be cost-effective from a payer's perspective (euro4600 [US $6400]/QALY and euro3500 [$4900]/QALY, respectively) and even cost-saving from a societal perspective (savings of up to euro7200 [$10,100] and euro5000 [$7000], respectively). Sensitivity analyses revealed that favorable cost-effectiveness was generally robust. In the sensitivity analysis, the cost-effectiveness of cocooning and maternal immunization was mostly sensitive for changes in assumptions on underreporting (200-fold increase in reported number of symptomatic cases) of pertussis disease and infection. With no underreporting, the ICER was estimated at euro211,900 ($296,700)/QALY for cocooning and euro81,600 ($114,200)/QALY for maternal immunization from a payer's perspective. However, even at much lower levels of underreporting (20- to 30-fold increase in incidence), cost-effectiveness remained favorable. The cost-effectiveness of the third strategy, at-birth immunization, was highly unfavorable (euro329,900 [$461,900]/QALY from a payer's perspective and euro330,100 [$462,100]/ QALY from a societal perspective). This study estimated that the addition of cocooning or maternal immunization to the current Dutch national immunization program likely would be cost-effective or even cost-saving. These estimates were mainly due to reduction in the number of cases among parents, which are likely to be mild and therefore would largely remain unreported. Immunization at birth was not a cost-effective strategy. Cocooning was the most expensive intervention to implement; however, it resulted in the highest number of QALYs gained (mainly in adults). Maternal immunization would offer better protection of infants, due to maternally acquired antibodies.
    Clinical Therapeutics 08/2010; 32(8):1479-95. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During migraine, trigeminal nerves may release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), inducing cranial vasodilatation and central nociception; hence, trigeminal inhibition or blockade of craniovascular CGRP receptors may prevent this vasodilatation and abort migraine headache. Several preclinical studies have shown that glutamate receptor antagonists affect the pathophysiology of migraine. This study investigated whether antagonists of NMDA (ketamine and MK801), AMPA (GYKI52466) and kainate (LY466195) glutamate receptors affected dural vasodilatation induced by alpha-CGRP, capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation in rats, using intravital microscopy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and the overlying bone was thinned to visualize the dural artery. Then, vasodilator responses to exogenous (i.v. alpha-CGRP) and endogenous (released by i.v. capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation) CGRP were elicited in the absence or presence of the above antagonists. alpha-CGRP, capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation increased dural artery diameter. Ketamine and MK801 inhibited the vasodilator responses to capsaicin and electrical stimulation, while only ketamine attenuated those to alpha-CGRP. In contrast, GYKI52466 only attenuated the vasodilatation to exogenous alpha-CGRP, while LY466195 did not affect the vasodilator responses to endogenous or exogenous CGRP. Although GYKI52466 has not been tested clinically, our data suggest that it would not inhibit migraine via vascular mechanisms. Similarly, the antimigraine efficacy of LY466195 seems unrelated to vascular CGRP-mediated pathways and/or receptors. In contrast, the cranial vascular effects of ketamine and MK801 may represent a therapeutic mechanism, although the same mechanism might contribute, peripherally, to cardiovascular side effects.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2010; 160(6):1316-25. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996): 4, Export Date: 25 April 2012, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: e13392
    PLoS ONE. 01/2010; 5(10).
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis and to identify the cost-effectiveness affordability levels for a newborn universal vaccination program against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Vietnam.Methods By using a Markov model, we simulated a Vietnamese birth cohort using 1,639,000 newborns in 2002 and estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for quality-adjusted life-year gained following universal newborn HBV vaccination. Two types of analyses were performed, including and excluding expenditures on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and its complications. We used Monte Carlo simulations to examine cost-effectiveness acceptability and affordability from the payer's perspective and constructed a cost-effectiveness affordability curve to assess the costs and health effects of the program.ResultsIn the base-case analysis, newborn universal HBV vaccination reduced the carrier rate by 58% at a cost of US $42 per carrier averted. From the payer's perspective, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-year gained was US $3.77, much lower than the 2002 per-capita gross domestic product of US $440. Vaccination could potentially be affordable starting at a US $2.1 million budget. At the cost-effectiveness threshold of US $3.77 per quality-adjusted life-year and an annual budget of US $5.9 million, the probability that vaccination will be both cost-effective and affordable was 21%.Conclusions Universal newborn HBV vaccination is highly cost-effective in Vietnam. In low-income, high-endemic countries, where funds are limited and the economic results are uncertain, our findings on the cost-effectiveness affordability options may assist decision makers in proper health investments.
    Value in Health 01/2010; 13(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread immunization programs, a clear increase in pertussis incidence is apparent in many developed countries during the last decades. Consequently, additional immunization strategies are considered to reduce the burden of disease. The aim of this study is to design an individual-based stochastic dynamic framework to model pertussis transmission in the population in order to predict the epidemiologic and economic consequences of the implementation of universal booster vaccination programs. Using this framework, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal adolescent pertussis booster vaccination at the age of 12 years in the Netherlands. We designed a discrete event simulation (DES) model to predict the epidemiological and economic consequences of implementing universal adolescent booster vaccination. We used national age-specific notification data over the period 1996-2000--corrected for underreporting--to calibrate the model assuming a steady state situation. Subsequently, booster vaccination was introduced. Input parameters of the model were derived from literature, national data sources (e.g. costing data, incidence and hospitalization data) and expert opinions. As there is no consensus on the duration of immunity acquired by natural infection, we considered two scenarios for this duration of protection (i.e. 8 and 15 years). In both scenarios, total pertussis incidence decreased as a result of adolescent vaccination. From a societal perspective, the cost-effectiveness was estimated at €4418/QALY (range: 3205-6364 € per QALY) and €6371/QALY (range: 4139-9549 € per QALY) for the 8- and 15-year protection scenarios, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the outcomes are most sensitive to the quality of life weights used for pertussis disease. To our knowledge we designed the first individual-based dynamic framework to model pertussis transmission in the population. This study indicates that adolescent pertussis vaccination is likely to be a cost-effective intervention for The Netherlands. The model is suited to investigate further pertussis booster vaccination strategies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13392. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Maarten J Postma, Robin de Vries, John Roord
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    ABSTRACT: This letter reacts on a paper recently published in this journal, reviewing the effectiveness and (cost-)effectiveness of pertussis booster vaccination strategies. We argue that a different selection of (cost-)effectiveness data could validly be made than the one presented in the review as being considered most robust. In particular, we explicitly present an alternative set of (cost-)effectiveness data.
    Vaccine 10/2009; 27(52):7242-3. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is instrumental in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation, but high LCAT levels do not predict low cardiovascular risk. LCAT may affect antioxidative or anti-inflammatory properties of HDL. We determined the relationship of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) with LCAT activity and evaluated whether LCAT activity modifies the decreasing effect of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) on CRP, as an estimate of its anti-inflammatory properties. Plasma HDL-C, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and LCAT activity (exogenous substrate method) were measured in 260 nondiabetic men without cardiovascular disease. CRP was correlated inversely with HDL-C and apo A-I, and positively with LCAT activity (P<0.01 to 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that age- and smoking-adjusted plasma CRP levels were associated negatively with HDL-C (beta=-0.224, P<0.001) and positively with LCAT activity (beta=0.119, P=0.034), as well as with the interaction between HDL-C and LCAT activity (beta=0.123, P=0.026). There was also an interaction between apo A-I and LCAT activity on CRP (beta=0.159, P=0.005). These relationships remained similar after adjustment for apo B-containing lipoproteins. In conclusion, the inverse relationship of HDL-C with CRP is attenuated by LCAT activity at higher HDL-C levels. It is hypothesized that LCAT could mitigate HDL's anti-inflammatory or antioxidative properties at higher HDL-C concentrations.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2009; 1801(1):84-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in mice suggest that plasma apoM is lowered in hyperinsulinaemic diabetes and that apoM stimulates formation of pre-beta-HDL. Pre-beta-HDL is an acceptor of cellular cholesterol and may be critical for reverse cholesterol transport. Herein, we examined whether patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced plasma apoM and whether apoM is associated with pre-beta-HDL formation and cellular cholesterol efflux. In 78 patients with type 2 diabetes and 89 control subjects, we measured plasma apoM with ELISA, pre-beta-HDL and pre-beta-HDL formation, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and the ability of plasma to promote cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts. ApoM was approximately 9% lower in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to controls (0.025 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.027 +/- 0.007 g L(-1), P = 0.01). The difference in apoM was largely attributable to diabetes-associated obesity. ApoM was positively related to both HDL (r = 0.16; P = 0.04) and LDL cholesterol (r = 0.28; P = 0.0003). Pre-beta-HDL and pre-beta-HDL formation were not different between diabetic and control subjects. ApoM predicted pre-beta-HDL (r = 0.16; P = 0.04) and pre-beta-HDL formation (r = 0.19; P = 0.02), even independently of positive relationships with apoA-I, HDL-cholesterol and PLTP activity. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma was positively related to pre-beta-HDL and PLTP activity but not significantly to apoM. Plasma apoM is modestly reduced in type 2 diabetes. Pre-beta-HDL and pre-beta-HDL formation are positively associated with apoM, supporting the hypothesis that apoM plays a role in HDL remodelling in humans. Lower apoM may provide a mechanism to explain why pre-beta-HDL formation is not increased in type 2 diabetes despite elevated PLTP activity.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 04/2009; 266(3):258-67. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory enzyme, paraoxonase-I, has been found previously to be lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied whether statin and fibrate treatment, alone and in combination, affect serum paraoxonase-I activity in conjunction with changes in HDL cholesterol in diabetic patients. A placebo-controlled crossover study was carried out in 14 type 2 diabetic patients to test the effect of 8 weeks of active treatment with simvastatin (40 mg daily), bezafibrate (400 mg daily), and their combination on serum paraoxonase-I activity, measured as its activity towards arylesterase and paraoxon. Serum paraoxonase-I activity was also compared between these diabetic patients and 49 non-diabetic control subjects. Serum arylesterase activity was lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects (P < 0.001), but the difference in paraoxonase activity was not significant (P = 0.22). Neither arylesterase (P = 0.24) nor paraoxonase activity (P = 0.37) was increased in response to treatment, despite higher HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I during combination therapy (P < 0.05 for both). Short-term administration of simvastatin and bezafibrate, even when combined, is ineffective in raising serum paraoxonase-I activity in type 2 diabetes.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/2009; 39(3):200-3. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    R de Vries, MJ Postma
    Value in Health 01/2009; 12(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
264.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Ziekenhuis Tjongerschans
      Heerenveen, Friesland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Groningen
      • • Department of Endocrinology
      • • Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      • • Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy (GRIP)
      • • PharmacoEpidemiology and PharmacoEconomics (PE²) Unit
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2004–2009
    • Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1991–2004
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • • Department of Immunhematology and Blood Transfusion
      • • Department of Rheumatology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1993–2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1997
    • University of Belgrade
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia