Christopher D Pilcher

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (80)576.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Detection of early HIV infections (EHIs), including acute HIV infection (AHI), is important for individual health, prevention of HIV transmission, and measurement of HIV incidence. We describe markers of EHI, diagnostic strategies for detecting these markers, and ways to incorporate these strategies into diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms.
    Current opinion in HIV and AIDS. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional HIV incidence surveillance, using assays that distinguish 'recent' from 'nonrecent' infections, has been hampered by inadequate performance and characterization of incidence assays. In this study, the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays presents results of the first independent evaluation of five incidence assays (BED, limiting antigen avidity, less-sensitive Vitros, Vitros avidity and BioRad avidity).
    AIDS (London, England) 08/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the expression levels of host restriction factors in six untreated HIV-1-positive patients over the course of infection. We found that the host restriction factor gene expression profile consistently increased over time and significantly associated with CD4(+) T cell activation and viral load. Our data are among the first to demonstrate the dynamic nature of host restriction factors in vivo over time.
    Journal of virology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5 delta-32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on HIV persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5 delta-32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild type individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA (p=0.035), RNA:DNA transcriptional ratios (p=0.013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2-LTR circle DNA (p=0.013) were significantly lower in CD4+ T cells from CCR5 delta-32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4+ T cells (r(2)=0.136, p=0.002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5.
    The Journal of infectious diseases. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined.
    AIDS (London, England) 05/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) comprise about 8% of the human genome and have lost their ability to replicate or to produce infectious particles after having accumulated mutations over time. We assessed the kinetics of expression of HERV-K (HML-2) Envelope mRNA transcript and surface unit (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunit proteins during HIV-1 infection. We also mapped the specificity of the humoral response to HERV-K (HML-2) Envelope protein in HIV-1 infected subjects at different stages of disease, and correlated the response with plasma viral load. We found that HIV-1 modified HERV-K (HML-2) Env mRNA expression, resulting in the expression of a fully N-glycosylated HERV-K (HML-2) envelope protein on the cell surface. Serological mapping of HERV-K (HML-2) envelope protein linear epitopes revealed two major immunogenic domains, one on SU and another on the ectodomain of TM. The titers of HERV-K (HML-2) TM antibodies were dramatically increased in HIV-1 infected subjects (p < 0.0001). HIV-1 infected adults who control HIV-1 in the absence of therapy ("elite" controllers) had a higher titer response against TM compared to antiretroviral-treated adults (p < 0.0001) and uninfected adults (p < 0.0001). These data collectively suggest that HIV-1 infection induces fully glycosylated HERV-K (HML-2) envelope TM protein to which antibodies are induced. These anti-HERV-K (HML-2) TM antibodies are a potential marker of HIV-1 infection, and are at higher titer in elite controllers. HERV-K (HML-2) envelope TM protein may be a new therapeutic target in HIV-1 infection.
    Retrovirology 01/2014; 11(1):10. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though depression is known to frequently afflict those with chronic HIV, mood during the early course of HIV is not well characterized. In a prospective study we assessed mood during primary HIV infection [primary HIV infection (PHI), <1 year duration], its association with neuropsychological performance and markers of neurological disease, and its longitudinal course including effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales were longitudinally administered prior to and after ART in PHI subjects. This evaluation of mood was done concurrently with blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuropsychological [total z and global deficit score (GDS)] evaluation at each visit. Analysis employed Spearman's rho, logistic regression, and linear mixed models. 47.7 % of the 65 men recruited at a median 3.5 months HIV duration met BDI criteria for clinical depression at baseline, classified as 'mild' (n = 11), 'moderate' (n = 11), or 'severe' (n = 9). Drug, alcohol, and depression history did not associate with BDI score. Proportional somatic-performance scores were worse than cognitive-affective scores (p = .0045). Vigor subscore of POMS was reduced compared to norms and correlated with total z (r = 0.33, p = 0.013) and GDS (r = -0.32, p = 0.016). BDI and POMS correlated with one another (r = 0.85, p < .0001), but not with CSF or plasma HIV RNA, WBC, albumin ratio or neopterin. Improvement was not observed in BDI and POMS over 330 total follow-up visits, even after initiation of ART. Depression was prevalent during PHI in our subjects, associated with abnormal somatic-performance and vigor scores. Neither neuropsychological performance nor disease biomarkers correlated with depressed mood. Mood indices did not improve over time in the presence of ART.
    AIDS and Behavior 01/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral, cervical and anal epithelial cells, and oral tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration in to the epithelium. PsV entry was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia.
    Virology 11/2013; 446(1-2):378-88. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several human APOBEC3 deaminases can inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. HIV-1 Vif counteracts this restriction by targeting APOBEC3 for proteasomal degradation. Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is highly polymorphic, with natural variants differing considerably in anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To examine HIV-1 adaptation to variation in A3H activity in a natural infection context, we determined the A3H haplotypes and Vif sequences from 76 recently infected HIV-1 patients. We detected A3H-specific Vif changes suggesting viral adaptation. The patient-derived Vif sequences were used to engineer viruses that specifically differed in their ability to counteract A3H. Replication of these Vif-variant viruses in primary T cells naturally expressing active or inactive A3H haplotypes showed that endogenously expressed A3H restricts HIV-1 replication. Proviral DNA from A3H-restricted viruses showed high levels of G-to-A mutations in an A3H-specific GA dinucleotide context. Taken together, our data validate A3H expressed at endogenous levels as a bona fide HIV-1 restriction factor.
    Cell host & microbe 10/2013; 14(4):411-21. · 13.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation levels often remain elevated despite HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during chronic infection. T-cell activation predicts early mortality and blunted CD4+ T-cell recovery during ART, and may affect persistent HIV reservoir size. We investigated whether very early ART initiation is associated with lower on-therapy immune activation and HIV persistence.Methods. From an early HIV infection (<6 months) cohort, we identified persons who started ART early (<6 months after infection) or later (≥2 years) and maintained ≥2 years of virologic suppression; at-risk HIV-negative persons were controls. We measured CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (%CD38+/HLA-DR+) and HIV reservoir size (via HIV DNA and cell-associated RNA levels).Results. In unadjusted analyses, early ART predicted lower on-therapy CD8+ T-cell activation (n=34, mean 22.1%) vs. later ART (n=32, mean 28.8%, p=0.009), although levels in early ART remained elevated vs. HIV-negative controls (p=0.02). Early ART also predicted lower CD4+ T-cell activation vs. later ART (5.3% vs. 7.5%, p=0.061). Early ART predicted 4.8-fold lower DNA levels (p=0.0045) and 3.2 signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/Co) unit lower cell-associated RNA levels (p=0.035) vs. later ART.Conclusions. ART initiation <6 months following infection is associated with lower T-cell activation and smaller HIV DNA and RNA reservoir size during long-term therapy.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5Δ32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2013; 9(5):e1003347. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The HIV treatment continuum, or "cascade," outlines key benchmarks in the successful treatment of HIV-infected individuals. However, the cascade fails to capture important dimensions of the patient experience in that it has been constructed from a provider point of view. In order to understand meaningful steps in the HIV care cascade for individuals diagnosed with HIV through expanded, more routine testing, we conducted in-depth interviews (n=34) with three groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV in the emergency department/urgent care clinic who linked to HIV care and exhibited 100% appointment adherence in the first 6 months of HIV care; those diagnosed in the emergency department/urgent care clinic who linked to HIV care and exhibited sporadic appointment adherence in the first 6 months of HIV care, and; hospitalized patients with no outpatient HIV care for at least 6 months. This last group was chosen to supplement data from in-care patients. The engagement in care process was defined by a changing perspective on HIV, one's HIV identity, and the role of health care. The linkage to care experience laid the groundwork for subsequent retention. Interventions to support engagement in care should acknowledge that patient concerns change over time and focus on promoting shifts in perspective.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 04/2013; 27(4):223-30. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: APOBEC3 proteins mediate potent anti-retroviral activity by hypermutating the retroviral genome during reverse transcription. To counteract APOBEC3 and gain a replicative advantage, lentiviruses such as HIV-1 and SIV have evolved the Vif protein, which targets APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, the proteasome plays a critical role in the generation of T cell peptide epitopes. Whether Vif-mediated destruction of APOBEC3 proteins leads to the generation and presentation of APOBEC3-derived T cell epitopes on the surface of lentivirus-infected cells remains unknown. Here, using peptides derived from multiple Vif-sensitive APOBEC3 proteins, we identified APOBEC3-specific T cell responses in both HIV-1-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. These results raise the possibility that these T cell responses may be part of the larger anti-retroviral immune response.
    Journal of Virology 03/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current laboratory and point-of-care tests for HIV detect different analytes and use different sample types. Some have fast turnaround times (<1 hour). We investigated how HIV test choice could impact case finding by testing programs. We analyzed 21,234 consecutive HIV tests with venous blood obtained by San Francisco HIV testing programs from 2003 to 2008. For a subset, oral fluid (n = 6446) or fingerstick blood (n = 8127) samples were also obtained for rapid testing. In all cases, HIV status was determined using an HIV antibody-plus-RNA test algorithm. We assessed how the screening antibody tests performed individually versus the gold standard of the full algorithm. We then evaluated the potential ability of other tests (including new tests) to detect more cases, by re-testing all specimens that had negative/discrepant antibody results on initial screening. The antibody-RNA algorithm identified 58 acute and 703 established HIV infection cases. 1(st)-generation (Vironostika) and 3(rd)-generation (Genetic Systems) immunoassays had 92 and 96 percent sensitivity, respectively. The Oraquick rapid test had clinical sensitivity of only 86 percent on oral fluid samples, but 92 percent on finger-stick blood. Newer 4(th)-generation, antigen-antibody combo rapid immunoassay (ARCHITECT) detected HIV in 87 percent of all the acute cases that had been missed by one of the previous screening assays. A point-of-care 4(th) generation antigen-antibody combo rapid test (Determine) detected about 54 percent of such acute cases. Our study suggests that some rapid antibody blood tests will give similar case detection to laboratory antibody tests, but that oral fluid testing greatly reduces ability to detect HIV. New 4(th)-generation combo tests can detect the majority of acute infections detectable by HIV RNA but with rapid results. Using these tests as a primary screening assay in high-risk HIV testing programs could reduce or eliminate the need for HIV RNA testing.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e80629. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed changes in sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), before and for several years after HIV diagnosis, accounting for adoption of a variety of seroadaptive practices. We collected self-reported sexual behavior data every 3 months from HIV-positive MSM at various stages of HIV infection. To establish population level trends in sexual behavior, we used negative binomial regression to model the relationship between time since diagnosis and several sexual behavior variables: numbers of (a) total partners, (b) potentially discordant partners (PDP; i.e., HIV-negative or unknown-status partners), (c) PDPs with whom unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) occurred, and (d) PDPs with whom unprotected insertive anal intercourse (uIAI) occurred. A total of 237 HIV-positive MSM contributed 502 interviews. UAI with PDPs occurred with a mean of 4.2 partners in the 3 months before diagnosis. This declined to 0.9 partners/3 months at 12 months after diagnosis, and subsequently rose to 1.7 partners/3 months at 48 months, before falling again to 1.0 partners/3 months at 60 months. The number of PDPs with whom uIAI occurred dropped from 2.4 in the pre-diagnosis period to 0.3 partners/3 months (an 87.5% reduction) by 12 months after enrollment, and continued to decline over time. Within months after being diagnosed with HIV, MSM adopted seroadaptive practices, especially seropositioning, where the HIV-positive partner was not in the insertive position during UAI, resulting in a sustained decline in the sexual activity associated with the highest risk of HIV transmission.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55397. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to understand patient perceptions of the emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) HIV diagnosis experience as well as factors that may promote or discourage linkage to HIV care. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients (n=24) whose HIV infection was diagnosed in the ED/UC of a public hospital in San Francisco at least six months prior and who linked to HIV care at the hospital HIV clinic. Key diagnosis experience themes included physical discomfort and limited functionality, presence of comorbid diagnoses, a wide spectrum of HIV risk perception, and feelings of isolation and anxiety. Patients diagnosed with HIV in the ED/UC may not have their desired emotional supports with them, either because they are alone or they are with family members or friends to whom they do not want to immediately disclose. Other patients may have no one they can rely on for immediate support. Nearly all participants described compassionate disclosure of test results by ED/UC providers, although several noted logistical issues that complicated the disclosure experience. Key linkage to care themes included the importance of continuity between the testing site and HIV care, hospital admission as an opportunity for support and HIV education, and thoughtful matching by linkage staff to a primary care provider. ED/UC clinicians and testing programs should be sensitive to the unique roles of sickness, risk perception, and isolation in the ED/UC diagnosis experience, as these things may delay acceptance of HIV diagnosis. The disclosure and linkage to care experience is crucial in forming patient attitudes towards HIV and HIV care, thus staff involved in disclosure and linkage activities should be trained to deliver compassionate, informed, and thoughtful care that bridges HIV testing and treatment sites.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e74199. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently observed that a large proportion of activated (CD38(+)HLA-DR(+)) CD8(+) T cells from recently HIV-1-infected adults are refractory to phosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases (p-ERK1/2-refractory). Given that the ERK1/2 pathway mediates intracellular signaling critical for multiple T cell functions, including key effector functions, the loss of ERK1/2 responsiveness may have broad consequences for CD8(+) T cell function. In the current study, we hypothesized that the p-ERK1/2-refractory population, localized largely within the activated CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) CD8(+) T cell population, would display impairments in CD8(+) T cell effector functions, such as cytokine production and degranulation, compared to CD8(+) p-ERK1/2-responsive cells. We further hypothesized that the p-ERK1/2-refractory phenotype is persistent over time during untreated infection, and would correlate with poorer virologic control, in a manner independent of CD8(+) T cell activation level. We performed single-cell resolution, flow cytometric assays of phospho-kinase responses paired to intracellular cytokine staining in one assay to examine IFN-γ, perforin and CD107α responses in CD8(+) T cells by ERK1/2 signaling profile. On a per cell basis, p-ERK1/2-refractory cells, which fall predominantly within the activated CD8(+) T cell compartment, produced less IFN-γ in response to polyclonal or HIV-1 antigen-specific stimulation, and expressed lower levels of perforin and CD107α. The p-ERK1/2 refractory cell population displayed minimal overlap with the PD-1 and Tim-3 inhibitory exhaustion markers and predicted high viral load independent of activation, suggesting that ERK1/2 may be a unique marker and point of intervention for improving CD8(+) T cell function. Blunted effector functions, secondary to ERK1/2 signaling deficits concentrated within activated CD8(+) T cells, may contribute to immunodeficiency and underlie the predictive capacity of CD8(+) T cell activation on HIV-1 disease progression. (270/300).
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77412. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To describe the prevalence and location of new and acute HIV diagnoses in a large urban medical center. Secondary objectives were to evaluate rapid HIV test performance, the added yield of acute HIV screening, and linkage to care outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional study from November 1, 2008, to April 30, 2009. METHODS:: The hospital laboratory performed round-the-clock rapid HIV antibody testing on venipuncture specimens from patients undergoing HIV testing in hospital and community clinics, inpatient settings, and the emergency department. For patients with negative results, a public health laboratory conducted pooled HIV RNA testing for acute HIV infection. The laboratories communicated positive results from the hospital campus to a linkage team. Linkage was defined as one outpatient HIV-related visit. RESULTS:: Among 7,927 patients, 8,550 rapid tests resulted in 137 cases of HIV infection (1.7%, 95% CI 1.5%-2.0%), of whom 46 were new HIV diagnoses (0.58%, 95% CI 0.43%-0.77%). Pooled HIV RNA testing of 6,704 specimens (78.4%) resulted in 3 cases of acute HIV infection (0.05%, 95% CI 0.01%-0.14) and increased HIV case detection by 3.5%. Half of new HIV diagnoses and 2/3 of acute infections were detected in the emergency department and urgent care clinic. Rapid test sensitivity was 98.9% (95% CI 93.8%- 99.8%); specificity was 99.9% (95% CI 99.7%-99.9%). Over 95% of newly diagnosed and out-of-care HIV-infected patients were linked to care. CONCLUSIONS:: Patients undergoing HIV testing in emergency departments and urgent care clinics may benefit from being simultaneously screened for acute HIV infection.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Translational errors can result in bypassing of the main viral protein reading frames and the production of alternate reading frame (ARF) or cryptic peptides. Within HIV, there are many such ARFs in both sense and the antisense directions of transcription. These ARFs have the potential to generate immunogenic peptides called cryptic epitopes (CE). Both antiretroviral drug therapy and the immune system exert a mutational pressure on HIV-1. Immune pressure exerted by ARF CD8(+) T cells on the virus has already been observed in vitro. HAART has also been described to select HIV-1 variants for drug escape mutations. Since the mutational pressure exerted on one location of the HIV-1 genome can potentially affect the 3 reading frames, we hypothesized that ARF responses would be affected by this drug pressure in vivo. In this study we identified new ARFs derived from sense and antisense transcription of HIV-1. Many of these ARFs are detectable in circulating viral proteins. They are predominantly found in the HIV-1 env nucleotide region. We measured T cell responses to 199 HIV-1 CE encoded within 13 sense and 34 antisense HIV-1 ARFs. We were able to observe that these ARF responses are more frequent and of greater magnitude in chronically infected individuals compared to acutely infected patients, and in patients on HAART, the breadth of ARF responses increased. These results have implications for vaccine design and unveil the existence of potential new epitopes that could be included as vaccine targets.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39311. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although efficacy is unknown, many men who have sex with men (MSM) attempt to reduce HIV risk by adapting condom use, partner selection, or sexual position to the partner's HIV serostatus. We assessed the association of seroadaptive practices with HIV acquisition. We pooled data on North American MSM from four longitudinal HIV-prevention studies. Sexual behaviors reported during each six-month interval were assigned sequentially to one of six mutually exclusive risk categories: (1) no unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), (2) having a single negative partner, (3) being an exclusive top (only insertive anal sex), (4) serosorting (multiple partners, all HIV negative), (5) seropositioning (only insertive anal sex with potentially discordant partners), and (6) UAI with no seroadaptive practices. HIV antibody testing was conducted at the end of each interval. We used Cox models to evaluate the independent association of each category with HIV acquisition, controlling for number of partners, age, race, drug use, and intervention assignment. 12,277 participants contributed to 60,162 six-month intervals with 663 HIV seroconversions. No UAI was reported in 47.4% of intervals, UAI with some seroadaptive practices in 31.8%, and UAI with no seroadaptive practices in 20.4%. All seroadaptive practices were associated with a lower risk, compared to UAI with no seroadaptive practices. However, compared to no UAI, serosorting carried twice the risk (HR = 2.03, 95%CI:1.51-2.73), whereas seropositioning was similar in risk (HR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.50-1.44), and UAI with a single negative partner and as an exclusive top were both associated with a lower risk (HR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.32-0.96 and HR = 0.55, 95%CI:0.36-0.84, respectively). Seroadaptive practices appear protective when compared with UAI with no seroadaptive practices, but serosorting appears to be twice as risky as no UAI. Condom use and limiting number of partners should be advocated as first-line prevention strategies, but seroadaptive practices may be considered harm-reduction for men at greatest risk.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e45718. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
576.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Experimental Medicine
      • • Division of HIV/AIDS
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2013
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Immunology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999–2011
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2008
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, CA, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      New York City, New York, United States