Janet L. Stein

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States

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Publications (456)1069.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The accessibility of regulatory elements in chromatin represents a principal rate-limiting parameter of gene transcription and is modulated by enzymatic transcriptional co-factors that alter the topology of chromatin or covalently modify histones (e.g. by acetylation). The bone-specific activation and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) enhancement of osteocalcin (OC) gene transcription are both functionally linked to modifications in nucleosomal organization. The initiation of tissue-specific basal transcription is accompanied by the induction of two DNase I hypersensitive sites, and this chromatin remodeling event requires binding of the key osteogenic factor RUNX2/CBFA1 to the OC promoter. Here, we analyzed the acetylation status of histones H3 and H4 when the OC gene is active (in osteoblastic ROS17/2.8 cells) or inactive (in fibroblastic ROS24/1 cells) using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We find that acetylated histone H3 and H4 proteins are associated with the OC promoter only when the gene is transcriptionally active and that the acetylation status is relatively uniform across the OC locus under basal conditions. Acetylation of H4 at the OC gene is selectively increased following vitamin D(3) enhancement of OC transcription, with the most prominent changes occurring in the region between the vitamin D(3) enhancer and basal promoter. Thus, our results suggest functional linkage of H3 and H4 acetylation in specific regions of the OC promoter to chromatin remodeling that accompanies tissue-specific transcriptional activation and vitamin D enhancement of OC gene expression. These findings provide mechanistic insights into bone-specific gene activation within a native genomic context in response to steroid hormone-related regulatory cues.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2002; 277(23):20284-92. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112440200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The steroid hormone 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 (VD3) regulates osteoblast differentiation by either activating or repressing transcription of numerous bone phenotypic genes. We addressed whether VD3 also influences osteogenesis by controlling activity of the runt-related transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, a key regulator of bone formation in vivo. Our data showed that expression of Runx2 was downregulated by VD3 within 24 h in MC3T3 and ROS 17/2.8, but not in ROS 24.1 cells, which lack a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR). Transient transfection assays showed that the initial 0.6 kb of the bone-related rat and mouse Runx2 promoters both exhibited a 50% reduction of promoter activity in response to VD3 in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, VD3 inhibited Runx2 transcription in ROS 24.1 cells only upon forced expression of the VDR. Gel mobility shift assays with antibodies and oligonucleotide competition experiments demonstrated that proximal promoter sequences (-92 to -16) contain a functional VD3-responsive element (VDRE) that binds a VDR/retinoid X receptor heterodimer. Mutation of this VDRE completely abolished responsiveness of the Runx2 promoter to VD3 treatment. Together these studies establish that Runx2 expression is regulated by VD3. This VD3-mediated suppression of Runx2 activity provides regulatory coupling between tissue-specific and steroid hormone-dependent control of genes during bone formation.
    Experimental Cell Research 05/2002; 274(2):323-33. DOI:10.1006/excr.2002.5474 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The IFN regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2) oncoprotein controls the cell cycle-dependent expression of histone H4 genes during S phase and may function as a component of an E2F-independent mechanism to regulate cell growth. To investigate the role of IRF-2 in control of cell proliferation, we have constructed a stable FDC-P1 cell line (F2) in which expression of IRF-2 is doxycycline (DOX)-inducible, and a control cell line (F0). Both the F2 and F0 cell lines were synchronized in the G1 phase by isoleucine deprivation, and IRF-2 was induced by DOX on release of cells from the cell cycle block. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that forced expression of IRF-2 has limited effects on cell cycle progression before the first mitosis. However, continued cell growth in the presence of elevated IRF-2 levels results in polyploidy (>4n) or genomic disintegration (<2n) and cell death. Western blot analyses revealed that the levels of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitory protein p27 are selectively increased. These changes occur concomitant with a significant elevation in the levels of the FAS-L protein, which is the ligand of the FAS (Apo1/CD95) receptor. We also found a subtle change in the ratio of the apoptosis-promoting Bax protein and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Hence, IRF-2 induces a cell death response involving the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in FDC-P1 cells. Our data suggest that the IRF-2 oncoprotein regulates a critical cell cycle checkpoint that controls progression through G2 and mitosis in FDC-P1 hematopoietic progenitor cells.
    Cancer Research 05/2002; 62(9):2510-5. · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine CDP/Cux, a homologue of the Drosophila Cut homeoprotein, modulates the promoter activity of cell cycle-related and cell-type-specific genes. CDP/Cux interacts with histone gene promoters as the DNA binding subunit of a large nuclear complex (HiNF-D). CDP/Cux is a ubiquitous protein containing four conserved DNA binding domains: three Cut repeats and a homeodomain. In this study, we analyzed genetically targeted mice (Cutl1tm2Ejn, referred to as ΔC) that express a mutant CDP/Cux protein with a deletion of the C terminus, including the homeodomain. In comparison to the wild-type protein, indirect immunofluorescence showed that the mutant protein exhibited significantly reduced nuclear localization. Consistent with these data, DNA binding activity of HiNF-D was lost in nuclear extracts derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or adult tissues of homozygous mutant (ΔC−/−) mice, indicating the functional loss of CDP/Cux protein in the nucleus. No significant difference in growth characteristics or total histone H4 mRNA levels was observed between wild-type and ΔC−/− MEFs in culture. However, specific histone genes (H4.1 and H1) containing CDP/Cux binding sites have reduced expression levels in homozygous mutant MEFs. Stringent control of growth and differentiation appears to be compromised in vivo. Homozygous mutant mice have stunted growth (20 to 50% weight reduction), a high postnatal death rate of 60 to 70%, sparse abnormal coat hair, and severely reduced fertility. The deregulated hair cycle and severely diminished fertility in Cutl1tm2Ejn/tm2Ejn mice suggest that CDP/Cux is required for the developmental control of dermal and reproductive functions.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2002; 22(5):1424-37. DOI:10.1128/MCB.22.5.1424-1437.2002 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are critical determinants for cellular differentiation and cell type-specific gene expression. Their functional roles in osteoblast development have not been determined. We addressed a key component of the mechanisms by which C/EBP factors regulate transcription of a tissue-specific gene during osteoblast differentiation. Expression of both C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta increases from the growth to maturation developmental stages and, like the bone-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene, is also stimulated 3-6-fold by vitamin D(3), a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. We characterized a C/EBP enhancer element in the proximal promoter of the rat osteocalcin gene, which resides in close proximity to a Runx2 (Cbfa1) element, essential for tissue-specific activation. We find that C/EBP and Runx2 factors interact together in a synergistic manner to enhance OC transcription (35-40-fold) in cell culture systems. We show by mutational analysis that this synergism is mediated through the C/EBP-responsive element in the OC promoter and by a direct interaction between Runx2 and C/EBPbeta. Furthermore, we have mapped a domain in Runx2 necessary for this interaction by immunoprecipitation. A Runx2 mutant lacking this interaction domain does not exhibit functional synergism. We conclude that, in addition to Runx2 DNA binding functions, Runx2 can also form a protein complex at C/EBP sites to regulate transcription. Taken together, our findings indicate that C/EBP is a principal transactivator of the OC gene and the synergism with Runx2 suggests that a combinatorial interaction of these factors is a principal mechanism for regulating tissue-specific expression during osteoblast differentiation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2002; 277(2):1316-23. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M106611200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Jane B. Lian · Gary S. Stein · Janet L. Stein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the transplantation of stem cells and their differentiation to tissue-specific phenotypes, as well as methods for introducing genes into subpopulations of stem cells greatly expands the potential for therapeutic strategies to correct genetic, metabolic, and degenerative disorders of the skeleton. The use of mesenchymal stem cells for systemic diseases, such as osteoporosis, and local repair of skeletal defects by tissue engineering is emphasized. Current procedures and planned future approaches that are under investigation will be discussed in this review.
    Current Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes 12/2001; 8(6):268-276. DOI:10.1097/00060793-200112000-00002
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    ABSTRACT: Key components of DNA replication and the basal transcriptional machinery as well as several tissue-specific transcription factors are compartmentalized in specialized nuclear domains. In the present study, we show that determinants of subnuclear targeting of the bone-related Runx2/Cbfa1 protein reside in the C-terminus. With a panel of C-terminal mutations, we further demonstrate that targeting of Runx2 to discrete subnuclear foci is mediated by a 38 amino acid sequence (aa 397-434). This nuclear matrix-targeting signal (NMTS) directs the heterologous Gal4 protein to nuclear-matrix-associated Runx2 foci and enhances transactivation of a luciferase gene controlled by Gal4 binding sites. Importantly, we show that targeting of Runx2 to the NM-associated foci contributes to transactivation of the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene in osseous cells. Taken together, these findings identify a critical component of the mechanisms mediating Runx2 targeting to subnuclear foci and provide functional linkage between subnuclear organization of Runx2 and bone-specific transcriptional control.
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    ABSTRACT: Key components of DNA replication and the basal transcriptional machinery as well as several tissue-specific transcription factors are compartmentalized in specialized nuclear domains. In the present study, we show that determinants of subnuclear targeting of the bone-related Runx2/Cbfa1 protein reside in the C-terminus. With a panel of C-terminal mutations, we further demonstrate that targeting of Runx2 to discrete subnuclear foci is mediated by a 38 amino acid sequence (aa 397-434). This nuclear matrix-targeting signal (NMTS) directs the heterologous Gal4 protein to nuclear-matrix-associated Runx2 foci and enhances transactivation of a luciferase gene controlled by Gal4 binding sites. Importantly, we show that targeting of Runx2 to the NM-associated foci contributes to transactivation of the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene in osseous cells. Taken together, these findings identify a critical component of the mechanisms mediating Runx2 targeting to subnuclear foci and provide functional linkage between subnuclear organization of Runx2 and bone-specific transcriptional control.
    Journal of Cell Science 10/2001; 114(17). · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cbfa1/Runx2 is a transcription factor essential for bone formation and osteoblast differentiation. Two major N-terminal isoforms of Cbfa1, designated type I/p56 (PEBP2aA1, starting with the sequence MRIPV) and type II/p57 (til-1, starting with the sequence MASNS), each regulated by distinct promoters, are known. Here, we show that the type I transcript is constitutively expressed in nonosseous mesenchymal tissues and in osteoblast progenitor cells. Cbfa1 type I isoform expression does not change with the differentiation status of the cells. In contrast, the type II transcript is increased during differentiation of primary osteoblasts and is induced in osteoprogenitors and in premyoblast C2C12 cells in response to bone morphogenetic protein-2. The functional equivalence of the two isoforms in activation and repression of bone-specific genes indicates overlapping functional roles. The presence of the ubiquitous type I isoform in nonosseous cells and before bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced expression of the type II isoform suggests a regulatory role for Cbfa1 type I in early stages of mesenchymal cell development, whereas type II is necessary for osteogenesis and maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype. Our data indicate that Cbfa1 function is regulated by transcription, cellular protein levels, and DNA binding activity during osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, our studies suggest that developmental timing and cell type- specific expression of type I and type II Cbfa isoforms, and not necessarily molecular properties or sequences that reside in the N-terminus of Cbfa1, are the principal determinants of the osteogenic activity of Cbfa1.
    Endocrinology 10/2001; 142(9):4026-39. DOI:10.1210/endo.142.9.8367 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of histone gene transcription at the G1/S phase transition via the Site II cell cycle control element is distinct from E2F-dependent mechanisms operative at the growth factor-related restriction point. E2F-independent activation of histone H4 gene expression combines contributions of several promoter factors, including HiNF-M/IRF2 and the HiNF-D/CDP-cut complex which contains pRB, CDK1, and cyclin A as non-DNA binding subunits. Mutational analyses suggest additional rate-limiting factors for Site II function. Using sequence-specific Site II DNA affinity chromatography, we identified a 45 kDa protein (KIAA0005 or BZAP45) that is embryonically expressed and phylogenetically conserved. Based on amino acid sequence analysis, BZAP45 contains a unique decapeptide that is part of a putative leucine-zipper protein with a nucleotide (ATP or GTP) binding fold. Bacterial expression of a full-length cDNA produces a 45 kDa protein. Binding studies reveal that highly purified BZAP45 does not interact with Site II, suggesting that BZAP45 function may require partner proteins. Forced expression of BZAP45 strongly stimulates H4 promoter (nt -215 to -1)/CAT reporter gene activity. Deletion analyses and point mutations indicate that BZAP45 enhances H4 gene transcription through Site II. Thus, BZAP45 is a novel regulatory factor that contributes to transcriptional control at the G1/S phase transition.
    Biochemistry 10/2001; 40(35):10693-9. DOI:10.1021/bi010529o · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Runx (Cbfa/AML) transcription factors are critical for tissue-specific gene expression. A unique targeting signal in the C terminus directs Runx factors to discrete foci within the nucleus. Using Runx2/CBFA1/AML3 and its essential role in osteogenesis as a model, we investigated the fundamental importance of fidelity of subnuclear localization for tissue differentiating activity by deleting the intranuclear targeting signal via homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the deletion (Runx2 Delta C) do not form bone due to maturational arrest of osteoblasts. Heterozygotes do not develop clavicles, but are otherwise normal. These phenotypes are indistinguishable from those of the homozygous and heterozygous null mutants, indicating that the intranuclear targeting signal is a critical determinant for function. The expressed truncated Runx2 Delta C protein enters the nucleus and retains normal DNA binding activity, but shows complete loss of intranuclear targeting. These results demonstrate that the multifunctional N-terminal region of the Runx2 protein is not sufficient for biological activity. We conclude that subnuclear localization of Runx factors in specific foci together with associated regulatory functions is essential for control of Runx-dependent genes involved in tissue differentiation during embryonic development.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2001; 98(15). DOI:10.1073/pnas.151236498 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcriptional mediators of interferon-responsive signaling pathways that are involved in antiviral defense, immune response, and cell growth regulation. To investigate the role of IRF proteins in the regulation of histone H4 gene transcription, we compared the transcriptional contributions of IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-3, and IRF-7 using transient transfection assays with H4 promoter/luciferase (Luc) reporter genes. These IRF proteins up-regulate reporter gene expression but IRF-1, IRF-3, and IRF-7 are more potent activators of the H4 promoter than IRF-2. Forced expression of different IRF combinations reveals that IRF-2 reduces IRF-1 or IRF-3 dependent activation, but does not affect IRF-7 function. Thus, IRF-2 may have a dual function in histone H4 gene transcription by acting as a weak activator at low dosage and a competitive inhibitor of other strongly activating IRFs at high levels. IRF-1/IRF-3 and IRF-1/IRF-7 pairs each mediate the highest levels of site II-dependent promoter activity and can up-regulate transcription by 120-150-fold. We also find that interferon gamma up-regulates IRF-1 and site II-dependent promoter activity. This up-regulation is not observed when the IRF site is mutated or if cells are preloaded with IRF-1. Our results indicate that IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-3, and IRF-7 can all regulate histone H4 gene expression. The pairwise utilization of distinct IRF factors provides a flexible transcriptional mechanism for integration of diverse growth-related signaling pathways.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2001; 276(21):18624-32. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M010391200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene, a marker of bone formation, is largely restricted to cells in mineralized tissues. Recent studies have shown that the Cbfa1 (also known as Runx2, AML-3, and PEBP2alphaA) transcription factor supports commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells to hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts. This study addresses the functional involvement of Cbfa sites in expression of the Gallus BSP gene. Gel mobility shift analyses with nuclear extracts from ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells revealed that multiple Cbfa consensus sequences are functional Cbfa DNA binding sites. Responsiveness of the 1.2-kb Gallus BSP promoter to Cbfa factors Cbfa1, Cbfa2, and Cbfa3 was assayed in osseous and nonosseous cells. Each of the Cbfa factors mediated repression of the wild-type BSP promoter, in contrast to their well known activation of various hematopoietic and skeletal phenotypic genes. Suppression of BSP by Cbfa factors was not observed in BSP promoters in which Cbfa sites were deleted or mutated. Expression of the endogenous BSP gene in Gallus osteoblasts was similarly downregulated by forced expression of Cbfa factors. Our data indicate that Cbfa repression of the BSP promoter does not involve the transducin-like enhancer (TLE) proteins. Neither coexpression of TLE1 or TLE2 nor the absence of the TLE interaction motif of Cbfa1 (amino acids 501 to 513) influenced repressor activity. However, removal of the C terminus of Cbfa1 (amino acids 362 to 513) relieved suppression of the BSP promoter. Our results, together with the evolutionary conservation of the seven Cbfa sites in the Gallus and human BSP promoters, suggest that suppressor activity by Cbfa is of significant physiologic consequence and may contribute to spatiotemporal expression of BSP during bone development.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/2001; 21(8):2891-905. DOI:10.1128/MCB.21.8.2891-2905.2001 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between Cajal bodies (CBs) and replication-dependent histone loci occur more frequently than for other mRNA-encoding genes, but such interactions are not seen with all alleles at a given time. Because CBs contain factors required for transcriptional regulation and 3' end processing of nonpolyadenylated replication-dependent histone transcripts, we investigated whether interaction with CBs is related to metabolism of these transcripts, known to vary during the cell cycle. Our experiments revealed that a locus containing a cell cycle-independent, replacement histone gene that produces polyadenylated transcripts does not preferentially associate with CBs. Furthermore, modest but significant changes in association levels of CBs with replication-dependent histone loci mimic their cell cycle modulations in transcription and 3' end processing rates. By simultaneously visualizing replication-dependent histone genes and their nuclear transcripts for the first time, we surprisingly find that the vast majority of loci producing detectable RNA foci do not contact CBs. These studies suggest some link between CB association and unusual features of replication-dependent histone gene expression. However, sustained CB contact is not a requirement for their expression, consistent with our observations of U7 snRNP distributions. The modest correlation to gene expression instead may reflect transient gene signaling or the nucleation of small CBs at gene loci.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 04/2001; 12(3):565-76. DOI:10.1091/mbc.12.3.565 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vitamin D response element in the bone tissue-specific osteocalcin gene has served as a prototype for understanding molecular mechanisms regulating physiologic responsiveness of vitamin D-dependent genes in bone cells. We briefly review factors which contribute to vitamin D transcriptional control. The organization of the vitamin D response element (VDRE), the multiple activities of the vitamin D receptor transactivation complex, and the necessity for protein-protein interactions between the VDR-RXR heterodimer activation complex and DNA binding proteins at other regulatory elements, including AP-1 sites and TATA boxes, provide for precise regulation of gene activity in concert with basal levels of transcription. We present evidence for molecular mechanisms regulating vitamin D-dependent mediated transcription of the osteocalcin gene that involve chromatin structure of the gene and nuclear architecture. Modifications in nucleosomal organization, DNase I hypersensitivity and localization of vitamin D receptor interacting proteins in subnuclear domains are regulatory components of vitamin D-dependent gene transcription. A model is proposed to account for the inability of vitamin D induction of the osteocalcin gene in the absence of ongoing basal transcription by competition of the YY1 nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor for TFIIB-VDR interactions. Activation of the VDR-RXR complex at the OC VDRE occurs through modifications in chromatin mediated in part by interaction of OC gene regulatory sequences with the nuclear matrix-associated Cbfa1 (Runx2) transcription factor which is required for osteogenesis.
    Steroids 03/2001; 66(3-66):159-170. DOI:10.1016/S0039-128X(00)00160-4 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcriptional control at the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle requires functional interactions of multimeric promoter regulatory complexes that contain DNA binding proteins, transcriptional cofactors, and/or chromatin modifying enzymes. Transcriptional regulation of the human histone H4/n gene (FO108) is mediated by Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 (IRF-2), as well as other histone gene promoter factors. To identify proteins that interact with cell-cycle regulatory factors, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis with IRF-2 and identified a novel human protein termed Celtix-1 which binds to IRF-2. Celtix-1 contains several phylogenetically conserved domains, including a bromodomain, which is found in a number of transcriptional cofactors. Using a panel of IRF-2 deletion mutants in yeast two-hybrid assays, we established that Celtix-1 contacts the C-terminus of IRF-2. Celtix-1 directly interacts with IRF-2 based on binding studies with glutathione S-transferase (GST)/IRF-2 fusion proteins, and immunofluorescence studies suggest that Celtix-1 and IRF-2 associate in situ. Celtix-1 is distributed throughout the nucleus in a heterodisperse pattern. A subset of Celtix-1 colocalizes with the hyperacetylated forms of histones H3 and H4, as well as with the hyperphosphorylated, transcriptionally active form of RNA polymerase II. We conclude that the bromodomain protein Celtix-1 is a novel IRF-2 interacting protein that associates with transcriptionally active chromatin in situ.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 11/2000; 185(2):269-79. DOI:10.1002/1097-4652(200011)185:2<269::AID-JCP12>3.0.CO;2-L · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contributing to bone-specific expression of the osteocalcin gene is the promoter element OC Box I (-99 to -76), which binds both Hox proteins and another nonhomeodomain factor (designated OCBP for osteocalcin-box binding protein) (Hoffmann et al. [1996] J Cell Biochem 61:310-324). OCBP correlates with increased promoter activity and may, therefore, be important to development or maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype. To identify OCBP candidates, we used a multimerized OC Box I sequence to screen a gammagt11 cDNA expression library, constructed from the rat osteosarcoma osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cell line, for cDNA clones encoding factors that recognize this element. Mutant OC Box I sequences that do not bind OCBP and/or homeodomain proteins were used to counterscreen the cDNA isolates. Clones showing binding specificity were sequenced and further characterized for patterns of expression in different tissues and cell lines. Among the characterized nonhomeodomain-related isolates, we identified a nucleolin, a clone encoding rCAP2 that is related to myogenic differentiation and more importantly, a cDNA clone containing a previously uncharacterized gene that has been designated as a cell differentiation-related factor (DRF). DRF mRNA is highly expressed in ROS 17/2.8 cells and in a developmentally regulated pattern during osteoblast differentiation, being upregulated at the postproliferative maturation transition and coinciding with the induction of osteocalcin gene expression. The 7.7-kb transcript encoded by clone 44 is abundantly expressed in osteoblasts, but the mRNA was not present at detectable levels in bone and soft tissues by Northern blot analysis. However, related expressed sequence tags were recently reported in cDNA libraries of rat lung and mouse sympathetic ganglion. The identification of DRF represents a novel osteoblast differentiation-specific marker related to osteocalcin expression. The identification of DRF may further facilitate definition of gene regulatory mechanisms mediating the final stages of bone cell differentiation
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/2000; 80(1):156-68. DOI:10.1002/1097-4644(20010101)80:1<156::AID-JCB150>3.0.CO;2-F · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Jane B. Lian · Gary S. Stein · Janet L. Stein · André J. van Wijnen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of genetic or degenerative diseases severely affecting the entire skeleton may necessitate gene therapy involving transplantation of multipotential marrow cells. The ability of in vitro expanded adherent marrow cells enriched in pluripotent mesenchymal cell populations to remain competent to engraft, repopulate host tissues, and differentiate into bone and cartilage is advantageous for correction of skeletal-related diseases. However, to achieve phenotypic specificity and therapeutic or physiologic levels of proteins may require cell type specific expression of the gene. Tissue-specific promoter-controlled transgenes provide an efficacious approach to deliver therapeutic gene expression to repopulating chondrocytes and osteoblasts for treatment of cartilage and bone disorders or tumor metastasis to the skeleton. The bone-specific expression of a reporter gene controlled by the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin promoter after transplantation of a mixed population of marrow cells is shown. Tissue-restricted gene therapy potentially can be refined by use of a unique peptide targeting signal that directs the hematopoietic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic core binding factor/acute myelogenous leukemia transcription factors to subnuclear sites that support gene expression.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2000; 379:S146-S155. DOI:10.1097/00003086-200010001-00019 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The runt related transcription factor CBFA1 (AML3/PEBP2alphaA/RUNX2) regulates expression of several bone- and cartilage-related genes and is required for bone formation in vivo. The gene regulatory mechanisms that control activation and repression of CBFA1 gene transcription during osteoblast differentiation and skeletal development are essential for proper execution of the osteogenic program. We have therefore defined functional contributions of 5' regulatory sequences conserved in rat, mouse and human CBFA1 genes to transcription. Deletion analysis reveals that 0.6 kB of the bone-related rat or mouse CBFA1 promoter (P1, MASNS protein isoform) is sufficient to confer transcriptional activation, and that there are multiple promoter domains which positively and negatively regulate transcription. Progressive deletion of promoter segments between nt -351 and -92 causes a striking 30- to 100-fold combined decrease in promoter activity. Additionally, 5' UTR sequences repress reporter gene transcription 2- to 3-fold. Our data demonstrate that CBFA1 is a principal DNA binding protein interacting with the 5' region of the CBFA1 gene in osseous cells, that there are at least three CBFA1 recognition motifs in the rat CBFA1 promoter, and that there are three tandemly repeated CBFA1 sites within the 5' UTR. We find that forced expression of CBFA1 protein downregulates CBFA1 promoter activity and that a single CBFA1 site is sufficient for transcriptional autosuppression. Thus, our data indicate that the CBFA1 gene is autoregulated in part by negative feedback on its own promoter to stringently control CBFA1 gene expression and function during bone formation.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2000; 184(3):341-50. DOI:10.1002/1097-4652(200009)184:3<341::AID-JCP8>3.0.CO;2-Z · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies are important components of nuclear architecture that are functionally linked to aberrant gene expression and disease. To understand the mechanisms that modify subnuclear distribution and regulatory activities of PML domains in leukemia, we performed immunofluorescence microscopy with a panel of normal diploid cells and established cell lines. We analyzed the representation and intranuclear distribution of PML domains. We find that multiple biological parameters contribute to heterogeneity in the subnuclear organization of PML domains in a broad spectrum of cell types. The subnuclear organization of PML domains was also evaluated following transient transfection with a series of vectors expressing normal hematopoietic and leukemia-related transcription factors. Our results show that expression of a chimeric transcription factor encoded by the tumor related chromosomal translocation (8;21) involving the AML1 and ETO loci is sufficient to cause reorganization of PML domains. This finding increases our understanding of the mechanisms by which the AML1/ETO protein may contribute to modified gene expression linked to the onset and progression of t(8;21) related acute myelogenous leukemia.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 08/2000; 79(1):103-12. DOI:10.1002/1097-4644(2000)79:13.3.CO;2-2 · 3.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
1,069.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 1988-2015
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Vermont Medical Center
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2002-2012
    • University of Concepción
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      • • Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989-2011
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Universidad Andrés Bello
      • Faculty of Medicine
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2005
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Oral Biochemistry
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1995
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Tumor Cell Biology
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1994
    • Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 1975-1994
    • University of Florida
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • College of Medicine
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1992
    • The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
      ADM, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1985
    • The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1984
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Molecular Biology
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1979
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States