Janet L Stein

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States

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Publications (247)1196.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The histone H4 gene promoter provides a paradigm for defining transcriptional control operative at the G1/S phase transition point in the cell cycle. Transcription of the cell cycle-dependent histone H4 gene is upregulated at the onset of S phase, and the cell cycle control element that mediates this activation has been functionally mapped to a proximal promoter domain designated Site II. Activity of Site II is regulated by an E2F-independent mechanism involving binding of the oncoprotein IRF2 and the multisubunit protein HiNF-D, which contains the homeodomain CDP/cut, CDC2, cyclin A, and the tumor suppressor pRb. To address mechanisms that define interactions of Site II regulatory factors with this cell cycle control element, we have investigated these determinants of transcriptional regulation at the G1/S phase transition in FDC-P1 hematopoietic progenitor cells. The representation and activities of histone gene regulatory factors were examined as a function of FDC-P1 growth stimulation. We find striking differences in expression of the pRb-related growth regulatory proteins (pRb/p105, pRb2/p130, and p107) following the onset of proliferation. pRb2/p130 is present at elevated levels in quiescent cells and declines following growth stimulation. By contrast, pRb and p107 are minimally represented in quiescent FDC-P1 cells but are upregulated at the G1/S phase transition point. We also observe a dramatic upregulation of the cellular levels of pRb2/p130-associated protein kinase activity when S phase is initiated. Selective interactions of pRb and p107 with CDP/cut are observed during the FDC-P1 cell cycle and suggest functional linkage to competency for DNA binding and/or transcriptional activity. These results are particularly significant in the context of hematopoietic differentiation where stringent control of the cell cycle program is requisite for expanding the stem cell population during development and tissue renewal. J. Cell. Biochem. 66:512–523, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 12/1998; 66(4):512 - 523. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The AML/CBF alpha runt transcription factors are key regulators of hematopoietic and bone tissue-specific gene expression. These factors contain a 31-amino acid nuclear matrix targeting signal that supports association with the nuclear matrix. We determined that the AML/CBF alpha factors must bind to the nuclear matrix to exert control of transcription. Fusing the nuclear matrix targeting signal to the GAL4 DNA binding domain transactivates a genomically integrated GAL4 responsive reporter gene. These data suggest that AML/CBF alpha must associate with the nuclear matrix to effect transcription. We used fluorescence labeling of epitopetagged AML-1B (CBFA2) to show it colocalizes with a subset of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II molecules concentrated in foci and linked to the nuclear matrix. This association of AML-1B with RNA polymerase II requires active transcription and a functional DNA binding domain. The nuclear matrix domains that contain AML-1B are distinct from SC35 RNA processing domains. Our results suggest two of the requirements for AML-dependent transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II are association of AML-1B with the nuclear matrix together with specific binding of AML to gene promoters.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1998; 95:1585-1589. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maximal transcription of a prototypical cell cycle controlled histone H4 gene requires a proliferation-specific in vivo genomic protein/DNA interaction element, Site II. Three sequence-specific transcription factors interact with overlapping recognition motifs within Site II: interferon regulatory factor IRF-2 (HiNF-M), the putative H4 subtype-specific protein H4TF-2 (HiNF-P), and HiNF-D which represents a complex of the homeodomain protein CDP/cut, CDC2, cyclin A and pRB. However, natural sequence variation in the Site II sequences of different human H4 genes abolishes binding of specific trans-acting factors; the functional consequences of these variations have not been investigated. To address the precise contribution of H4 promoter factors to the level of H4 gene transcription, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of Site II transcriptional motifs. These mutants were tested for ability to bind each of the Site II cognate proteins, and subsequently evaluated for ability to confer H4 transcriptional activity using chimeric H4 promoter/CAT fusion constructs in different cell types. We also analyzed the effect of over-expressing IRF-2 on CAT reporter gene expression driven by mutant H4 promoters and assessed H4 transcriptional control in cells nullizygous for IRF-1 and IRF-2. Our results show that the recognition sequence for IRF-2 (HiNF-M) is the dominant component of Site II and modulates H4 gene transcription levels by 3 fold. However, the overlapping recognition sequences for IRF-2 (HiNF-M), H4TF-2 (HiNF-P) and CDP/cut (HiNF-D) together modulate H4 gene transcription levels by at least an order of magnitude. Thus, maximal activation of H4 gene transcription during the cell cycle in vivo requires the integrated activities of multiple transcription factors at Site II. We postulate that the composite organization of Site II supports responsiveness to multiple signalling pathways modulating the activities of H4 gene transcription factors during the cell cycle. Variations in Site II sequences among different H4 genes may accomodate differential regulation of H4 gene expression in cells and tissues with unique phenotypic properties.
    Molecular Biology Reports 12/1997; 25(1):1-12. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influences of promoter regulatory elements that are responsive to basal and tissue-restricted transactivation factors, steroid hormones, growth factors and other physiologic mediators has provided the basis for understanding regulatory mechanisms contributing to developmental expression of osteocalcin, tissue specificity and biological activity (reviewed in [1–3]). These regulatory elements and cognate transcription factors support postproliferative transcriptional activation and steroid hormone (e.g. vitamin D) enhancement at the onset of extracellular matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. Three parameters of nuclear structure contribute to osteocalcin gene transcriptional control. The linear representation of promoter elements provides competency for physiological responsiveness within the contexts of developmental as well as phenotype-dependent regulation. Chromatin structure and nucleosome organization reduce distances between independent regulatory elements providing a basis for integrating components of transcriptional control. The nuclear matrix supports gene expression by imposing physical constraints on chromatin related to three dimensional genomic organization. In addition, the nuclear matrix facilitates gene localization as well as the concentration and targeting of transcription factors. Several lines of evidence are presented which are consistent with involvement of multiple levels of nuclear architecture in tissue-specific gene expression during differentiation. Growth factor and steroid hormone responsive modifications in chromatin structure, nucleosome organization and the nuclear matrix are considered which influence transcription of the bone tissue-specific osteocalcin gene during progressive expression of the osteoblast phenotype.
    Molecular Biology Reports 08/1997; 24(3):185-196. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcription factors of the AML (core binding factor-α/polyoma enhancer binding protein 2) class are key transactivators of tissue-specific genes of the hematopoietic and bone lineages. Alternative splicing of the AML-1 gene results in two major AML variants, AML-1 and AML-1B. We show here that the transcriptionally active AML-1B binds to the nuclear matrix, and the inactive AML-1 does not. The association of AML-1B with the nuclear matrix is independent of DNA binding and requires a nuclear matrix targeting signal (NMTS), a 31 amino acid segment near the C terminus that is distinct from nuclear localization signals. A similar NMTS is present in AML-2 and the bone-related AML-3 transcription factors. Fusion of the AML-1B NMTS to the heterologous GAL4-(1–147) protein directs GAL4 to the nuclear matrix. Thus, the NMTS is necessary and sufficient to target the transcriptionally active AML-1B to the nuclear matrix. The loss of the C-terminal domain of AML-1B is a frequent consequence of the leukemia-related t(8;21) and t(3;21) translocations. Our results suggest this loss may be functionally linked to the modified interrelationships between nuclear structure and gene expression characteristic of cancer cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1997; 94(13):6746-6751. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental studies of oncogene expression implicate the Fos and Jun family of transcription factors in the regulation of bone growth and differentiation. Promoters of many developmentally regulated genes, including osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblast differentiation, contain AP-1 sites that bind Fos/Jun dimers. Here, we demonstrate that the selective expression of fos- and jun-related genes is functionally related to the stage of osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro. During osteoblast proliferation, nuclear protein levels of all seven activating protein-1 (AP-1) members are maximal. Subsequently, during the period of extracellular matrix maturation, levels decline. In fully differentiated osteoblasts, Fra-2 and (to a lesser extent) Jun D are the principal AP-1 members detectable by Western blot analysis. AP-1 complex composition and binding activity also exhibit developmental changes. All Fos and Jun family members are involved in AP-1 complex formation in proliferating cells, whereas Fra-2 and Jun D predominate in AP-1 complexes in differentiated osteoblasts. Overexpression of Fos and Jun family members in ROS 17/2.8 cells markedly affects the expression of an osteocalcin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase construct. Coexpression of only one AP-1 pair, Fra-2 and Jun D, stimulated reporter expression, whereas coexpression of other AP-1 pairs down-regulated expression (i.e. c-jun and any Fos family member) or had no effect (i.e. Fra-1 and Jun B). Promoter deletion analyses indicate that these effects are site specific. Consequential effects of Fra-2 on osteoblast differentiation are further demonstrated by antisense studies in which osteoblast differentiation and the development of a bone tissue-like organization were suppressed. Consistent with recent findings suggesting that AP-1 complex composition can selectively regulate gene transcription, our findings demonstrate that differential expression of Fos and Jun family members could play a role in the developmental regulation of bone-specific gene expression and, as a result, may be functionally significant for osteoblast differentiation.
    Endocrinology 01/1996; 137(10):4398-4408. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue and cell-type specific expression of the rat osteocalcin (rOC) gene involves the interplay of multiple transcriptional regulatory factors. In this report we demonstrate that AML-1 (acute myeloid leukemia-1), a DNA-binding protein whose genes are disrupted by chromosomal translocations in several human leukemias, interacts with a sequence essential for enhancing tissue-restricted expression of the rOC gene. Deletion analysis of rOC promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs demonstrates that an AML-1-binding sequence within the proximal promoter (-138 to -130 nt) contributes to 75% of the level of osteocalcin gene expression. The activation potential of the AML-1-binding sequence has been established by overexpressing AML-1 in osteoblastic as well as in nonosseous cell lines. Overexpression not only enhances rOC promoter activity in osteoblasts but also mediates OC promoter activity in a nonosseous human fibroblastic cell line. A probe containing this site forms a sequence specific protein-DNA complex with nuclear extracts from osteoblastic cells but not from nonosseous cells. Antisera supershift experiments indicate the presence of AML-1 and its partner protein core-binding factor beta in this osteoblast-restricted complex. Mutations of the critical AML-1-binding nucleotides abrogate formation of the complex and strongly diminish promoter activity. These results indicate that an AML-1 related protein is functional in cells of the osteoblastic lineage and that the AML-1-binding site is a regulatory element important for osteoblast-specific transcriptional activation of the rOC gene.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1996; 93(10):4968-4973. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoblasts derived from Day 21 fetal rat calvaria grown on films of collagen type I exhibit an earlier and enhanced expression of the differentiated phenotype, compared to cells cultured on plastic. The temporal expression of genes characterizing three distinct periods of growth and differentiation are dramatically modified. During the initial proliferation period, expression of genes normally expressed at high levels on plastic (fibronectin, β1 integrin, and actin) was decreased from 50 to 70% in cells grown on collagen. Genes normally expressed at maximal levels in the postproliferative period (osteonectin, osteocalcin, and osteopontin) were up-regulated severalfold very early. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity was elevated 2- to 3-fold during the proliferation period, while mRNA levels remained low, suggesting post-transcriptional modifications. The most dramatic consequence of culture of cells on collagen is the accelerated and uniform mineralization of the matrix in contrast to the focal mineralization confined to bone nodules in cultures on plastic. Type I collagen supports maintenance of osteoblast phenotypic properties of passaged cells in the absence of glucocorticoid supplementation required for differentiation of osteoblasts subcultivated on plastic. Treatment of proliferating rat osteoblasts on plastic with 1,25(OH)2D3 blocks osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Although differentiation-related genes (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) were up-regulated by vitamin D, culture on the collagen matrix could not overcome the inhibition of mineralization. Taken together, these studies define the critical role of type I collagen in mediating the signaling cascade for expression of a mature osteoblast phenotype and mineralization of the extracellular matrix in a physiological manner.
    Experimental Cell Research 02/1995; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Biochemistry - BIOCHEMISTRY-USA. 01/1995; 34(50):16503-16508.
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    ABSTRACT: NMP-1 was initially identified as a nuclear matrix-associated DNA-binding factor that exhibits sequence-specific recognition for the site IV regulatory element of a histone H4 gene. This distal promoter domain is a nuclear matrix interaction site. In the present study, we show that NMP-1 is the multifunctional transcription factor YY1. Gel-shift and Western blot analyses demonstrate that NMP-1 is immunoreactive with YY1 antibody. Furthermore, purified YY1 protein specifically recognizes site IV and reconstitutes the NMP-1 complex. Western blot and gel-shift analyses indicate that YY1 is present within the nuclear matrix. In situ immunofluorescence studies show that a significant fraction of YY1 is localized in the nuclear matrix, principally but not exclusively associated with residual nucleoli. Our results confirm that NMP-1/YY1 is a ubiquitous protein that is present in both human cells and in rat osteosarcoma ROS 17/2.8 cells. The finding that NMP-1 is identical to YY1 suggests that this transcriptional regulator may mediate gene-matrix interactions. Our results are consistent with the concept that the nuclear matrix may functionally compartmentalize the eukaryotic nucleus to support regulation of gene expression.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1995; 921(23):10526-10530. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear matrix protein, NMP-2, was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific DNA-binding complex localized exclusively to the nuclear matrix. NMP-2 was shown to recognize two binding sites, site A (nt-605 to -599) and site B (nt -441 to -435), in the rat bone-specific osteocalcin gene promoter. This study shows that the NMP-2 binding sites A and B as well as a third NMP-2 binding site (nt -135 to -130) constitute a consensus sequence, ATGCTGGT, and represent an AML-1 recognition motif. AML-1 is a member of the AML transcription factor family which is associated with acute myelogenous leukemia and binds to the sequence TGCTGGT via its DNA-binding runt domain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that a component of NMP-2 is a member of the AML/PEBP2/runt domain transcription factor family based on cross-competition with AML-1 consensus oligonucleotide. Limited immunoreactivity of NMP-2 with a polyclonal N-terminal AML-1 antibody and inability of the AML-1 partner protein CBF-beta to form complexes with NMP-2 indicate that NMP-2 is not identical to AML-1 but represents a variant AML/PEBP2/runt domain protein. Western and Northern blots reveal the presence of multiple AML-related proteins and AML-1 transcripts in several osseous cell lines. Furthermore, our results indicate that AML family members may selectively partition between nuclear matrix and nonmatrix compartments. Because proteins that contain a runt domain are implicated in tissue-specific transcriptional regulation, our results support the concept that the nuclear matrix mediates osteoblast-specific expression of the osteocalcin gene.
    Biochemistry - BIOCHEMISTRY-USA. 01/1995; 34(40):13125-13132.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin is a 6 kD tissue-specific calcium binding protein associated with the bone extracellular matrix. The osteocalcin gene is developmentally expressed in postproliferative rat osteoblasts with regulation at least in part at the transcriptional level. Multiple, basal promoter and enhancer elements which control transcriptional activity in response to physiological mediators, including steroid hormones, have been identified in the modularly organized osteocalcin gene promoter. The osteocalcin box (OC box) is a highly conserved basal regulatory element residing between nucleotides −99 and −76 of the proximal promoter. We recently established by in vivo competition analysis that protein interactions at the CCAAT motif, which is the central core of the rat OC box, are required for support of basal transcription [Heinrichs et al. J Cell Biochem 53:240–250, 1993]. In this study, by the combined utilization of electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, UV cross linking, and DNA affinity chromatography, we have identified a protein that binds to the rat OC box. Results are presented that support involvement of the OC box-binding protein in regulating selective expression of the osteocalcin gene during differentiation of the rat osteoblast phenotype and suggest that this protein is tissue restricted.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 12/1994; 57(1):90 - 100. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Gary S. Stein, Janet L. Stein, Jane B. Lian
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/1994; 54(4). · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Gary S. Stein, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/1994; 56(3). · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Gary S. Stein, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/1994; 55(3). · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract a variant human H2B histone gene (GL 105), previously shown to encode a 2300 nt replication independent mRNA, has been cloned. We demonstrate this gene expresses alternative mRNA regulated differentially during the hela S3 cell cycle. The H2B-GL105 gene encodes both a 500 nt cell cycle dependent mRNA and a 2300 nt constitutively expressed mRNA. The 3′ end of the cell cycle regulated mRNA terminates immediately following the region of hyphenated dyad symmetry typical of most histone mRNAs, whereas the constitutively expressed mRNA has a 1798 nt non-translated trailer that contains the same region of hyphenated dyad symmetry but is polyadenylated. The cap site for the H2B-GL105 mRNAs is located 42 nt upstream of the protein coding region. The H2B-GL105 histone gene was localized to chromosome region 1q21-1q23 by chromosomal in situ hybridization and by analysis of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids using an H2B-GL105 specific probe. The H2B-GL105 gene is paired with a functional H2A histone gene and this H2B/H2B gene pair is seperated by a bidirectionally transcribed intergenic promoter region containing consensus TATA and CCAAT boxes and an OTF-1 element. These results demonstrate that cell cycle regulated and constitutively expressed histone mRNAs can be encoded by the same gene, and indicate that alternative 3′ end processing may be an important mechanism for regulation of histone mRNA. Such control further increases the versatility by which cells can modulate the synthesis of replication-dependent as well as variant histone proteins during the cell cycle and at the onset of differentiation. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/1992; 50(4):374 - 385. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo regulation of cell cycle dependent human histone gene expression was examined in transgenic mice using a fusion construct containing 6.5 kB of a human H4 promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. Transcriptional control of histone gene expression, as a function of proliferative activity, was determined. We established the relationship between DNA replication dependent H4 mRNA levels (Northern blot analysis) and H4 promoter activity (CAT assay) during postnatal development in a broad spectrum of tissues. In most tissues sampled in adult animals, the cellular representation of H4 gene transcripts declined in parallel with promoter activity. This result is consistent with transcriptional control of H4 gene expression at the cessation of proliferation. Interestingly, while H4 mRNA was detectable at very low levels post-proliferatively in brain, promoter activity persisted in adult brain, where most of the cells are terminally differentiated. This dissociation between histone gene promoter activity and histone mRNA accumulation points to the possibility of post-transcriptional regulation of histone gene expression in brain. Cultures of osteoblasts were prepared from calvaria of transgenic mice carrying the H4 promoter/CAT reporter construct. In contrast to the brain, in these bone-derived cells, we established by immunohistochemistry that the transition to the quiescent, differentiated state is associated with a transcriptionally mediated downregulation of histone gene expression at the single cell level.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/1992; 49(2):137 - 147. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin, a bone-specific protein and marker of the mature osteoblast, is expressed only in nonproliferating osteoblasts in a mineralizing extracellular matrix, while type I collagen is expressed in proliferating cells. The nuclear proteins encoded by the c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes are expressed during the proliferation period of osteoblast phenotype development. We present evidence that AP-1 (HeLa cell-activating protein 1) sites residing within two promoter elements of the osteocalcin gene bind the Fos-Jun protein complex: the osteocalcin box (OC box; nucleotides -99 to -76), which contains a CCAAT motif as a central element and influences tissue-specific basal levels of osteocalcin gene transcription, and the vitamin D-responsive element (VDRE; nucleotides -462 to -440), which mediates enhancement of osteocalcin gene transcription. Gel electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrated high AP-1 binding activity in proliferating osteoblasts and dramatic changes in this activity after the down-regulation of proliferation and the initiation of extracellular-matrix mineralization in primary cultures of normal diploid osteoblasts. Methylation interference analysis established at single nucleotide resolution that purified recombinant Fos and Jun proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner to the AP-1 sites within the VDRE and OC box. Similarly, an AP-1 motif within a putative VDRE of the alkaline phosphatase gene, which is also expressed after the completion of proliferation, binds the Fos-Jun complex. These results support a model in which coordinate occupancy of the AP-1 sites in the VDRE and OC box in proliferating osteoblasts may suppress both basal level and vitamin D-enhanced osteocalcin gene transcription as well as transcription of other genes associated with osteoblast differentiation--a phenomenon we describe as phenotype suppression. This model is further supported by binding of the Fos-Jun complex at an AP-1 site in the type αI collagen promoter that is contiguous with, but not overlapping, the VDRE. Such a sequence organization in the collagen VDRE motif is compatible with vitamin D modulation of collagen but not with osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase expression in proliferating osteoblasts.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1990; 87(24):9990-9994. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 6.86 kb rat genomic DNA fragment containing the testis-specific histone H1t gene and the histone H4t gene has been sequenced. S1-nuclease protection analyses of total cellular RNA from rat liver and testis showed that histone H1t mRNA was present only in testis. Examination of various highly enriched populations of rat testis cell types revealed that H1t mRNA was found exclusively in a fraction enriched in pachytene spermatocytes. When protein, DNA interactions within the proximal promoter region of the histone H1t gene were examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, only minor differences were found in mobility shift patterns of the H1t promoter in assays comparing binding of nuclear proteins from pachytene spermatocytes and early spermatids. However, major differences in binding were observed upon comparing nuclear proteins from rat pachytene spermatocytes to liver. Comparison of binding patterns of rat testis, rat hepatoma H4 cells, HeLa cells, and COS-1 cells also revealed dramatic differences. Transcriptional activity of the histone H1t promoter was examined by measuring H1t promoted chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) mRNA levels in transient experession assays in transfected rat hepatoma H4 cells, HeLa cells, and COS-1 cells. These assays revealed that the histone H1t promoted CAT gene functioned poorly in HeLa cells and COS-1 cells compared to expression with the parent SV40 promoted vector pSV2CAT. The H1t promoted CAT gene apparently did not work at all in transfected rat hepatoma H4 cells, which is consistent with testis germinal cell specific expression of the histone H1t gene.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 08/1990; 44(1):1 - 17. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cloned genomic DNA for human histone H1, H3 and H4 genes has been used to determine the effects of -radiation on histone mRNA levels and synthesis in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. Synthesis of histone mRNA was determined in cells synchronized with aphidicolin. Effects of irradiation on DNA synthesis and passage through S phase were also monitored. Irradiation was found to slow the passage of control cells through the cell cycle but had no effect on progression of ataxia-telangiectasia cells. H1 and core histone mRNA synthesis was inhibited by radiation in two control cell lines after release from aphidicolin block. No inhibition was observed in one ataxia-telangiectasia cell line and a small degree of inhibition in a second. An increased level of mRNA was observed in both irradiated control and ataxia-telangiectasia cells at 5–7 h post-irradiation compared to unirradiated cells. Similar results were obtained in log phase cells. These results demonstrate that histone mRNA synthesis is radioresistant in ataxia-telangiectasia cells and is coupled to radioresistant DNA synthesis in these cells.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12/1986; 73(1):45-54. · 2.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,196.41 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 1997–2014
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990–2014
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • Louisiana State University in Shreveport
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • University of Concepción
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      • • Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
  • 2010–2011
    • Universidad Andrés Bello
      • • Center for Biomedical Research (CIB)
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile
  • 2004–2010
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • Cell & Matrix Research Institute
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Oral Biochemistry
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1978–2005
    • University of Florida
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2002
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 1986
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Biology
      Pasadena, California, United States