ABSTRACT: Expression of purine genes is modulated by inflammation or experimental colitis and altered expression leads to disrupted gut function. We studied purine gene dysregulation profiles in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and determined whether they can distinguish between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) using Pathway Analysis and a new Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression and Selection (CAGES) method.
Raw datasets for 22 purine genes and 36 probe-sets from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/geo/) were analyzed by National Cancer Institute (NCI) Biological Resources Branch (BRB) array tools for random-variance of multiple/36 t-tests in colonic mucosal biopsies or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of CD, UC or control subjects. Dysregulation occurs in 59% of purine genes in IBD including ADORA3, CD73, ADORA2A, ADORA2B, ADAR, AMPD2, AMPD3, DPP4, P2RY5, P2RY6, P2RY13, P2RY14, and P2RX5.
In CD biopsies, expression of ADORA3, AMPD3, P2RY13, and P2RY5 were negatively correlated with acute inflammatory score, Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) or disease chronicity; P2RY14 was positively correlated in UC. In mucosal biopsies or PBMCs, CD and UC were distinguished by unique patterns of dysregulation (up- or downregulation) in purine genes. Purine gene dysregulation differs between PBMCs and biopsies and possibly between sexes for each disease. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed significant associations between alterations in the expression of CD73 (upregulation) or ADORA3 (downregulation) and inflammatory or purine genes (<or=10% of 57 genes) as well as G-protein coupled receptors, cAMP-dependent, and inflammatory pathways; IPA distinguishes CD from UC.
CAGES and Pathway Analysis provided novel evidence that UC and CD have distinct purine gene dysregulation signatures in association with inflammation, cAMP, or other signaling pathways. Disease-specific purine gene signature profiles and pathway associations may be of therapeutic, diagnostic, and functional relevance.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 02/2009; 15(7):971-84. · 4.86 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Adenosine A3 receptors (ADOA3Rs) are emerging as novel purinergic targets for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Our goal was to assess the protective effect of the ADOA3R agonist N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) on gene dysregulation and injury in a rat chronic model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)--induced colitis. It was necessary to develop and validate a microarray technique for testing the protective effects of purine-based drugs in experimental inflammatory bowel disease. High-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis of gene dysregulation was assessed in colons from normal, TNBS-treated (7 days), and oral IB-MECA-treated rats (1.5 mg/kg b.i.d.) using a rat RNU34 neural GeneChip of 724 genes and SYBR green polymerase chain reaction. Analysis included clinical evaluation, weight loss assessment, and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging/spin-trap monitoring of free radicals. Remarkable colitis-induced gene dysregulation occurs in the most exceptional cluster of 5.4% of the gene pool, revealing 2 modes of colitis-related dysregulation. Downregulation occurs in membrane transporter, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and channel genes. Upregulation occurs in chemokine, cytokine/inflammatory, stress, growth factor, intracellular signaling, receptor, heat shock protein, retinoid metabolism, neural, remodeling, and redox-sensitive genes. Oral IB-MECA prevented dysregulation in 92% of these genes, histopathology, gut injury, and weight loss. IB-MECA or adenosine suppressed elevated free radicals in ex vivo inflamed gut. Oral IB-MECA blocked the colitis-induced upregulation (<or=20-fold) of Bzrp, P2X1R, P2X4R, P2X7R, P2Y2R, P2Y6R, and A2aR/A2bR but not A1R or A3R genes or downregulated P2X2R, P2Y1R, and P2Y4R. Real-time SYBR green polymerase chain reaction validated gene chip data for both induction of colitis and treatment with IB-MECA for >90% of genes tested (33 of 37 genes). We conclude that our validated high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis is a powerful technique for molecular gene dysregulation studies to assess the beneficial effects of purine-based or other drugs in experimental colitis. ADOA3R is new potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 08/2006; 12(8):766-89. · 4.86 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim was to determine whether adenosine receptors modulate cAMP, intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in human carcinoid BON cells.
Adenosine receptor (R) mRNA, proteins, and function were identified by Western blots, immunofluorescent labeling, Fluo-4/AM [Ca(2+)](i) imaging, and pharmacologic/physiologic techniques.
A1, A2, and A3Rs were present in BON cells and carcinoid tumors. Baseline 5-HT levels increased with adenosine deaminase, activation of A2Rs, and inhibition of A3Rs, whereas A3R activation decreased 5-HT. A2R antagonists or blockade of adenosine reuptake that elevates extracellular adenosine reduced mechanically evoked 5-HT release. In single BON cells, touch elevated [Ca(2+)](i) responses were augmented by adenosine deaminase, A1, and A3R antagonists.
Tonic or mechanically evoked release of endogenous adenosine is a critical determinant of differential activation of adenosine receptors and may have important implications for gut mechanosensory reflexes.
Gastroenterology 07/2004; 127(1):188-202. · 11.68 Impact Factor