[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Microtubules have been one of the most effective targets for the development of anticancer agents. Cancer cells treated by these agents are characterized by cell arrest at G2/M phase. Microtubule-targeting drugs are, therefore, referred to as antimitotic agents. However, the clinical application of the current antimitotic drugs is hampered by emerging drug resistance which is the major cause of cancer treatment failure. The clinical success of antimitotic drugs and emerging drug resistance has prompted a search for new antimitotic agents, especially those with novel mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to determine whether microtubules can be S-glutathionylated in cancer cells and whether the glutathionylation will lead to microtubule dysfunction and cell growth inhibition. The study will determine whether microtubule S-glutathionylation can be a novel approach for antimitotic agents. METHODS: 2-Acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-arboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino)phenylcarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) was used as a tool to induce microtubule glutathionylation. UACC-62 cells, a human melanoma cell line, were used as a cancer cell model. A pull-down assay with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-agarose beads followed by Western blot analysis was employed to confirm microtubule S-glutathionylation. Immunofluorescence microscopy using a mouse monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin-FITC was used to study the effect of the S-glutathionylation on microtubule function; mainly polymerization and depolymerization. Flow cytometry was employed to examine the effect of the Sglutathionylation on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Cell morphological change was followed through the use of a Zeiss AXIO Observer A1 microscope. Cancer cell growth inhibition by 2-AAPA was investigated with ten human cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Our investigation demonstrated that cell morphology was changed and microtubules were Sglutathionylated in the presence of 2-AAPA in UACC-62 cells. Accordingly, microtubules were found depolymerized and cells were arrested at G2/M phase. The affected cells were found to undergo apoptosis. Cancer growth inhibition experiments demonstrated that the concentrations of 2-AAPA required to produce the effects on microtubules were compatible to the concentrations producing cancer cell growth inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: The data from this investigation confirms that microtubule S-glutathionylation leads to microtubule dysfunction and cell growth inhibition and can be a novel target for developing antimitotic agents.
BMC Cancer 06/2012; 12(1):245. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Glutaredoxins (GRX) are involved in the regulation of thiol redox state. GRX-1 is a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of deglutathionylation of proteins. To date, very few inhibitors of GRX-1 have been reported. Objective: The objective of this paper is to report 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethyl-sulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) as an inhibitor of human GRX-1. Materials and methods: The mechanism of inhibition of GRX-1 was investigated using dialysis, substrate protection, and mass spectrometry. Results: 2-AAPA inhibits GRX-1 in a time and concentration dependent manner. The activity did not return following dialysis indicating that inhibition is irreversible. Results of substrate protection and mass spectrometry indicate that the inhibition is occurring at the active site. The compound also produced GRX inhibition in human ovarian cancer cells. Discussion: 2-AAPA is an irreversible GRX-1 inhibitor with similar or greater potency compared to previously reported inhibitors. Conclusion: The inhibition of GRX-1 by 2-AAPA could be used as a tool to study thiol redox state.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 02/2012; · 1.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Acetyl-S-(p-chlorophenylcarbamoyl)cysteine (NACC) was identified as a metabolite of sulofenur. Sulofenur was demonstrated to have broad activity against solid tumors in preclinical studies but exhibited disappointing clinical responses due to its high protein binding related adverse effects. NACC exhibited low protein binding and excellent activity against a sulofenur sensitive human colon cancer cell line. In this study, analogs of NACC were synthesized and evaluated with four human cancer cell lines. Two of the NACC analogs showed excellent activity against two human melanoma cell lines, while NACC remains the most potent of the series. All three compounds were more potent than dacarbazine, which is used extensively in treating melanoma. NACC was shown to induce apoptosis without affecting the cell cycle. Further, NACC exhibited low toxicity against monkey kidney cells. The selective anticancer activity, low toxicity, an unknown yet but unique anticancer mechanism and ready obtainability through synthesis make NACC and its analogs promising anticancer agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depletion of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) has been extensively studied for its effect on sensitizing cancer to radiation. However, little is known about the effects of thiol oxidative stress created through an increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG) on cancer sensitivity to radiation. In this study, an increase in GSSG was effectively created using 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible glutathione reductase (GR) inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that the GSSG increase significantly enhanced cancer sensitivity to X-ray irradiation in four human cancer cell lines (A431, MCF7, NCI-H226, and OVCAR-3). When cells were pretreated with 2-AAPA followed by X-ray irradiation, the IC(50) values for X-ray irradiation of A431, MCF7, NCI-H226, and OVCAR-3 cells were reduced, from 24.2 +/- 2.8, 42.5 +/- 3.0, 43.0 +/- 3.6, and 27.8+/-3.5 Gy to 6.75 +/- 0.9, 8.1 +/- 1.1, 6.75 +/- 1.0, and 12.1 +/- 1.7 Gy, respectively. The synergistic effects observed from the combination of X-rays plus 2-AAPA were comparable to those from the combination of X-rays plus buthionine sulfoximine, a reference compound known to increase cancer sensitivity to radiation. The synergistic effect was correlated with an increase in cell thiol oxidative stress, which was reflected by a five-to sixfold increase in GSSG and 25% increase in total disulfides. No change in GSH or total thiols was observed as a result of GR inhibition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) has been demonstrated to cause a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG), a systematic study of the effects of GR inhibition on thiol redox state and related systems has not been noted. By employing a monkey kidney cell line as the cell model and 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxy-ethylsulfanylthio carbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) as a GR inhibitor, an investigation of the effects of GR inhibition on cellular thiol redox state and related systems was conducted. Our study demonstrated that, in addition to a decrease in GSH and increase in GSSG, 2-AAPA increased the ratios of NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/NADP(+). Significant protein glutathionylation was observed. However, the inhibition did not affect the formation of reactive oxygen species or expression of antioxidant defense enzyme systems [GR, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase] and enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis [gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase].
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2009; 485(1):56-62. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiol redox state (TRS) is an important parameter to reflect intracellular oxidative stress and is associated with various normal and abnormal biochemical processes. Agents that can be used to increase intracellular TRS will be valuable tools in TRS-related research. Glutathione reductase (GR) is a critical enzyme in the homeostasis of TRS. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of GSSG to GSH to maintain a high GSH:GSSG ratio. Inhibition of the enzyme can be used to increase TRS. Despite the reports of various GR inhibitors, N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, an anticancer drug with IC(50) = 647 microm against yeast GR, remains the most commonly used GR inhibitor in the literature. However, the toxicity caused by nonspecific interactions, as well as inhibition of DNA synthesis, complicates the use of N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea as a GR inhibitor. We report 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) as a novel irreversible GR inhibitor. 2-AAPA was prepared by one-step synthesis from commercially available reagents. The K(i) and k(inact) of 2-AAPA against yeast GR were determined to be 56 microm and 0.1 min(-1), respectively. At the concentration that produced >80% yeast GR inhibition, 2-AAPA showed no inhibition against glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione synthetase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, but minimal inhibition against glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. In CV-1 cells, 2-AAPA (0.1 mm) produced 97% GR inhibition, 25% GSH reduction, and a 5-fold increase in GSSG in 20 min. The compound can be a useful tool in TRS-related research.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(5):2729-37. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to prepare polyamine-conjugated PAMAM dendrimers and study their permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Polyamines, namely, arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the G4 PAMAM dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) and basolateral-to-apical (BA) apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) for the PAMAM dendrimers increased by conjugating the dendrimers with both of the polyamines. The enhancement in permeability was dependent on the dendrimer concentration and duration of incubation. The correlation between monolayer permeability and the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with both the PAMAM dendrimers and the polyamine-conjugated dendrimers suggests that paracellular transport is one of the mechanisms of transport across the epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity of the polyamine-conjugated dendrimers was evaluated in Caco-2 cells by MTT (methylthiazoletetrazolium) assay. Arginine-conjugated dendrimers were slightly more toxic than PAMAM dendrimer as well as ornithine-conjugated dendrimers. Though investigations on the possible involvement of other transport mechanisms are in progress, results of the present study suggest the potential of dendrimer-polyamine conjugates as drug carriers to increase the oral absorption of drugs.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2008; 350(1-2):113-21. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents an assay for total thiols and total disulfides in biological samples via HPLC quantification of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) derived from the reaction of thiols with 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB, Ellman’s reagent). This method also provides simultaneous quantification of glutathione (GSH) via the measurement of the GSH–DTNB adduct (GSH–TNB). By using 326 nm as the detecting wavelength, the HPLC detection limit for TNB and the GSH–TNB adduct was determined to be 15 and 7.5 pmol respectively. A recovery study with OVCAR-3 cells revealed that the recovery yields for TNB in the procedures for determining non-protein thiols, protein thiols, non-protein disulfides, and protein disulfides were 99.4 ± 1.2% (n = 3), 98.1 ± 5.0% (n = 3), 95.6 ± 0.9% (n = 3), and 96.6 ± 2.3% (n = 3) respectively. The recovery yield for GSH–TNB in the procedures for determining non-protein thiols, protein thiols, non-protein disulfides, and protein disulfides was 99.0 ± 0.3% (n = 3), 95.1 ± 4.9% (n = 3), 96.8 ± 0.6% (n = 3), and 95.1 ± 2.9% (n = 3) respectively. The reproducibility, expressed as the relative standard deviation for the analyte, for TNB was determined to be 2.8% (n = 6) for non-protein thiols, 3.9% (n = 6) for protein thiols, 3.6% (n = 6) for non-protein disulfides and 4.6% (n = 6) for protein disulfides. The reproducibility for GSH–TNB was determined to be 1.6% (n = 6) for non-protein thiols and 2.6% (n = 6) for non-protein disulfides. By comparing the amount of GSH determined in a biological sample before NaBH4 reduction with that after the reduction, this method can provide information associated with thiol glutathionylation which would be useful for protein glutathionylation study. This method should be applicable to cellular, subcellular, protein, or other biomatrix samples for thiol and disulfide quantification and will be a useful analytical method in the study of thiol redox state and thiol glutathionylation.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 01/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies from our laboratory have shown the chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promoted skin tumor development in mice. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of alpha-santalol on ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced skin tumor development and UVB-caused increase in epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in female hairless SKH-1 mice. For the tumor studies, 180 mice were divided into three groups of 60 mice each, and each group was divided into two subgroups of 30 mice. The first subgroup served as control and was treated topically on the dorsal skin with acetone. The second subgroup served as experimental and was treated topically on the dorsal skin with alpha-santalol (5%, w/v in acetone). The tumorigenesis in the first group was initiated with UVB radiation and promoted with TPA; in the second group it was initiated with DMBA and promoted with UVB radiation; and in the third group it was both initiated and promoted with UVB radiation. In each case, the study was terminated at 30 weeks. Topical application of alpha-santalol significantly (P<0.05) decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity in all the three protocols, suggesting its chemopreventive efficacy against UVB radiation-caused tumor initiation, tumor promotion and complete carcinogenesis. In a short-term biochemical study, topical application of alpha-santalol also significantly (P<0.05) inhibited UVB-induced epidermal ODC activity. Together, for the first time, our findings suggest that alpha-santalol could be a potential chemopreventive agent against UVB-induced skin tumor development and, therefore, warrants further investigations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies from this laboratory have indicated that alpha-santalol (5%) provides chemopreventive effects in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin cancer in CD-1 and SENCAR mice. Skin cancer development is associated with increased ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, DNA synthesis and rapid proliferation of epidermal cells. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of various concentrations (1.25% and 2.5%) of alpha-santalol on DMBA-initiated and TPA-promoted skin cancer development, TPA-induced ODC activity, and DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice. alpha-Santalol treatment at both concentrations (1.25% and 2.5%) prevented the skin cancer development. alpha-Santalol treatment (1.25% and 2.5%) resulted in a significant decrease in the TPA-induced ODC activity and incorporation of [3H]thymidine in DNA in the epidermis of CD-1 mice. There was no significant difference in the effects of 1.25% and 2.5% alpha-santalol on tumour incidence, multiplicity, epidermal TPA-induced ODC activity, or DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention 11/2005; 14(5):473-6. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione. The enzyme is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial agents, agents to decrease malarial drug resistance and anticancer agents. In addition, inhibition of the enzyme has been employed as a tool in research for various purposes. In this paper, we present a rational design of 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino)phenylcarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid and its derivatives as irreversible GR inhibitors. The K(i) and k(inact) values of 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino)phenylcarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid, the most potent derivative of the series, are 88 muM and 0.1 min(-1), respectively. Although the K(i) value of the inhibitor is in the micromolar range, it is more potent than N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, which is currently the most commonly employed irreversible GR inhibitor with a reported IC(50) value of 646 microM. Additional attractive features of the inhibitor include its ready availability through a one-step synthesis and good solubility in both organic and aqueous solutions.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2005; 48(16):5224-31. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: alpha-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has been studied in detail in recent years for its skin cancer preventive efficacy in murine models of skin carcinogenesis; however, the mechanism of its efficacy is not defined. Two major biological events responsible for the clonal expansion of transformed/initiated cells into tumors are uncontrolled growth and loss of apoptotic death. Accordingly, in the present study, employing human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, we assessed whether alpha-santalol causes cell growth inhibition and/or cell death by apoptosis. Treatment of cells with alpha-santalol at concentrations of 25-75 microM resulted in a concentration- and a time-dependent decrease in cell number, which was largely due to cell death. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) stained cells revealed that alpha-santalol induces a strong apoptosis as early as 3 h post-treatment, which increases further in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner up to 12 h. Mechanistic studies showed an involvement of caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage through activation of upstream caspase-8 and -9. Further, the treatment of cells with alpha-santalol also led to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, thereby implicating the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. Pre-treatment of cells with caspase-8 or -9 inhibitor, pan caspase inhibitor or cycloheximide totally blocked alpha-santalol-caused caspase-3 activity and cleavage, but only partially reversed apoptotic cell death. This suggests involvement of both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways, at least under caspase inhibiting conditions, in alpha-santalol-caused apoptosis. Together, this study for the first time identifies the apoptotic effect of alpha-santalol, and defines the mechanism of apoptotic cascade activated by this agent in A431 cells, which might be contributing to its overall cancer preventive efficacy in mouse skin cancer models.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies from our laboratory have indicated skin cancer chemopreventive effectsof sandalwood oil in CD-1 mice. The purpose of this investigation was to study the skin cancer chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol, a principal component of sandalwood oil in CD-1 and SENCAR mice. alpha-Santalol was isolated from sandalwood oil by distillation under vacuum and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol were determined during initiation and promotion phase in female CD-1 and SENCAR mice. Carcinogenesis was initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The effects of alpha-santalol treatment on TPA-induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and (3)H-thymidine incorporation in epidermal DNA of CD-1 and SENCAR mice were also investigated. alpha-Santalol treatment during promotion phase delayed the papilloma development by 2 weeks in both CD-1 and SENCAR strains of mice. alpha-Santalol treatment during promotion phase significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the papilloma incidence and multiplicity when compared with control and treatment during initiation phase during 20 weeks of promotion in both CD-1 and SENCAR strains of mice. alpha-Santalol treatment resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition in TPA-induced ODC activity and incorporation of (3)H-thymidine in DNA in the epidermis of both strains of mice. alpha-Santalol significantly prevents papilloma development during promotion phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-TPA carcinogenesis protocol in both CD-1 and SENCAR mice, possibly by inhibiting TPA-induced ODC activity and DNA synthesis. alpha-Santalol could be an effective chemopreventive agent for skin cancer. Additional experimental and clinical studies are needed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of alpha-santalol in skin cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method was developed for simultaneous detection and quantitation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), cysteine (CysSH), homocysteine (HCysSH) and homocystine in biological samples (rat brain, lung, liver, heart, kidneys, erythrocytes and plasma). Thiols were derivatized with a large excess of Ellman's reagent, a thiol-specific reagent, to ensure an instantaneous and complete derivatization. The derivatization blocked the oxidation of the thiols to disulfides, preventing errors caused by thiol oxidation. The samples were then analyzed by LC/MS. The method provides a highly selective and sensitive assay for these endogenous thiols and their corresponding disulfides. The detection limits for GSH, GSSG, CysSH, HCysSH and homocystine were 3.3, 3.3, 16.5, 29.6 and 14.9 pmol, respectively. An attempt for cystine analysis was unsuccessful due to earlier elution of the compound and strong interferences caused by other endogenous compounds. This method will be a useful tool in the investigation of the roles of these important thiol-containing compounds and their corresponding disulfides in physiological and pathological processes.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 03/2003; 31(2):251-61. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulofenur is one of the diarylsulfonylureas developed as an anticancer agent. Sulofenur possesses a broad spectrum of activity in several solid tumor models and has undergone extensive clinical trials based on its impressive preclinical activity. However, the clinical response of sulofenur has been disappointing because of the side effect of anemia. Furthermore, the anticancer mechanism of sulofenur and its diarylsulfonylurea analogs still remains unknown. Elucidation of the metabolic fates of sulofenur may help to delineate the mechanism and provide information to guide the structural modification for more potent anticancer agents with less side effects. We have identified a glutathione conjugate and a mercapturic acid conjugate from sulofenur-dosed rats with the aid of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The fraction of the dose of sulofenur as the glutathione conjugate in the dosed-rat bile over 5 h was 0.12 +/- 0.03%, and the mercapturic acid conjugate in urine over 24 h was 1.4 +/- 0.7%. Protein binding of the glutathione conjugate and mercapturic acid conjugate was determined to be 20 +/- 3 and 84 +/- 2%, respectively, as opposed to >99% of sulofenur. The high protein binding of sulofenur requires a higher than in vitro dose, which is believed to cause the side effect of anemia. The significance of this metabolic pathway is that both conjugates were found to be glutathione reductase inhibitors and to possess anticancer activity comparable to sulofenur against human colon adenocarcinoma GC(3)/c1 cells, a sulofenur-sensitive cell line. These conjugates may serve as new leads for the development of novel anticancer agents.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition 03/2002; 30(3):331-5. · 3.36 Impact Factor