[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports a 73-year old woman with simultaneous presentation of acute monoblastic leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia (AML), French-American-British (FAB) type M5a) and mantle cell lymphoma. The patient presented with wasting, generalized lymphadenopathy, an extensive infiltrative rash and pancytopenia. Bone marrow and lymph node histopatholology showed extensive infiltration by leukemic monoblasts. Marrow cytogenetics revealed a complex karyotype, including t(8;16)(p11;p13). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of peripheral blood, lymph node and bone marrow demonstrated two populations, expressing CD5, CD19, CD20 and CD22 and CD45, HLA-DR, CD13, CD33, CD14 and CD38, respectively. A focus of abnormal lymphocytes in the lymph node biopsy demonstrated BCL1 expression and t(11;14)(p11;p13) by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement by the polymerase chain reaction. The patient received infusional cytarabine, daunorubicin and etoposide chemotherapy, with complete remission of both the AML and the mantle cell leukemia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous presentations of AML, FAB M5a and mantle cell lymphoma. The case is discussed and the literature is reviewed.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 01/2006; 46(12):1813-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HER2 is a clinically important tumor marker in breast cancer; however, there is controversy regarding which method reliably measures HER2 status. We compared three HER2 laboratory methods: immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after adjuvant doxorubicin-based therapy in node-positive breast cancer patients.
This is a Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) study, using 524 tumor blocks collected from breast cancer patients registered to clinical trial CALGB 8541. IHC employed CB11 and AO-11-854 monoclonal antibodies; FISH used PathVysion HER2 DNA Probe kit; PCR utilized differential PCR (D-PCR) methodology.
Cases HER2 positive by IHC, FISH and D-PCR were 24%, 17%, and 18%, respectively. FISH and IHC were clearly related (kappa = 64.8%). All three methods demonstrated a similar relationship for DFS and OS. By any method, for patients with HER2-negative tumors, there was little or no effect of dose of adjuvant doxorubicin-based therapy. For patients with HER2-positive tumors, all three methods predicted a benefit from dose-intense (high-dose) compared with low- or moderate-dose adjuvant doxorubicin-based therapy.
FISH is a reliable method to predict clinical outcome following adjuvant doxorubicin-based therapy for stage II breast cancer patients. There is a moderate level of concordance among the three methods (IHC, FISH, PCR). None of the methods is clearly superior. Although IHC-positive/FISH-positive tumors yielded the greatest interaction with dose of therapy in predicting outcome, no combination of assays tested was statistically superior.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2005; 23(19):4287-97. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II antigens are variably expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. The biological and clinical significance of HLA Class II antigen expression by AML cells is not known. Therefore, we sought to characterize cases of AML without detectable HLA-DR expression. Samples from 248 consecutive adult AML patients were immunophenotyped by multiparameter flow cytometry at diagnosis. HLA-DR antigens were not detected on AML cells from 43 patients, including 20 with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and 23 with other subtypes of AML. All APL cases had t(15;17), but there were no characteristic chromosome abnormalities in non-APL cases. No direct expression of other antigens was identified in HLA-DR-negative APL and non-APL cases. Interestingly, cells from three HLA-DR-negative non-APL patients had similar morphology to that of the hypogranular variant of APL. This morphology, however, was not present in any HLA-DR-positive AML cases. Treatment response was similar in the 23 HLA-DR-negative non-APL and the 205 HLA-DR-positive patients. Finally, relapse was infrequently associated with changes in HLA-DR antigen expression, as the HLA-DR antigen was lost at relapse in only 4% of HLA-DR-positive cases, and was gained at relapse in only 17% of HLA-DR-negative cases. We conclude that HLA-DR-negative AML includes approximately equal numbers of APL and non-APL cases, and that the morphology of HLA-DR-negative non-APL cases can mimic the hypogranular variant of APL. The diagnosis of APL cannot be based on morphology and lack of HLA-DR antigen expression; rather, it requires cytogenetic or molecular confirmation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute monoblastic leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia [AML], French-American-British type M5a) with leukemia cutis developed in a patient 6 weeks after the initiation of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy for refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. AML disappeared from both marrow and skin after the discontinuation of EPO. Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow cells demonstrated coexpression of the EPO receptor with CD45 and CD13 on the surface of blasts. The incubation of marrow cells with EPO, compared to without, resulted in 1.3- and 1.6-fold increases, respectively, in tritiated thymidine incorporation and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into CD13(+) cells. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with the EPO-dependent transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to AML. It is concluded that leukemic transformation in patients with MDS treated with EPO may be EPO-dependent and that management should consist of the discontinuation of EPO followed by observation, if clinically feasible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the activity and feasibility of brief-duration high-intensity chemotherapy for adults with small noncleaved, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SNC) and the L3 variant of acute lymphocytic leukemia (L3 ALL).
Seventy-five adults with either SNC or L3 ALL (median age, 44 years) were treated with an aggressive regimen that consisted of one cycle of cyclophosphamide and prednisone followed by cycles containing either ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide; high-dose methotrexate, vincristine, dexamethasone, and either doxorubicin or etoposide/cytarabine; or intrathecal triple therapy with prophylactic CNS irradiation.
All 24 patients with L3 ALL and the 30 of 51 patients with SNC confirmed by central histologic review were included in this analysis. Forty-three of 54 patients achieved complete response (CR) (18 of 24 with ALL and 25 of 30 with SNC), and 28 are alive and in continuous CR with a median follow-up of 5.1 years. Hematologic toxicity was profound, and nonhematologic toxicity was notable, with 10 of 75 patients treated developing significant neurologic toxicity consisting of transverse myelitis in five patients, CNS toxicity in three, and severe peripheral neuropathy in two. All patients who did not achieve CR died of the disease, and all recurrences occurred within 16 months of the end of treatment. Responses and toxicities were similar in the patients with both lymphoma and leukemia.
Aggressively delivered chemotherapy is potentially curative in as many as half of patients with SNC and the L3 ALL variant. This treatment regimen had considerable neurologic toxicity and has been modified.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2001; 19(20):4014-22. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methotrexate is in widespread use as second-line therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with methotrexate in this and other settings has not been associated with the development of therapy-related leukemias. Four patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported who developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) while receiving low dose weekly methotrexate therapy in the absence of previous or concomitant treatment with known leukemogenic agents. AML in these four patients was of different morphologic subtypes and was associated with heterogeneous cytogenetic abnormalities, cell surface marker expression and multidrug resistance protein expression. None of the recognized features of therapy-related leukemia were present in these four nor in five previously-reported patients. It is likely that the occurrence of AML in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the setting of methotrexate therapy represents the coincidence of these two diseases, and does not reflect a causal relationship.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 08/2001; 42(3):371-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are implicated in the control of cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in response to hematopoietic cytokines. C-terminally truncated STAT isoforms (STATbeta), as opposed to the full length form (STATalpha), have a competitive or even transdominant negative effect on gene induction mediated by the STAT pathway. We have previously demonstrated that while constitutively active STAT proteins were detected in ten of 36 (28%) for STAT3 and eight of 36 (22%) for STAT5 in pretreatment samples from newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, a significantly larger fraction of samples [21 of 27 (78%)] expressed STATbeta proteins. To determine whether STATbeta expression was maintained or increased after relapse in AML, we compared STAT activity and isoform expression at diagnosis and at relapse in 17 patients. In this selected group, constitutively active STAT3 was detected in 13 of 17 (76%) AML samples at diagnosis but was detected in only four of these patients at relapse. Constitutively active STAT5 was detected in three of 17 (18%) AML samples at diagnosis; but only two at relapse. In contrast, STATbeta protein expression was observed in 12 of the 17 pretreatment samples (71%) and in 16 of 17 samples at relapse. Only one patient did not express STATbeta at relapse. Our results suggest that STATbeta isoform expression, rather than level of constitutive activity, may be involved in disease progression in AML.
Leukemia Research 07/2001; 25(6):473-82. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease (HD) may critically depend on dose intensity. Because mechlorethamine, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP), and Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) are not suitable for major dose escalation, we evaluated the activity and toxicity of combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and etoposide (CHOPE) in advanced HD, here used at conventional dose intensity, as a preparatory study prior to using this regimen at higher dose intensity. Ninety-two patients were treated with CHOPE (cyclophosphamide, 750 mg/m2, day 1; doxorubicin, 50 mg/m2, day 1; vincristine, 1.4 mg/m2, days 1 and 8; prednisone, 100 mg/day, days 1-5; and etoposide, 80 mg/m2, days 1, 2, and 3) every 21 days. All had advanced HD with no prior chemotherapy with 46% stage IV, 63% with B symptoms, and 57% with bulky disease (> 5 cm). Radiation and growth factor support were not permitted. Full-dose vincristine (not capped at maximum 2 mg/dose) was used in the first 33 patients. An initial cohort of 41 patients was treated with four cycles of CHOPE to evaluate safety and efficacy followed by four cycles of ABVD. A second cohort of 51 patients was treated with 6-8 cycles of CHOPE alone. Toxicity was generally acceptable and primarily hematologic, with neutrophils < 500 in 63% of cohort I and 90% of cohort II, and platelets < 25,000 in 7% of cohort I and 8% of cohort II. The long-term neurotoxicity of full-dose, high-intensity vincristine was acceptable and largely reversible. In cohort I, 92% of patients achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) with four cycles of CHOPE and 85% were in CR after four additional cycles of ABVD. In cohort II, 77% achieved a CR with 6-8 cycles of CHOPE alone. FFS was 76% in cohort I and 59% in cohort II, with a median follow-up of 8.2 and 5.7 years, respectively. CHOPE, at conventional dose intensity as used here, is an effective first-line regimen for the treatment of advanced-stage HD and may warrant evaluation using higher doses of cyclophosphamide and etoposide with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) support.
Cancer Investigation 02/2001; 19(5):447-58. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of administering high doses of cyclophosphamide plus recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) every 14-21 days to patients with follicular small cleaved cell lymphoma. For each patient, the treatment was not considered feasible if fewer than four cycles of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy could be administered on schedule (i.e. at least every 29 days) or (1) hospitalization of the patient for longer than three days was necessary for neutropenic fever (38 degrees C) or bacteriologically documented infection in > 50% of the cycles, or (2) grade > or = 2 hemorrhage in association with thrombocytopenia of grade > or = 3 severity occurred in > 50% of the cycles or (3) non-hematologic toxicity (excluding nausea/vomiting and alopecia) of grade > or = 3 occurred in > 50% of cycles. The goal was to have a treatment program feasible in 75% or more of the treated patients. The secondary objectives were to determine the toxicities, the complete and partial response rates, and the time to treatment failure (TTF). The trial also attempted to assess the effectiveness of this treatment program in eradicating Bcl-2 rearrangements by PCR, and to assess complete remission duration in relationship to PCR results in patients who respond to this chemotherapy program. Patients were required to have histologically documented non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the subtypes follicular, predominantly small cleaved cell (IWF-B) or follicular mixed, (IWF-C). Patients were required to have Stage IV disease including histologic evidence of bone marrow involvement. Measurable disease was required and patients were also required to have one of the following risk factors: > or = 2 extranodal sites, node or nodal group > or = 5 cm. Submission of fresh bone marrow for molecular genetic studies for the presence of Bcl-2-Ig fusion DNA was mandatory in previously untreated patients. Patients had to be between 18 and physiologic age 55 years (carefully selected patients over age 55 years were also eligible), expected survival > 2 years, performance status 0-1, and have adequate renal, hepatic and bone marrow function, and a cardiac ejection fraction > or = 50%. Cyclophosphamide 4.5 g/m2 i.v. was given with mesna every 14 days with rhG-CSF support. Twenty-nine patients were accrued to this trial. The median follow-up time is 5.0 years, with a range of 2.5-6.7 years. The overall response rate was 75% (9 CRs 37.5%, 9PRs 37.5%). The median duration of survival is 5.53 years. The 1-year estimated probability of freedom from treatment failure was 50% and of survival at 1 year was 92%. No strong association was observed between TTF and age, symptomatic stage, histology performance status, number of extranodal sites or baseline Bcl-2 status. At 3 years the survival of all patients was 78% and failure free survival was 17%. 15 (62%) of the 24 eligible previously untreated patients met the criteria for feasibility specified in the protocol. The 95% CI for the feasibility rate is (44 and 82%). Twenty-two of the 24 (92%) previously untreated patients had specimens submitted for testing for Bcl-2 rearrangements. Thirteen of the 22 (59%) were found to have rearrangements at baseline. Post-treatment specimens were submitted for seven of the 13 patients. Four of the seven converted to Bcl-2 negative following treatment. Eight of 13 Bcl-2 positive patients (62%) had a clinical response to treatment. The 95% exact binomial CI for the total response rate in this subgroup is (28 and 88%). This study demonstrates that repetitive doses of cyclophosphamide at 4.5 g/m2 every two weeks with rhG-CSF support can be administered to selected younger patients with advanced follicular lymphoma with morphologic involvement of the bone marrow with acceptable non-hematologic toxicity.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 01/2001; 42(6):1255-64. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between the overexpression of proto-oncogene HER-2/neu and resistance to tamoxifen in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive primary and metastatic breast cancer has been suggested. We examine a possible interaction between HER-2/neu or p53 expression and tamoxifen effectiveness in patients with ER-positive, node-positive disease treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil in a large adjuvant chemotherapy trial (Cancer and Leukemia Group B [CALGB] 8541). Tamoxifen assignment was not randomized-physician discretion was used for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Trial protocol then specified assignment to postmenopausal women with ER-positive tumors, although not all took tamoxifen.
CALGB 8541 assessed HER-2/neu expression in patients with ER-positive disease by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and amplification by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IHC assessed expression of p53. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models assessed tamoxifen-HER-2/neu status interactions and tamoxifen-p53 status interactions.
HER-2/neu status was available for 651 patients with ER-positive disease; 650, 608, and 353 patients were assessed by IHC, PCR, and FISH, respectively. Approximately one half received tamoxifen. Reduction in risk of disease recurrence or death resulting from tamoxifen was approximately 37% (32% with overexpression and 39% with normal expression of HER-2/neu; n = 155 by IHC). The tamoxifen-HER-2/neu status interaction was not significant in multivariate analysis of all three HER-2/neu assessment methods. Tamoxifen-p53 interaction did not significantly predict outcome.
Disease-free and overall survival benefit of tamoxifen in patients with ER-positive, node-positive breast cancer does not depend on HER-2/neu or p53 status. Our data suggest that neither HER-2/neu nor p53 expression should be used to determine assignment of tamoxifen.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2000; 18(20):3471-9. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with resistant diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DA-NHL) have a poor prognosis. Studies have suggested infusional therapy may be beneficial.
This trial used an infusional regimen called I-CHOPE in resistant patients who had previously received only bolus CHOPE or CHOP regimen. Resistance was defined as: a) primary refractory disease, b) progression on therapy, c) partial response, d) complete remission lasting less than one year. Eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of DA-NHL (IWF E-H), no prior irradiation and adequate organ function.
Thirty-seven patients were entered and twenty-nine were eligible. Reasons for ineligibility were incorrect histology (5) and other (3). The median age was 57 years (range 29-81) with 21 males. The performance status scores were: 0 (12 patients); 1 (9 patients); 2 (8 patients). Prior therapy consisted of standard CHOP (26 patients), bolus CHOPE (2 patients), high dose CHOP (1 patient). Therapy consisted of a 120 hour continuous intravenous infusion of doxorubicin 10 mg/m2/day, vincristine 0.28 mg/m2/day (maximum 0.4 mg/day), and etoposide 48 mg/m2/day. Cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 was given as an i.v. bolus day 6 and prednisone was given at 100 mg/day p.o. on days 1-5. G-CSF was allowed for myelosuppression. The overall response rate was 48% (CR 17%; PR 31%). Freedom from progression was 24% at six months and 8% at one year. Survival was 69% at six months and 40% at one year. In an exploratory analysis a prior CR or PR predicted response to I-CHOPE. Twelve of sixteen patients who had a CR/PR on previous therapy responded while two of thirteen who had no prior response, responded to I-CHOPE (P = 0.003). The toxicity was tolerable with grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity being leucopenia 94% and thrombocytopenia 41%. The grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities were infection in 28%, phlebitis in 11%, and stomatitis in 15%.
I-CHOPE can induce responses in this group of patients with a poor prognosis, but most were seen in those who had previously had a response to bolus chemotherapy.
Annals of Oncology 10/2000; 11(9):1141-6. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate a regimen of sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with Hodgkin disease.
The Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a Phase II study of three cycles of etoposide, vinblastine, and doxorubicin (EVA) chemotherapy followed by subtotal lymph node radiation for patients with localized Hodgkin disease and unfavorable prognostic features. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. Fifty-three patients met all study eligibility criteria; 48 of them (91%) had mediastinal disease and 29 (55%) had bulky mediastinal disease.
A complete response (CR) occurred in 35 of the patients (66%). Of all patients who had CR, 26% had the CR after the chemotherapy and before the radiation, and 74% after the chemotherapy and radiation. Twenty percent of the patients who had CR experienced disease progression; in these patients, the progression was outside the radiotherapy field in the lung and involved widespread disease.
EVA offers a nonbleomycin-containing alternative for patients in whom preexisting pulmonary disease may be exacerbated by bleomycin and radiation therapy. EVA, as given in this study (in three cycles), was insufficient chemotherapy for patients who had disease in areas outside the radiation fields (occult disease).
Cancer 11/1999; 86(8):1590-5. · 4.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoglin (EDG, CD105) is a proliferation-associated antigen on endothelial cells. In this study, two new anti-EDG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Y4-2F1 (or termed SN6j) and P3-2G8 (SN6k) were generated and used for treating distinct preformed tumors. These mAbs, both IgG1-kappa antibodies, cross-reacted weakly with mouse endothelial cells but defined epitopes different from the epitope defined by a previously reported anti-EDG mAb K4-2C10 (B. K. Seon et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1031-1044, 1997). SN6j and SN6k reacted strongly with human endothelial cells and vascular endothelium of malignant human tissues but showed no significant reactivity with tumor cells per se. The deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRA) conjugates of the two mAbs showed a weak but specific cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells in vitro. In the therapeutic studies, severe combined immunodeficient mice were inoculated s.c. with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and left untreated until palpable tumors of distinct size (4-6 mm in diameter) appeared. Mice with the distinct tumors were treated by i.v. administration of individual anti-EDG conjugates, unconjugated mAbs, or a control conjugate. Long-lasting complete regression of the tumors was induced in the majority of tumor-bearing mice (n = 8 for each conjugate) when 40 microg of the individual conjugates were administered three times via the tail vein. It is remarkable that the tumors remained regressed without further therapy for as long as the mice were followed (i.e., 100 days). Control conjugate did not induce regression of the tumors in any of the treated mice, although weak nonspecific effects were observed in some of the mice (n = 8). The effects of unconjugated mAbs were small with the dose used, i.e., 34 microg three times. The anti-EDG conjugates showed antiangiogenic activity in the dorsal air sac assay in mice. The results suggest good potential of these conjugates for the clinical application.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/1999; 5(2):371-82. · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that high expression of the erbB-2 gene (also known as HER-2/neu and ERBB2) in breast cancer is associated with patient response to dose-intensive treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and 5-flurouracil (CAF) on the basis of short-term follow-up of 397 patients (set A) with axillary lymph node-positive tumors who were enrolled in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocol 8541.
To validate those findings, we conducted immunohistochemical analyses of erbB-2 and p53 protein expression in an additional cohort of 595 patients (set B) from CALGB 8541, as well as a molecular analysis of erbB-2 gene amplification in tumors from all patients (sets A and B). Marker data were compared with clinical, histologic, treatment, and outcome data.
Updated analyses of data from set A (median follow-up, 10.4 years) showed an even stronger interaction between erbB-2 expression and CAF dose, by use of either immunohistochemical or molecular data. A similar interaction between erbB-2 expression and CAF dose was observed in all 992 patients, analyzed as a single group. However, for set B alone (median follow-up, 8.2 years), results varied with the method of statistical analysis. By use of a proportional hazards model, the erbB-2 expression-CAF dose interaction was not significant for all patients. However, in the subgroups of patients randomly assigned to the high- or the moderate-dose arms, significance was achieved. When patient data were adjusted for differences by use of a prognostic index (to balance an apparent failure of randomization in the low-dose arm), the erbB-2 expression-CAF dose interaction was significant in all patients from the validation set B as well. An interaction was also observed between p53 immunopositivity and CAF dose.
The hypothesis that patients whose breast tumors exhibit high erbB-2 expression benefit from dose-intensive CAF should be further validated before clinical implementation. Interactions between erbB-2 expression, p53 expression, and CAF dose underscore the complexities of predictive markers where multiple interactions may confound the outcome.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 10/1998; 90(18):1346-60. · 15.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is clinically indolent, but is associated with severe neutropenia in approximately 50% of cases. The pathogenesis of the neutropenia is unclear. We report reversal of severe neutropenia associated with T-LGL leukemia in five patients treated with cyclosporine (CSA). All five had persistent neutrophil counts below 0.5 x 10(9)/L, two had agranulocytosis, and four had recurrent infections. Increased populations of LGL were present in blood and marrow, with a T-LGL immunophenotype (CD3(+)CD8(+)CD16(+/-)CD56(+/-)CD57(+)) shown by multiparameter flow cytometry, and clonal T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements in two of two pretreatment blood samples studied. CSA was initiated at doses of 1 to 1.5 mg/kg orally every 12 hours, with subsequent dose adjustments based on trough serum levels. Four patients attained normal neutrophil counts with CSA alone; one required addition of low-dose granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Time to attainment of 1.5 x 10(9)/L neutrophils ranged from 21 to 75 days. Attempts to taper and withdraw CSA resulted in recurrent neutropenia. Three patients have maintained normal neutrophil counts on continued CSA therapy for 2, 8, and 8.5 years. Two patients died 1.7 and 4.6 years after initiation of CSA despite normal neutrophil counts-one of metastatic melanoma and one of complications after aortofemoral bypass surgery. Despite resolution of neutropenia, increased populations of T-LGL cells have persisted in all patients during CSA therapy, as shown by morphology and flow cytometry and by the presence of clonal TCR gene rearrangements in four patients' posttreatment blood samples. We conclude that CSA is an effective therapy for neutropenia associated with T-LGL leukemia, and that resolution of neutropenia despite persistence of abnormal cells implies that CSA may inhibit T-LGL secretion of yet unidentified mediators of neutropenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the new anticancer agent, docetaxel, with a novel mechanism of action in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma International Working Formulation (IWF) A through H, to determine the response rate by histologic group and the toxicities of this agent in this population.
Sixty-eight patients previously treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with two prior cytotoxic regimens for low-grade and one prior regimen for intermediate-grade lymphoma were entered onto this phase II trial. Central pathologic review was required. Twenty-four IWF A to C and 31 IWF D to H patients with normal hepatic and renal function, performance status (PS) 0 to 2, and adequate hematologic function were eligible. Patients received docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously over 1 hour without corticosteroid premedications every 3 weeks with weekly hematologic monitoring, and tumor assessment every 3 weeks. For grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity, the docetaxel dosage was lowered to 75 mg/m2. Patients received a maximum of six cycles of therapy.
The major response rate was 13% (95% confidence limits, 3% to 32%) for IWF A to C and 16% (95% confidence limits, 5% to 34%) for IWF D to H; response durations ranged from 1.4 to 20 months. Time to response ranged from 1.3 to 2.8 months. Patients refractory to previous chemotherapy were less apt to respond to docetaxel, but the differences were not statistically different in this small sample size. Twelve percent of IWF A to C and 6% of IWF D to H patients discontinued treatment because of toxicity. The major toxicity was granulocytopenia (grade 3 to 4), which occurred in virtually all patients during the first course of therapy.
This study confirms that docetaxel has limited but definite activity in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and suggests that the previously reported responses with taxanes can not be attributed solely to the use of corticosteroid premedications.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/1997; 15(10):3275-9. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experimental animal model of meningeal leukemia was developed in the nude rat, rnu/rnu, using the human-derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line HPB-ALL. Anesthetized rats were placed in a modified stereotaxic frame and then injected intrathecally, at the level of the cisterna magna, with human leukemic cells. Cerebrospinal fluid and tissue samples from brain, spinal cord, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, and cervical lymph nodes were subjected to histopathologic examination and molecular genetic screening by clonotype primer-directed polymerase chain reaction (CPD-PCR). Ninety-three percent of animals (n = 14) developed signs of meningeal irritation leading to death 30 to 63 days postinjection (median, 36.0 days, mean, 38.7); death occurred between 30 and 39 days in 77% of all animals. Leukemic cells progressively infiltrated the pericerebellar and pericerebral subarachnoid space and infiltrated the Virchow-Robin (perivascular) space. The infiltrating meningeal leukemia closely resembled the pathologic presentation in the human condition. By CPD-PCR, leukemic cells were first detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on day 4 postinjection, were variably present over the ensuing 17 days, and were consistently detected after day 21. At terminal stages, CPD-PCR tissue surveys showed leukemic DNA in all brains and spinal cords and rarely in cervical lymph nodes, but leukemic DNA was not detected in any other tissue screened. Leukemic meningitis was reliably produced with a predictable survival time. Intrathecal administration of leukemic cells was an efficient means of transmitting leukemic meningitis and it compartmentalized the disease to the central nervous system (CNS), eliminating potential complications of systemic illness. The use of human-derived cell lines may render this model more relevant to the development of future therapeutic strategies to treat leukemia and lymphoma that invade the CNS.