[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a 2-month period in 2003, we encountered an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) in Japan. We detected 67 human adenoviruses (HAdVs) by PCR from eye swabs of patients with EKC at five eye clinics in different parts of Japan. Forty-one of the 67 HAdV DNAs from the swabs were identified as HAdV-37 by phylogenetic analysis using a partial hexon gene sequence. When the restriction patterns of these viral genomes were compared with that of the HAdV-37 prototype strain, one isolate showed a never-before-seen restriction pattern. Within 1 year, we encountered three more EKC cases caused by a genetically identical virus: two nosocomial infections at two different university hospitals and a sporadic infection at an eye clinic. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the full-length hexon and fiber genes of these isolates and compared them to those of the 51 prototype strains. Surprisingly, the sequence of the hexon (epsilon determinant) loop-1 and -2 regions showed the highest nucleotide identity with HAdV-22, a rare EKC isolate. However, the nucleotide sequence of the fiber gene was identical to that of the HAdV-8 prototype strain. 22 We propose that this virus is a new hexon-chimeric intermediate HAdV-22,37/H8, and may be an etiological agent of EKC.
Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2008; 46(10):3259-69. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) strains are classified into two genetic groups, A and B, each of which is further divided in two genetic subgroups, A1, A2, B1 and B2. hMPV encodes two major surface glycoproteins, the fusion (F) and attachment (G) proteins, which may be immunogenic and protective antigens. Although the amino acid sequences of hMPV F protein are highly conserved, those of the G protein are highly variable with low amino acid identity between the two groups. To address the antigenic variation between the genetic subgroups, we developed an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) method using Trichoplusia ni (Tn5) insect cells infected with each recombinant baculovirus-expressed hMPV G (Bac-G) protein of the four genetic subgroups. The titre of each antibody to the four Bac-G proteins was measured by the IFA in 12 paired serum samples obtained from children infected with hMPV of each genetic subgroup. Although 11 of the 12 acute-phase serum samples in paired samples were negative for the antibody to any Bac-G proteins, all of the convalescent-phase serum samples in those paired samples were positive for the antibody to only one of the four Bac-G proteins of the infecting genotype of hMPV. Since the antibody response to hMPV G protein was transient and genetic subgroup-specific without cross-reactivity, four genetic subgroups on the basis of hMPV G protein could be identified as different serotypes. This assay may be useful for the study of immune responses of humans to different hMPV strains, especially for clarifying the risk of reinfection with hMPV.
Journal of General Virology 08/2008; 89(Pt 8):1970-7. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2000, we encountered cases of nosocomial infections with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) at a university hospital in Kobe, in the western part of Japan. Two human adenovirus (HAdV) strains, Kobe-H and Kobe-S, were isolated from patients with nosocomial EKC infection. They were untypeable by existing neutralizing antisera; however, the isolate was neutralized with homologous antisera. We then encountered several cases of EKC due to nosocomial infections in eye clinics in different parts of Japan. A total of 80 HAdVs were isolated from patients with EKC at eight different hospitals. The partial hexon gene sequences of the isolates were determined and compared to those of the prototype strains of 51 serotypes. All isolates had identical partial hexon nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis classified these isolates into species of HAdV-D. The isolates showed 93.9 to 96.7% nucleotide identity with HAdV-D prototype strains, while all 32 HAdV-D prototype strains ranged from 93.2 to 99.2% identity. The sequences of the loop 2 and fiber knob regions from the representative strain, Kobe-H, were dissimilar in all prototype strains of 51 serotypes. We believe that this virus is a novel serotype of HAdV that causes EKC.
Journal of clinical microbiology 07/2008; 46(6):2002-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lateral-flow immunochromatography (IC) assay for the detection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been developed by using two mouse monoclonal antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of hMPV. The purpose of this study was to compare the virus detection rate in nasopharyngeal secretions by the IC assay with that by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We collected nasopharyngeal swab samples from 247 children with respiratory symptoms in Sapporo, Japan, during the period from April to July 2007. Sixty-eight of the 247 children were positive for hMPV by real-time RT-PCR. When the real-time RT-PCR was used as the reference standard, the IC assay results were positive for 48 of the 68 real-time RT-PCR-positive children (70.6% sensitivity) and 8 of the 179 real-time RT-PCR-negative children (95.5% specificity). Although the sensitivity of the IC assay is lower than that of real-time RT-PCR, the IC assay is a rapid and useful test for the diagnosis of hMPV infections in children.
Journal of clinical microbiology 04/2008; 46(3):928-32. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present paper was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis in Japan using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent phylogenetic analysis.
From September 2001 to August 2003, 515 stool samples or rectal swabs were collected from almost all children visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Public Soma General Hospital with gastroenteritis. Samples were examined on reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to detect norovirus genome. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were determined and phylogenetic analysis performed.
The norovirus genome was detected in 66 samples. The peak season of norovirus gastroenteritis was from November 2001 to February 2002 and from September 2002 to December 2002. Norovirus gastroenteritis occurred most frequently in 1-year-old children. Norovirus strains produced four distinct clusters on phylogenetic analysis. Some strains detected in Soma were closely related to the strains detected in other regions in the world. The Mexico type and Lordsdale type were predominant in the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons, respectively, and the outbreaks continued for several months.
Genetically different noroviruses might cause repeated gastroenteritis outbreaks every year in the Soma area. The long duration of the outbreak by a predominant strain in an epidemic season and the prevalence of infection mainly in the young age group suggested that norovirus epidemics were caused by person-to-person transmission rather than foodborne transmission. Based on molecular epidemiology, it is suggested that the annual prevalence of norovirus gastroenteritis in the Soma area might be caused by person-to-person transmission of genetically different norovirus strains, which might be transmitted from other region in the world.
Pediatrics International 03/2008; 50(1):65-9. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Around one million people are affected by adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis a year in Japan, and it is recognized as one of the major pathogens of ophthalmological nosocomial infection worldwide. Although cidofovir can be used systemically for immunocompromised patients with disseminated adenoviral infection, no specific anti-adenoviral agent has been established for the treatment of adenoviral infection. We evaluated the anti-adenoviral effect of anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) agents in this study.
Five anti-HIV agents (zalcitabine, stavudine, nevirapine, indinavir and amprenavir) were subjected to in vitro evaluation. A549 cells were used for viral cell culture, and adenovirus serotypes 3, 4, 8, 19 and 37 were used. After calculating CC(50) (50% cytotoxic concentration) of each agent by MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) method, we cultured adenovirus with the agents for seven days and quantitatively measured extracted adenoviral DNA by real-time PCR.
Among the anti-HIV drugs, zalcitabine and stavudine, both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, showed significant anti-adenoviral activity. In contrast, nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and indinavir and amprenavir, which are both protease inhibitors, were ineffective against adenovirus.
These results indicate that zalcitabine and stavudine are possible candidates for the local and systemic treatment of adenoviral infection, and the anti-adenoviral effect might depend on the pharmacological properties of anti-HIV agents. The chemical properties on the clinical safety for systemic and local application need to be determined in order to for these drugs to be accepted for the treatment of adenovirus in clinical settings.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 10/2007; 245(9):1319-25. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), composed of fragments of PBP 2 from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, was significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to determine the affinity of mosaic PBP 2 for cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae.
Two types of non-mosaic PBP 2 from the type strain of N. gonorrhoeae (ATCC 19424) and a clinical strain (GU01-29), as well as the mosaic PBP 2 from a clinical strain (GU01-89), were expressed in insect cells, and recombinant PBP 2s were purified. ATCC 19424 and GU01-29 were susceptible to cephalosporins. GU01-89 showed decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins. Bindings of fluorescent penicillin to PBP 2 were characterized by the Scatchard plot analysis. The affinity of the recombinant PBP 2s for cefdinir, cefixime and ceftriaxone was determined by PBP 2 competition assays with fluorescent penicillin.
The K(d) value of mosaic PBP 2 for fluorescent penicillin was higher than that of non-mosaic PBP 2s. The affinity of mosaic PBP 2 for cefdinir or cefixime was lower than that of the non-mosaic PBP 2s. The affinity of the mosaic PBP 2 for ceftriaxone was not changed, compared with that of the non-mosaic PBP 2s.
Other mechanisms may be involved in clinical isolates with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, but this study suggests that the decreased affinity of mosaic-structure recombinant PBP 2 for oral cephalosporins may contribute to decreased susceptibility to these antibiotics in N. gonorrhoeae.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2007; 60(1):54-60. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In adenoviral conjunctivitis, the infection process starts by the attachment of adenoviral fibers to conjunctival epithelial cells that contain the receptor for the adenovirus. The alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptor ligand, GRGDSP peptide, contains the arginine-glycine-aspartate-binding motif which is common to the Coxsackie adenovirus receptor and integrins that are known to be adenoviral receptors. We evaluated the antiadenoviral effect of an expected adenoviral receptor inhibitor, GRGDSP peptide,in vitro.
Adenovirus types 3, 4, 8, 19 and 37 were used. After calculating the 50% cytotoxic concentration of GRGDSP peptide, the adenovirus was cultivated with the agent for 7 days under serial dilution. Adenoviral DNA was qualitatively measured by real-time PCR.
GRGDSP peptide showed an inhibitory effect against adenoviral proliferation in all serotypes except type 4 in a dose-dependent manner.
This result suggests that the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptor ligand, GRGDSP peptide, has antiadenoviral activity in vitro, and the possibility of being used for local treatment of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the chronologic genetic diversity of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) strains associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics in a restricted area and their genetic relation with those isolated in other areas, we investigated the genetic diversity of the 129 CV-A16 strains associated with HFMD epidemics in Fukushima, Japan, from 1983 to 2003, and compared their genetic relation to 49 CV-A16 strains isolated in other areas of Japan and in China by using phylogenetic analysis based on the VP4 sequences. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the CV-A16 strains isolated in Fukushima from 1983 to 2003 demonstrated three distinct genetically divergent clusters related to HFMD epidemics that occurred from 1984 to 1994 (including the 1985 and 1991 outbreaks), HFMD epidemics from 1987 to 1998 (including the 1988 and 1998 outbreaks), and HFMD epidemics from 1995 to 2003 (including the 1995 and 2002 outbreaks). CV-A16 strains isolated during each period in Fukushima formed a single cluster with those isolated during essentially the same time period in other areas of Japan and in China. Our results demonstrated that prevalent CV-A16 strains causing HFMD in Fukushima, Japan, genetically changed twice during 21 epidemics, and changes were also observed in the CV-A16 strains causing HFMD epidemics in other areas. We concluded that repeated outbreaks of CV-A16-related HFMD in Japan were caused, in part, by the introduction of genetically changed CV-A16 strains, which might be transmitted overseas.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 02/2007; 45(1):112-20. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are several lines of evidence suggesting that specific vaccine therapy with a standard hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination reduces HBV replication. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-viral mechanism of vaccine therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nineteen patients were assigned to receive either vaccine therapy (n = 13) or no treatment as a control (n = 6). Vaccinated patients were analyzed for T cell proliferative responses specific for envelope antigen and cytokine production by antigen-specific T cells. ELISPOT and cytotoxicity assays also were carried out for limited blood samples. Serum HBV DNA levels decreased significantly at 3 months after completion of therapy and thereafter as compared to the baseline ones, and were significantly lower in vaccinated patients than in controls at 12 and 18 months after completion of therapy. Vaccination induced antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses in four patients (30.8%). The production of high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by antigen-specific T cells was found in six patients (46.0%) who showed significantly lower HBV DNA levels in serum at 6 (P = 0.04) and 18 months (P = 0.005) after completion of therapy than those without high levels of cytokine production. Vaccination did not induce antigen-specific CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells. These results suggest that envelope-specific CD4+ T cells may control directly HBV replication by producing anti-viral cytokines rather than providing help for cytotoxic T cells in therapeutic vaccination against chronic HBV infection.
Journal of Medical Virology 12/2003; 71(3):376-84. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TT virus (TTV) is widespread in the general population, however, the mode of its transmission and the mechanism of maintaining it in the general population are unclear.
To determine the possible mother-to-infant route of transmission, 54 infants bom to 50 anti-HCV-positive mothers were assessed longitudinally. Nucleotide sequences amplified by seminested PCR with primers targeting the N22 variable coding region of genotypes 1 through 6 were compared in mothers and their infants.
The prevalence of TTV DNA was 30 percent (15/50; 95% CI, 18-45) in mothers and 44 percent (24/54; 95% CI, 31-59) in their infants. TTV DNA was detected during a follow-up period in 13 (87%; 95% CI, 60-98) of 15 infants born to infected mothers and in 11 (28%; 95% CI, 15-45) of 39 infants bom to DNA-negative mothers. None of 38 cord blood samples, but one of 14 blood samples, obtained at 1 month of age had detectable TTV DNA. The lowest infection rate at the earliest ages and the subsequent increasing prevalence of infection (22% at 6 months and 33% [43% cumulative rate] at 2 years) is consistent with an age-dependent acquisition of TTV by nonparenteral routes. In 13-mother-infant pairs positive for TTV DNA, six showed a high degree of nucleotide sequence similarity (99.1-100%), whereas the remaining seven pairs differed more than 10 percent from each other (46.8-89.2%). The viral load of matemal blood was not a plausible risk factor for transmission. Genotype 1, of which pathogenicity failed to be shown by measurement of hepatic enzymes, was more rapidly cleared (88 vs. 8% other genotypes, p < 0.001) among infants.
These observations strongly suggest that the main factor for TTV acquisition in children involves their age-associated increase in environmental interactions with infectious materials. Genotype 1 might be involved in a weak or a limited pathologic role, which can possibly be diluted by other harmless genotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: TT virus (TTV) is widespread in the general population, however, the mode of its transmission and the mechanism of maintaining it in the general population are unclear.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To determine the possible mother-to-infant route of transmission, 54 infants born to 50 anti-HCV-positive mothers were assessed longitudinally. Nucleotide sequences amplified by seminested PCR with primers targeting the N22 variable coding region of genotypes 1 through 6 were compared in mothers and their infants.RESULTS: The prevalence of TTV DNA was 30 percent (15/50; 95% CI, 18-45) in mothers and 44 percent (24/54; 95% CI, 31-59) in their infants. TTV DNA was detected during a follow-up period in 13 (87%; 95% CI, 60–98) of 15 infants born to infected mothers and in 11 (28%; 95% CI, 15-45) of 39 infants born to DNA-negative mothers. None of 38 cord blood samples, but one of 14 blood samples, obtained at 1 month of age had detectable TTV DNA. The lowest infection rate at the earliest ages and the subsequent increasing prevalence of infection (22% at 6 months and 33%[43% cumulative rate] at 2 years) is consistent with an age-dependent acquisition of TTV by nonparenteral routes. In 13–mother-infant pairs positive for TTV DNA, six showed a high degree of nucleotide sequence similarity (99.1-100%), whereas the remaining seven pairs differed more than 10 percent from each other (46.8-89.2%). The viral load of maternal blood was not a plausible risk factor for transmission. Genotype 1, of which pathogenicity failed to be shown by measurement of hepatic enzymes, was more rapidly cleared (88 vs. 8% other genotypes, p < 0.001) among infants.CONCLUSIONS: These observations strongly suggest that the main factor for TTV acquisition in children involves their age-associated increase in environmental interactions with infectious materials. Genotype 1 might be involved in a weak or a limited pathologic role, which can possibly be diluted by other harmless genotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the major cause of a variety of acute and chronic illnesses. Virus isolation and neutralization tests are usually done to identify the causative virus, but these tests are labor intensive, time consuming, and sometimes require suckling mice from which certain viruses have been isolated. This study investigated a rapid and reliable method based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed by neighbor-joining on the basis of the VP4 sequence from 66 prototypes grouped all human EVs into 5 distinct clusters. These clusters correspond closely to the 5 newly designated species-human EV A-D and poliovirus. The VP4 sequences of 89 isolates from 26 serotypes obtained over >30 years plus those of 66 prototype strains were analyzed. Each isolate formed a monophyletic cluster along with its respective prototype strain, allowing for serotype identification (with the exception of E-8). VP4-based classification appears to be an effective tool for the molecular epidemiology study of EVs.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2002; 185(6):744-54. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of respiratory infections. We developed a diagnostic method for HRVs based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and VP4-based phylogenetic analysis. A set of primers used in the RT-PCR of human enteroviruses (EVs) appeared to be capable of amplifying all prototype strains of HRVs, each of which generated a 530-bp fragment. The single exception was HRV-87, which generated a 650-bp fragment, as observed in human EVs. The VP4 nucleotide sequence of HRV-87 showed more than 97% nucleotide identity with human EV-68, and formed a monophyletic cluster along with the prototype strain of EV-68 in the human EV-D cluster. HRV-87 showed the second highest homology (76.8%) with EV-70, another member of the human EV-D, in a sample of 66 human EVs and 12 HRVs. Therefore, HRV-87 should be reclassified into the cluster containing human EV-68.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequences of TT virus (TTV) in 55 serum samples taken from 20 children with liver disease of unknown etiology (16 with acute liver disease, 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and 2 with chronic liver disease) and from 35 healthy children as controls were examined by using the hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR was carried out using the established primers (NG059, NG061, NG063) to amplify TTV DNA sequences. The sequences were detected in 6 of the 20 patients (30.0%) with liver disease and in 5 of the 35 healthy children (14.2%) by direct gel analysis. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of liver disease patients and controls. However, both patients with fulminant hepatitis and both patients with chronic hepatitis had TTV DNA sequences. Four of the six TTV isolates from liver disease patients were genotype 1a, whereas only one of the five TTV isolates from controls was genotype 1a. Although the study population was small, it is possible that genotype 1a of TTV might be more pathogenic than other genotypes in children.
Journal of Medical Virology 10/2000; 62(1):104-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor