Yasuharu Sato

Osaka City University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (80)200.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusion: The characteristic ultrasound appearance of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the head and neck provides diagnostic information regarding masses or swellings in the head and neck region. Objectives: There are only a few reports about ultrasound features of malignant lymphoma (ML) of the head and neck. We have noticed that the ultrasound appearances of cases with MALT lymphoma resembled each other even when the appearances of other images like computed tomography were absolutely different. The objective of this study was to delineate the reliability of this characteristic ultrasound appearance of MALT lymphoma of the head and neck. Methods: The ultrasound examinations of 30 patients with histopathologically proven primary ML of the head and neck (15 cases of MALT) were reviewed. The ultrasound results of each case were independently compared to the results of the histopathological examination. Results: Two ultrasound patterns were observed for MALT lymphoma. The first was characterized by a marked hypoechoic area with interspersed linear echogenic strands (linear echogenic strands pattern), and the second was characterized by multiple, relatively large, hypoechoic segments (segmental pattern). Histopathologically, these patterns could be explained on the basis of the expansion of lymphoma cells demarcated by narrow or wide fibrous bands.
    Acta oto-laryngologica 11/2013; · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a unique subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), positive CD5, and nuclear cyclin D1 overexpression with unfavorable prognosis. We report herein a case of MCL in a 73-year-old male diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ileal tumor) at another hospital, who subsequently relapsed with CD5-negative MCL. At the 1st relapse, he developed neck lymph node swelling, of which biopsy showed proliferation of atypical large pleomorphic cells with CD5-negativity by both immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. At the 2nd relapse, he again developed an ileal tumor, of which biopsy showed positivity for CD5, CD20, and cyclin D1. In MCL, CD5-negative expression has sometimes been reported as having pleomorphic and blastoid variants. The present case was also histologically the pleomorphic type, but the CD5 expression changed from negative at the onset and the 1st relapse to positive at the 2nd relapse. This is a rare and interesting case because of the different expression of CD5 at all stage. This phenomenon made the diagnosis of MCL difficult.
    Medical Molecular Morphology 10/2013; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nestin is an intermediate filament that was first identified in neural progenitor cells. It is expressed in various cell types in the nervous system as well as in other systems. In the present study, we investigated nestin expression in non-neoplastic salivary gland tissue and in salivary gland tumors. In non-neoplastic salivary glands, nestin expression was observed in only a few abluminal cells. In contrast, diffuse nestin staining was observed in the abluminal cells of pleomorphic adenoma (11 of 11 cases), basal cell adenoma (7 of 7 cases), and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (2 of 2 cases). The stromal cells in basal cell adenoma also expressed nestin. In adenoid cystic carcinoma (6 of 7 cases) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (3 of 3 cases), nestin positive cells were observed focally. Nestin was not detected in Warthin tumor (6 cases), classical acinic cell carcinoma (2 cases), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (5 cases), or salivary duct carcinoma (4 cases). Because the nestin expression pattern in each histological salivary gland tumor type is unique, nestin could be a very useful abluminal cell marker for the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.
    Pathology International 10/2013; 63(10):496-501. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of a 67-year-old Japanese man with a serious oropharyngeal ulceration that at first seemed to be destructive malignant lymphoma or oropharyngeal carcinoma. We suspected methotrexate (MTX)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) induced by MTX treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). About 3 weeks after simple discontinuation of MTX, complete regression of the disease was observed, confirming our diagnosis.
    Acta medica Okayama 08/2013; 67(4):265-9. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis is mainly diagnosed by analyzing tissue samples obtained by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However, some cases remain diagnostic challenges even after polymerase chain reaction analysis of FNA specimens. To delineate differences between cases that are relatively easy to diagnose and those for which diagnosis is difficult, 22 patients with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis were studied retrospectively. FNA tissues were used to diagnose 14 cases (group A), whereas excisional biopsy was required for accurate diagnosis of 8 cases (group B). These two groups were compared with regard to results of blood examinations, ultrasound appearance, and various other procedures required to reach the final diagnosis. The results indicated that diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis was more difficult for patients with lower white blood cell counts, lower serum C-reactive protein levels, and absence of lymph node fusion or abscess formation on ultrasonography. The possibility of tuberculosis as a cause of cervical lymphadenopathy should always be considered, even when the presenting symptoms are not typical of this disease.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the prognostic factors for nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter clinical study. The clinical records of 36 patients with nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma who had been first treated between 1996 and 2011 were collected from 12 hospitals. RESULTS: High serum levels of C-reactive protein (≥1.0 mg/dL), lactate dehydrogenase (≥350 IU/L), and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R; ≥600 U/mL) were associated with worse prognosis. A prognostic score was devised by totaling the number of these 3 predictors: 0 or 1 = score 0; and 2 or 3 = score 1. As for tumor invasion, local invasion beyond the nasal cavity was associated with poor prognosis, and a prognostic score was devised as: tumor restricted to nasal cavity, yes = score 0; no = score 1. A novel prognostic index (NPI) was established based on these scores from 0 to 2. Disease-specific survival rates at 5 years were: 90.0% for NPI = 0; 29.3% for NPI = 1; and 0.0% for NPI = 2. CONCLUSION: Our NPI is valid for anticipating prognosis of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
    Head & Neck 06/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) consists of a heterogeneous group of lymphomas. Patients generally show an aggressive clinical course and very poor outcome. Although the 2008 World Health Organization classification of PTCL-NOS includes 3 variants, low-grade lymphoma is not included. Of 277 PTCL-NOS cases recorded in our consultation files, we examined the clinicopathologic characteristics of 10 patients with T-cell lymphomas composed of small-sized cells with slight nuclear atypia. Eight patients showed extranodal involvement (5 patients, spleen; 3 patients, thyroid), and 5 patients were at clinical stage I or II. Histologically, all samples presented diffuse infiltrate of small lymphoid cells, with few mitotic figures. Immunohistologically, all samples were positive for CD3, and CD20 was detected in 5 samples. All samples showed a low Ki-67 labeling index (mean, 1.05%), and 7 samples were positive for central memory T-cell markers. Clonal T-cell receptor γ chain and/or α-β chain gene rearrangements were detected in all 10 patients. Five patients received chemotherapy, whereas for 3 patients, treatment consisted only of observation following surgical resection of the spleen or thyroid. Nine patients were alive at a median follow-up time of 19.5 months, whereas 1 patient died of an unrelated disease. The present study strongly indicates that T-cell lymphoma with small-sized lymphoma cells and a low Ki-67 labeling index is a distinct variant. Recognition of this novel lymphoma subtype, which should not be defined merely as PTCL-NOS, should be seriously considered.
    Human pathology 05/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D cyclins positively regulate the cell cycle and mediate the pathogenesis of some lymphomas. Cyclin D1 overexpression is the hallmark of mantle cell lymphoma, whereas cyclins D2 and D3 are reportedly not as specific to certain lymphomas as cyclin D1. In this study, cyclin D2 was found to be overexpressed in 98% of de novo CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) (50/51) and in 28% of CD5-negative DLBCLs (14/51). A statistically significant difference was observed between these two groups (p<0.0001). In contrast, no statistical difference was found in the cyclin D3 expression between CD5-positive (18/51) and CD5-negative (24/51) DLBCLs (p=0.23). Based on these findings, cyclin D2 is therefore considered to be closely associated with de novo CD5-positive DLBCLs. This insight may be useful for overcoming the inferior survival of this aggressive lymphoma. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1382856320966453.
    Diagnostic Pathology 05/2013; 8(1):81. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (BCLu-DLBCL/CHL), also known as gray-zone lymphoma, has overlapping clinical and biological characteristics of both diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). These lymphomas are typically associated with mediastinal disease, and extranodal involvement is rare. In the present report, we describe a case of a 78-year-old woman with BCLu-DLBCL/CHL found to have extranodal lesions and no evidence of mediastinal disease. Although biopsy specimens were histologically similar to nodular sclerosis CHL, the tumor cells were positive for CD30 and mature B-cell markers, such as CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BOB.1, and OCT-2, but negative for CD15. Furthermore, the patient had extranodal lesions and an increased level of soluble IL-2 receptor. These findings are unusual in CHL. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with BCLu-DLBCL/CHL. She received adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine therapy and exhibited partial response. Some cases without mediastinal disease, such as our case, have been reported; however, these cases are rare and further studies are required.
    Medical Molecular Morphology 03/2013; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) comprises 2 molecularly distinct subgroups of non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) and germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCLs, with the former showing relatively poor prognosis. In the present study, we analyzed the clinicopathological features of 39 patients with localized nasal/paranasal DLBCL. Immunohistochemistry-based subclassification revealed that 11 patients (28%) were of the GCB-type according to Hans' algorithm and 11 (28%) were of the GCB-type according to Choi's algorithm. According to both Hans' and Choi's algorithms, the non-GCB type was predominant. Nevertheless, prognosis was good. Overall survival did not differ significantly between the GCB and non-GCB subgroups (Hans' algorithm: = 0.57, Choi's algorithm: = 0.99). Furthermore, the prognosis of localized nasal/paranasal DLBCL was better than that of other localized extranodal DLBCLs. The prognosis of extranodal DLBCL is usually considered poorer than that of nodal DLBCL. However, in our study, no difference was noted between patients with localized nasal/paranasal DLBCL and patients with localized nodal DLBCL. In conclusion, although the non-GCB subtype is thought to show poor prognosis, in our study, the prognosis for localized nasal/paranasal DLBCL patients was good irrespective of subclassification.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57677. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A negative regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, A20 (TNFAIP3), is inactivated in several types of lymphomas; particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. These findings suggest that the NF-κB activation is related to A20 inactivation. Recently, A20 inactivation has also been observed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphomas; however, this occurrence has not been well investigated. Moreover, NF-κB is a key molecule in activated B-cell-like (ABC)-type DLBCL; EBV-associated DLBCL is of the ABC type. Therefore, we focused on A20 deletions in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders/lymphomas. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, A20 deletions were identified in 4 of 13 samples from patients with pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) (31%), 3 of 20 samples from nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas (NKTLs) (15%), 1 of 8 samples of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly (DLBCL-e) (13%), but not in any of the 11 samples from individuals with methotrexate-related lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) (0%). Among the samples with A20 deletions, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) expression was detected in all 4 of the PAL samples with A20 deletions and in the DLBCL-e sample with an A20 deletion, but not in any of the 3 NKTL samples. This finding indicated that A20 deletions were not directly related to the EBV latency pattern of lymphomas, although such deletions might be related to the diagnostic category. Immunohistologically, the A20 protein was absent in 2 (15%) of the13 PAL samples, 1 (9%) of 11 MTX-LPD samples, and in none of the 20 NKTL (0%) or 8 DLBCL-e samples. In conclusion, A20 deletion and/or dysfunctional expression are frequently associated with PALs, and A20 abnormalities may be related to the pathogenesis of PAL.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56741. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A case of thyroidal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease is described. A 54-year-old male presented with acute swelling of the anterior neck. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), malignant lymphoma (ML), or acute deterioration of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were initially suspected, and an emergent tracheostomy was required for progressive airway obstruction; a simultaneous biopsy from the thyroid tissue was performed. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of sclerotic fibrosis and diffuse and dense infiltration by small lymphoid cells without atypia and plasma cells, many of which were IgG4-positive. Blood examination also revealed high serum IgG4 levels. Riedel's thyroiditis was suspected. However, despite medical treatments, a firm swelling of the thyroid still remained. In an in situ hybridization study, IgG4-negative plasma cells showed immunoglobulin light-chain restriction (κ-monotype), and immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain gene monoclonal re-arrangement was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The lesion was finally diagnosed as MALT lymphoma. When IgG4-related disease is suspected, it is important to thoroughly exclude other possibilities.
    Auris, nasus, larynx 02/2013; · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are no reports on the effect of anti-allergic agents against IgG4-related disease. We herein report a case of IgG4-related dacryoadenitis that is believed to have regressed due to the administration of anti-allergic agents. A 57-year-old woman consulted us because of bilateral temporal upper eyelid swelling and induration. She had also been suffering from allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis for 20 years. We performed an incisional biopsy of the lesion. With respect to the pathology, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type was strongly suspected. On obtaining consent from the patient, follow-up alone was to be continued without radiation therapy. In addition to the observation of lacrimal gland lesions, the administration of epinastine hydrochloride at a dosage of 20 mg/day and 0.01% betamethasone eye drops twice a day to both eyes was commenced in order to treat both allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. The lacrimal gland lesion decreased in size over time, becoming predominantly normal 7 years after the commencement of agent administration. We therefore re-examined the blood and pathology specimens. As a result, the serum IgG4 level was found to have increased to 540 mg/dl, while IgG4/IgG was 36.2%. The pathological diagnosis was revised to IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. The hypotheses of spontaneous remission and/or the effect of epinastine hydrochloride administration can be proposed regarding the mechanism by which the lacrimal gland lesion decreased in size. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(1): 53-56, 2013].
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology 01/2013; 53(1):53-56.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, atypical Castleman's disease (CD) was reported in Japan. This disease is considered as TAFRO syndrome or non-idiopathic plasmacytic lymphadenopathy (IPL), a constellation of clinical symptoms, namely, thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly without hyper-γ-globulinemia. Histopathologically, this disease is similar to hyaline vascular (HV)-type CD. Here, we present a 43-year-old Japanese woman meeting the clinical criteria of TAFRO syndrome who was successfully treated with combined corticosteroid therapy. She showed a rapidly progressive course of thrombocytopenia, systemic lymphadenopathy, fever, anasarca, and increase in acute inflammatory proteins without hyper-γ-globulinemia. Lymph node biopsy was performed and revealed HV-type CD without human herpes virus 8 infection, which was clinicopathologically compatible with non-IPL. The association of these atypical features with well-known multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), namely, HV-type histology with systemic lymphadenopathy, marked thrombocytopenia even with a high level of interleukin-6, and increased acute inflammatory proteins without hyper-γ-globulinemia, suggests that TAFRO syndrome as presented in our case is a novel entity, which may have been diagnosed as MCD in the past. To define this novel entity more clearly and to demonstrate its etiology, further nationwide surveys of this syndrome and MCD are needed. [J Clin Exp Hematopathol 53(1) : 87-93, 2013].
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology 01/2013; 53(1):87-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular adnexal lymphoma may involve the eyelids, conjunctiva, orbital tissue, or lacrimal structures. The majority are non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma type. Follicular lymphomas represent a small percentage of ocular adnexa lymphomas, particularly in Japan. We report a 68-year-old female patient who presented with a salmon pink patch-like lesion of the left conjunctiva, suspected of being (MALT) lymphoma. However, histologic and immunohistologic examinations were consistent with follicular lymphoma. This case demonstrates the importance of considering such rare lymphomas when making a diagnosis of ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(1): 49-52, 2013].
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology 01/2013; 53(1):49-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We examined the usefulness of light-chain restriction (LCR) on immunocytochemical double staining (IDS) for cytological diagnosis. Study Design: We investigated LCR on IDS in 40 patients with proliferative lymphatic disorders (23 with B cell lymphoma, 13 with reactive lymphoid lesions, 2 with T cell lymphoma and 2 with Hodgkin's lymphoma). In addition, the results of flow cytometry (FCM) were compared in 34 of these patients. Results: On IDS, LCR was detected in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%) with B cell lymphoma. On FCM, it was detected in 15 of 21 patients (71.4%) with B cell lymphoma. Neither IDS nor FCM showed LCR in any patients with reactive lesions, T cell lymphoma or Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: IDS facilitated the detection of LCR with a single specimen under morphological observation. The application of this procedure may improve the accuracy of cytological diagnosis.
    Acta cytologica 12/2012; 57(1):84-90. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, increase in the number of IgG4(+) cells in affected tissues and elevation of serum IgG4 levels. In 2009, we were the first to report skin lesions in patients with IgG4-related disease, but no large case series has been reported and clinicopathological findings remain unclear. To clarify these features, we herein report 10 patients (9 men and 1 woman; median age, 64 years; age range, 46-81 years) with IgG4-related skin disease. All patients had erythematous and itchy plaques or subcutaneous nodules on the skin of the head and neck, particularly in the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions, except for one patient, whose forearm and waist skin were affected. In addition, eight patients had extracutaneous lesions: these were found on the lymph nodes in six patients, the lacrimal glands in three patients, the parotid glands in three patients, and the kidney in one patient. Histologically examined extracutaneous lesions were consistent with IgG4-related disease; five of six lymph node lesions showed progressively transformed germinal centers-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Cases of IgG4-related skin disease were classified into two histological patterns: those exhibiting a nodular dermatitis pattern and those with a subcutaneous nodule pattern. The infiltrate was rich in plasma cells, small lymphocytes, and eosinophils; the majority of the plasma cells were IgG4(+). The IgG4(+) cell count was 49-396 per high-power field (mean±s.d., 172±129), with an IgG4(+)/IgG(+) cell ratio ranging from 62 to 92%. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all examined patients. In conclusion, patients with IgG4-related skin disease had uniform clinicopathology. Lesions were frequently present on the skin of the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions, and were frequently accompanied by IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 23 November 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.196.
    Modern Pathology 11/2012; · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinicopathological characteristics of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and HER2-negative Barrett's adenocarcinoma in Japan. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of HER2 in 30 samples taken from patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma and dual color in situ hybridization in cases showing 2+ reactions. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics of HER2-positive and HER2-negative patients. HER2 positivity was identified in 8 (27%) carcinoma samples. We found that HER2 expression was associated with p53 overexpression (100% vs 52.6% in pT1 tumor; 100% vs 54.5% in all stage tumor, P < 0.05) and protruding lesions at the early disease stage. There was no association between the mucin phenotype of the carcinomas and prognosis. HER2 expression and low clinical stage were unexpectedly different between Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients and gastric cancer patients, but the macroscopic features may be associated with earlier diagnosis in these patients. Our results suggest that HER2-positive Barrett's adenocarcinomas are associated with p53 overexpression and lesion protrusion at the early disease stage.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2012; 18(43):6263-8. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Castleman's disease, an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder, can be difficult to differentiate from immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease. The latter is typically characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and abundant IgG4-positive cells. However, multicentric Castleman's disease can also have elevated serum IgG4 levels and even fulfill the histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. We present a case of cutaneous multicentric Castleman's disease mimicking IgG4-related disease. A 55-year-old Japanese woman developed erythematous and brown plaques on her back. Skin biopsy revealed regressive follicles with interfollicular plasmacytosis, and many plasma cells were positive for IgG4 (mean 263.67±79.19, range 214-355 per high power field). The IgG4-/IgG-positive cell ratios were 35.6%, 36.2%, and 48.4%, respectively, with an average of 40.6%, thus fulfilling the histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. Furthermore, serum IgG4 level was significantly elevated (1490mg/dl; normal range: 4.8-105mg/dl). However, laboratory findings of anemia, hypoalbuminemia, polyclonal gammaglobulinemia, high C-reactive protein level, and elevated serum interleukin-6 level were consistent with hyper-IL-6 syndrome. Hence, the diagnosis of cutaneous multicentric Castleman's disease was made. In conclusion, IgG4-related disease cannot be differentiated from hyper-IL-6 syndromes on histology alone. Instead, laboratory analyses are necessary to distinguish between the two diseases.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 10/2012; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 49-year-old female patient previously treated for scleritis and uveitis-induced cataract in the right eye presented with a subretinal white lesion in the same eye. With a preliminary diagnosis of choroidal tumor, enucleation of the eyeball was performed in accordance with the patient's request. Histologic and immunohistologic examinations were consistent with immunoglobulin G4-related disease. The case demonstrates that it is important to consider IgG4-related disease in the differential diagnosis of an intraocular tumor.
    Modern Rheumatology 09/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

929 Citations
200.99 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Osaka City University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2013
    • The Australian Society of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery
      Evans Head, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2010–2013
    • Okayama University
      • • Department of Pathology and Oncology
      • • Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2012
    • National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital
      Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
    • Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital
      Takamatu, Kagawa, Japan
    • Nagoya University
      • Clinical Laboratory
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan