Jiun-Nong Lin

I-Shou University, Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Publications (38)106.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcal (GAS) necrotizing fasciitis is a critical emergency. Patients with necrotizing fasciitis principally present to emergency departments (EDs), but most studies are focused on hospitalized patients. An ED patient-based retrospective study was conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics, associated factors, and outcomes of GAS necrotizing fasciitis in the ED. Patients visiting the ED from January 2005 through December 2011 with the diagnosis of GAS necrotizing fasciitis were enrolled. All patients with the diagnosis of noninvasive skin and soft-tissue infections caused by GAS were included as the control group. During the study period, 75 patients with GAS necrotizing fasciitis were identified. Males accounted for 84% of patients. The most prevalent underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (45.3%). Bullae were recognized in 37.3% of patients. One third of cases were complicated by bacteremia. Polymicrobial infections were found in 30.7% of patients. Overall mortality rate for GAS necrotizing fasciitis was 16%. Patients aged >60 years with diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, and gout were considerably more likely to have GAS necrotizing fasciitis than noninvasive infections. Patients presenting with bacteremia, shock, duration of symptoms/signs <5 days, low white blood cell count, low platelet count, and prolonged prothrombin time were associated with increased mortality. Surgery is a significantly negative factor for mortality of patients with GAS necrotizing fasciitis (odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval 0.002-0.16; p < 0.001). A better understanding of the associated factors and initiation of adequate treatments will allow for improved survival after GAS necrotizing fasciitis.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 08/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • The American journal of emergency medicine 05/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is an uncommon but life-threatening disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. To understand the clinical and molecular characteristics of STSS, we analyzed clinical data and explored the emm types, superantigen genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of causative S. pyogenes isolates obtained between 2005 and 2012. In total, 53 patients with STSS were included in this study. The median age of the patients was 57 years (range: 9-83 years), and 81.1% were male. The most prevalent underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (45.3%). Skin and soft-tissue infection accounted for 86.8% of STSS. The overall mortality rate was 32.1%. Underlying diseases had no statistical impact on mortality. A total of 19 different emm types were identified. The most prevalent emm type was emm102 (18.9%), followed by emm11 (17%), emm1 (11.3%), emm87 (9.4%), and emm89 (7.5%). There was no statistically significant association between emm type and a fatal outcome. Among the superantigen genes, speB was the most frequently detected one (92.5%), followed by smeZ (90.6%), speG (81.1%), speC (39.6%), and speF (39.6%). The majority of emm102 strains were found to have speB, speC, speG, and smeZ. The presence of speG was negatively associated with a fatal outcome (P = 0.045). Our surveillance revealed the emergence of uncommon emm types, particularly emm102, causing STSS in southern Taiwan. Characterization of clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of STSS will improve our understanding of this life-threatening disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81700. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001) and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001) of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5%) and seroconversion rate (33.3%) of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases) with those who were negative (43 cases), the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255), sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351), cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199), and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258), were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77640. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be a major opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, associated factors, and microbiologic features for oropharyngeal yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: From October to December 2009, consecutive HIV-infected patients older than 18 years were recruited in this study. Demographic information, underlying conditions, and clinical histories were collected. Oropharyngeal swab cultures for yeasts and antifungal drug susceptibilities of the isolates were performed. RESULTS: Of the 105 HIV-infected patients, 54 (51.4%) were colonized with yeasts, including 11 patients (20.4%) with more than one species. Among the 68 isolates, Candida albicans accounted for 73.5%, followed by Candida tropicalis (5.9%), Candida glabrata (5.9%), and Candida dubliniensis (4.4%). There were 7.5% and 6% Candida isolates resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. All of the Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. A higher prevalence of yeast colonization was noted in patients with a CD4 cell count ≤200 cells/μL (p = 0.032). Multivariate regression analysis showed that intravenous drug use was an independent associated factor for oropharyngeal yeast colonization (odds ratio, 5.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-20.6; p = 0.015), as well as protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy (odds ratio, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-9.12; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Despite previous studies showing that protease inhibitors decreased Candida adhesion to epithelial cells in vitro, the current study found protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy predisposed to oropharyngeal yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 08/2012; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 36-year-old man was diagnosed with plasma-cell type Castleman's disease with the presentation of recurrent lymphadenpathy of the neck. HIV infection was not suspected or confirmed until esophageal candidiasis developed one year later. Meanwhile, surgery was performed for intestinal intussusception and obstruction caused by lymphocyte-depletion Hodgkin lymphoma. However, he died of rapidly progressive pneumonia and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with intracerebral hemorrhage, which occurred 6 months later during the course of chemotherapy. This case suggests that HIV infection should be considered in patients who present with plasma-cell type Castleman's disease or lymphocyte-depletion Hodgkin lymphoma with extra-nodal involvement in order to conduct appropriate diagnosis and initiate treatment for HIV infection.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 04/2012; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been spreading from hospitals to communities. Despite this, there are limited emergency department (ED) patient-based studies about these bacteremias. A retrospective matched case-control study with a ratio of 1:3 was conducted at a university hospital. The case group consisted of patients aged >16 years with ESBL-producing bacteremias in the ED. Patients matched for age and sex with non-ESBL-producing bacteremias were sampled as the control group. Finally, 64 episodes of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis bacteremias were included in our study. The median age of case patients was 71 years, and 29 (45.3%) were males. The most common type of infection was urinary tract infection (71.9%), followed by intra-abdominal infection (12.5%). Inappropriate empirical antibiotics therapy was prescribed in 87.5% of case patients, which was significantly higher than the control group (13.0%; p < 0.001). Patients with inappropriate empirical antibiotics had a significantly longer hospital stay than those with appropriate empirical antibiotics (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that hospital-acquired infection, urinary catheterization, and previous antibiotics use were independent risk factors for the acquisition of ESBL-producing bacteremia. The 28-day mortality rate of case patients was 18.8%. Whether they received appropriate empirical antibiotics treatment or not, there was no statistical difference in the mortality of patients with ESBL-producing bacteremias (p = 0.167). To face these emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria and to guide the empirical antibiotics therapy, it is crucial for emergency physicians to recognize the characteristics and risk factors for ESBL-producing organisms.
    Internal and Emergency Medicine 12/2011; 6(6):547-55. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli producing the highly virulent, multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), sequence type 131 (ST131), has emerged on three continents since the late 2000s. We described the molecular epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia in Taiwan from 2005 to 2010. This study aims to determine whether the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of the ST131 isolate differ from those of non-ST131 isolates. From 2005 to 2010, we collected 122 nonduplicated, consecutive, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from bloodstream infections in a 1,200-bed hospital in Taiwan. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing. Demographic data, clinical features, and outcomes were collected from medical chart records. Thirty-six (29.5%) patients with bacteremia with ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 were identified. Patients with clone ST131 were more likely to have secondary bacteremia and noncatheterized urinary tract infections (P < 0.05). Secondary bacteremia (odds ratio [OR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 23.56) and urinary catheter nonuse (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.17 to 12.18) were independent risk factors for the ST131 clone after adjustment. Mortality rates at day 28 were similar in ST131 and non-ST131 populations. Independent risk factors predicting mortality at day 28 included malignancy, shock, and hospital-acquired bacteremia. In ESBL-producing E. coli bloodstream infections, the ST131 clone was not associated with health-care-associated risk factors, such as urinary catheter use or antibiotic exposure. Although highly virulent and multidrug resistant, the ST131 clone was not associated with higher mortality than non-ST131 clones.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2011; 56(2):618-22. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severity of skin and soft tissue infections caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) is variable, and there are only a limited number of studies evaluating the characteristics of these infections in the literature. From May 2005 to November 2007, 73 patients with skin and soft tissue infections caused by group A Streptococcus were included in this study. Among these patients, 34 (46.6%) had invasive diseases. Diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and hypertension were the most common underlying disorders. The overall mortality rate was 6.8%, and the elderly were predisposed to invasive infections (P < 0.001). Neutrophil percentages of ≥80, serum creatinine levels of ≥2 mg/dl, and high serum C-reactive protein levels were noted more frequently in patients with invasive infections than in patients with noninvasive infections, as were bacteremia and a high mortality rate. Of the 73 isolates, 93.2%, 97.3%, and 37% exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline, respectively. The five most prevalent emm types were emm106 (24.7%), emm11 (12.3%), emm102 (9.6%), emm4 (8.2%), and emm12 (8.2%). Compared to other types, the emm106 type was significantly more likely to be associated with invasive diseases (P = 0.012). Dendrogram analysis showed a unique SmaI-digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern of the emm106 type that was particularly prone to cause invasive skin and soft tissue infections (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that isolates with the emm106 gene may be an emerging group A Streptococcus strain that causes invasive skin and soft tissue infections. Further surveillance study to understand the significance of this invasive strain is critical.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2011; 49(10):3632-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis continues to be a condition at high risk for missed and delayed diagnosis. It characteristically presents with right lower quadrant pain after vague epigastric or periumbilical discomfort. Left-sided appendicitis is an atypical presentation and has been reported rarely. The majority of these cases have been described to be associated with congenital midgut malrotation, situs inversus, or an extremely long appendix. We report a case of left-sided acute appendicitis occurring in a patient with a redundant and hypermobile ascending colon. OBJECTIVES: To alert emergency physicians to an anatomical anomaly that could delay the diagnosis of appendicitis. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old man presented with fever and left lower abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed local tenderness over the left lower quadrant. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a redundant, floating, ascending colon and inflammatory appendix adhering to the descending colon over the left lower abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and perforated appendicitis with turbid ascites was found during the surgery. Appendectomy was performed and the patient recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSION: This case is presented to increase awareness among emergency physicians of this anatomical variant and atypical presentation of appendicitis.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 05/2011; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myxoma is the most common primary tumor of the heart. The typical presentations include a triad of embolic phenomena, intracardiac flow obstruction, and constitutional symptoms. We report a case of cardiac myxoma presenting as prolonged fever. Leukocytosis with a left shift, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein were noted. A large left atrial myxoma was found incidentally by chest computed tomography. The fever subsided after surgical removal of the myxoma. His elevated serum interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-12 p70, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α returned to undetectable levels four days after surgery. Cardiac myxomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of prolonged fever, even though no typical symptoms could be found.
    Southern medical journal 05/2011; 104(5):360-2. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at risk for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection. The advent of antiretroviral therapy restores immunity in HIV-infected patients, but predisposes patients to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). A 25-year-old HIV-infected male presented with fever, productive cough, and body weight loss for 2 months. His CD4 cell count was 11 cells/μl and HIV-1 viral load was 315,939 copies/ml. Antituberculosis therapy was initiated after the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. One week after antituberculosis therapy, antiretroviral therapy was started. However, multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and chylothorax developed. Adequate drainage of the chylothorax, suspension of antiretroviral therapy, and continued antituberculosis therapy resulted in successful treatment and good outcome. Chylothorax is a rare manifestation of TB-associated IRIS in HIV-infected patients. Careful monitoring for development of IRIS during treatment of HIV-TB coinfection is essential to minimize the associated morbidity and mortality.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2010; 10:321. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • The American journal of emergency medicine 10/2010; 28(8):985.e3-5. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymicrobial bloodstream infection (BSI) is a critical condition and has been increasingly reported; however, the authors were unable to find an emergency department (ED) patient-based study in the literature. A retrospective matched case-control study with a ratio of 1:3 among patients with polymicrobial BSIs in an ED was conducted. The case group was patients aged > 16 years with polymicrobial BSIs. Patients matched for age and sex with monomicrobial BSIs were sampled as the control group. Demographic information, underlying conditions, microbiologic data, and outcomes were collected for further analysis. From January 2005 to December 2007, a total of 112 episodes of polymicrobial BSIs among 109 patients were included. Two pathogens were isolated among 87 (77.7%) episodes and three were found among 25 (22.3%) episodes. A history of hospitalization within 90 days was an independent risk factor for polymicrobial BSIs (p = 0.003). Intraabdominal infection (p < 0.001) and respiratory tract infection (p = 0.017) were more likely to be associated with polymicrobial BSIs. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were documented in 95.5 and 46.4% episodes of polymicrobial BSIs, respectively. Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment was observed in 53.6% of polymicrobial BSIs, but only accounted for 23.8% of monomicrobial BSIs (p < 0.001). The overall 30-day mortality rate of the polymicrobial group was significantly higher than those with monomicrobial BSIs (30.3 and 11.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Patients with polymicrobial BSIs had a high mortality rate. Acknowledgment of the clinical and microbiologic characteristics and recognition of patients at risk for polymicrobial BSIs are critical in EDs.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 10/2010; 17(10):1072-9. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is defined as seropositivity for anti-HBc in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). It is commonly found in HIV-infected persons or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons, but the risk factors for isolated anti-HBc remain uncertain, especially in regions that are hyperendemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This cross-sectional study included a cohort of 955 nonhemophiliac, HIV-infected patients, diagnosed between 1988 and 2009, and 643 HIV-uninfected injection drug users (IDUs) attending the methadone clinic between August 2007 and May 2009, with available HBV serological data. The medical records were reviewed to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity of isolated anti-HBc. The overall seroprevalence of isolated anti-HBc was 12.1% (193 of 1598), in which occult HBV infection accounted for 1.6% (3 of 185) and the majority (91.2 %, 176 of 193) had low titers of anti-HBs (3.6 +/- 2.9 IU/L). Subjects with isolated anti-HBc were significantly older (40.7 +/- 9.3 versus 36.9 +/- 8.0, respectively, P < 0.0001). There was a significantly increasing trend in the prevalence of isolated anti-HBc with age, from 4.0% in those younger than 30 years to 22.5% after 50 years of age (test for trend, P < 0.0001). A significantly higher prevalence of isolated anti-HBc was observed in HIV-infected subjects [14.0% (134 of 955) versus 9.2% (59 of 643), adjusted odds ratio, 1.64; P < 0.01], but not in those with HCV infection (P = 0.18). Isolated anti-HBc seropositivity was significantly associated with HIV infection, and older age. HCV infection was not associated with isolated anti-HBc in a country hyperendemic with HBV infection, even in populations with a high prevalence of HCV infection. The majority was not attributable to occult HBV infection, but rather, low level of anti-HBs, suggesting that HBV vaccination may not be required.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2010; 54(2):122-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Infectious Diseases 02/2010; 10(2):138. · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacillus that is widely distributed in both natural environment and hospitals. Various infections in humans have been reported, but most have been limited to sporadic case reports. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and manifestations of S. paucimobilis bacteremia. We also reviewed the literature on S. paucimobilis bacteremia. Cases of S. paucimobilis bacteremia were identified retrospectively at a university-affiliated hospital in Taiwan. In addition, relevant case reports were identified through PubMed and reviewed. From April 2004 to April 2008, 42 cases of S. paucimobilis bacteremia were identified in this study. Among them, 16 cases were identified from E-Da hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan and 26 cases from the literature review. The median age of patients was 48.5 years and 57.1% were male. The most common comorbidities included malignancy (57.1%), immunosuppressant use (40.5%), and diabetic mellitus (11.9%). Hospital-acquired bacteremia accounted for 69.0% of infections. Primary bacteremia and catheter-related bloodstream infection were found in 35.7% and 33.3% respectively. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. All 42 patients survived the S. paucimobilis bacteremic episodes, but three patients experienced septic shock. S. paucimobilis can cause infections in healthy as well as immunocompromised individuals. Although it is an organism of low clinical virulence, infection caused by S. paucimobilis can lead to septic shock. Further clinical research is required to characterize this infection.
    Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 02/2010; 43(1):35-42. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Q fever is a zoonosis distributed worldwide that is caused by Coxiella burnetii infection and the defervescence usually occurs within few days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Whether the changes of cytokine levels are associated with acute Q fever with persistent fever despite antibiotic therapy had not been investigated before. We report a rare case of acute Q fever granulomatous hepatitis remained pyrexia despite several antibiotic therapy and 6-day course of oral prednisolone. During the 18-month follow-up, the investigation of the serum cytokines profile and procalcitonin (PCT) revealed that initially elevated levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-8, IL-10, and PCT decreased gradually, but the IL-6 remained in low titer. No evidence of chronic Q fever was identified by examinations of serum antibodies against C. burnetii and echocardiography. The changes of cytokine levels may be associated with acute Q fever with poor response to treatment and PCT may be an indicator for monitoring the response to treatment.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2010; 10:193. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Hepatic enzymes can be used as a predictor of hepatic injury. The present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hepatic enzymes in patients intoxicated with ethanol at an emergency department (ED).
    Tzu Chi Medical Journal 01/2010; 22(1):24-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Stings by honeybees are not uncommon and most cases cause pain but no significant medical problems. Some patients, however, have lethal complications such as acute anaphylactic shock. Cellulitis caused by honeybee sting is very rare and can be a late complication in some patients. We report a 45-year-old female patient who was stung by a honeybee, and whose right forearm showed progressive swelling with bullous formation after the sting. She was sent to our emergency department with the diagnosis of right hand cellulitis. After treatment with antibiotics for 5 days, the lesions showed no response. Then, systemic steroid was used and the lesion gradually resolved. Diagnosis of Wells syndrome was made according to clinical appearance, course and characteristic histopathological findings.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 12/2009; 108(12):964-6. · 1.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

100 Citations
21 Downloads
2k Views
106.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • I-Shou University
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 2008–2013
    • Kaohsiung Medical University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 2008–2010
    • E-Da Hospital
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan