Christopher T Workman

KU Leuven, Leuven, VLG, Belgium

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Publications (45)264.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is due to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Lysine deacetylase inhibitors (KDACi) protect β-cells from inflammatory destruction in vitro and are promising immunomodulators. Here we demonstrate that the clinically well-tolerated KDACi vorinostat and givinostat revert diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes and counteract inflammatory target cell damage by a mechanism of action consistent with transcription factor-rather than global chromatin-hyperacetylation. Weaning NOD mice received low doses of vorinostat and givinostat in their drinking water until 100-120 d of age. Diabetes incidence was reduced by 38% and 45%, respectively, there was a 15% increase in the percentage of islets without infiltration, and pancreatic insulin content increased by 200%. Vorinostat treatment increased the frequency of functional regulatory T-cell subsets and their transcription factors Gata3 and FoxP3 in parallel to a decrease in inflammatory dendritic cell subsets and their cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. KDACi also inhibited LPS-induced Cox-2 expression in peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and NOD mice. In insulin-producing β-cells, givinostat did not upregulate expression of the anti-inflammatory genes Socs1-3 or sirtuin-1 but reduced levels of IL-1β + IFN-γ-induced proinflammatory Il1a, Il1b, Tnfα, Fas, Cxcl2, and reduced cytokine-induced ERK phosphorylation. Further, NF-κB genomic iNos promoter binding was reduced by 50%, and NF-κB-dependent mRNA expression was blocked. These effects were associated with NF-κB subunit p65 hyperacetylation. Taken together, these data provide a rationale for clinical trials of safety and efficacy of KDACi in patients with autoimmune disease such as type 1 diabetes.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are key players in the regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we discuss the main protein-RNA recognition modes used by RBPs in order to regulate multiple steps of RNA processing. We discuss traditional and state-of-the-art technologies that can be used to study RNAs bound by individual RBPs, or vice versa, for both in vitro and in vivo methodologies. To help highlight the biological significance of RBP mediated regulation, online resources on experimentally verified protein-RNA interactions are briefly presented. Finally, we present the major tools to computationally infer RNA binding sites according to the modeling features and to the unsupervised or supervised frameworks that are adopted. Since some RNA binding site search algorithms are derived from DNA binding site search algorithms, we discuss the commonalities and novelties introduced to handle both sequence and structural features uniquely characterizing protein-RNA interactions.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1097:491-521.
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    ABSTRACT: Lipids play a central role in cellular function as constituents of membranes, as signaling molecules, and as storage materials. Although much is known about the role of lipids in regulating specific steps of metabolism, comprehensive studies integrating genome-wide expression data, metabolite levels, and lipid levels are currently lacking. Here, we map condition dependent regulation controlling lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring 5636 mRNAs, 50 metabolites, 97 lipids, and 57 (13)C-reaction fluxes in yeast using a 3-factor full-factorial design. Correlation analysis across 8 environmental conditions revealed 2279 gene expression level-metabolite/lipid relationships that characterize the extent of transcriptional regulation in lipid metabolism relative to major metabolic hubs within the cell. To query this network, we developed integrative methods for correlation of multi-omics datasets that elucidate global regulatory signatures. Our data highlight many characterized regulators of lipid metabolism and reveal that sterols are regulated more at the transcriptional level than amino acids. Beyond providing insights into the systems-level organization of lipid metabolism, we anticipate that our dataset and approach can join an emerging number of studies to be widely used for interrogating cellular systems through the combination of mathematical modeling and experimental biology.
    G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 09/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular adnexal lymphoma (i.e. lymphoma with involvement of the orbit, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland and lacrimal sac), although rare, is common among malignant tumors involving the ocular adnexal region. The main subtypes are low-grade extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) and aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In rare cases low-grade EMZL are reported to transform to DLBCL. It is unclear, however, which molecular events distinguish low-grade disease from aggressive, potentially fatal, disease, and here, we aimed at investigating whether miRNA profiles could distinguish these subtypes. Using LNA-based arrays from Exiqon we performed global miRNA expression profiling of 18 EMZLs and 25 DLBCLs involving ocular adnexal sites in order to investigate changes in the miRNA expression in low- versus high-grade disease. Findings were confirmed by RTq-PCR. Our analysis revealed 43 miRNAs with altered expression profiles in DLBCL compared to EMZL. Seven of the miRNAs down-regulated in DLBCL relative to EMZL showed enrichment for a direct transcriptional repression by the oncoprotein MYC. We also report a possible loss-of-regulation of NFKB1 and its downstream miRNAs. In addition, our analysis identified a group of DLBCLs whose expression profiles resembled that of EMZL. Although transformation of EMZL to DLBCL in the ocular adnexal region is rare, we hypothesize that the intermediate group may potentially derive from transformation of EMZL that was not recognized by histology. We conclude that fundamental differences in miRNA expression exist between ocular adnexal EMZL and DLBCL, mainly due to differences in MYC and NF-κB regulatory pathways.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 07/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the SH2 domain family modulate signal transduction by binding to short peptides containing phosphorylated tyrosines. Each domain displays a distinct preference for the sequence context of the phosphorylated residue. We have developed a high-density peptide chip technology that allows for probing of the affinity of most SH2 domains for a large fraction of the entire complement of tyrosine phosphopeptides in the human proteome. Using this technique, we have experimentally identified thousands of putative SH2-peptide interactions for more than 70 different SH2 domains. By integrating this rich data set with orthogonal context-specific information, we have assembled an SH2-mediated probabilistic interaction network, which we make available as a community resource in the PepspotDB database. A predicted dynamic interaction between the SH2 domains of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the phosphorylated tyrosine in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation loop was validated by experiments in living cells.
    Cell reports. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The field of systems biology is often held back by difficulties in obtaining comprehensive, high-quality, quantitative data sets. In this paper, we undertook an interlaboratory effort to generate such a data set for a very large number of cellular components in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used model organism that is also used in the production of fuels, chemicals, food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. With the current focus on biofuels and sustainability, there is much interest in harnessing this species as a general cell factory. In this study, we characterized two yeast strains, under two standard growth conditions. We ensured the high quality of the experimental data by evaluating a wide range of sampling and analytical techniques. Here we show significant differences in the maximum specific growth rate and biomass yield between the two strains. On the basis of the integrated analysis of the high-throughput data, we hypothesize that differences in phenotype are due to differences in protein metabolism.
    Nature Communications 01/2013; 1(9):145. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    Gamze Gülez, Arnaud Dechesne, Christopher T Workman, Barth F Smets
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    ABSTRACT: Water deprivation can be a major stressor to microbial life in surface and subsurface soil. In unsaturated soils, the matric potential (Ψ(m)) is often the main component of the water potential, which measures the thermodynamic availability of water. A low matric potential usually translates into water forming thin liquid films in the soil pores. Little is known of how bacteria respond to such conditions, where, in addition to facing water deprivation that might impair their metabolism, they have to adapt their dispersal strategy as swimming motility may be compromised. Using the pressurized porous surface model (PPSM), which allows creation of thin liquid films by controlling Ψ(m), we examined the transcriptome dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. We identified the differentially expressed genes in cells exposed to a mild matric stress (-0.4 MPa) for 4, 24, or 72 h. The major response was detected at 4 h before gradually disappearing. Upregulation of alginate genes was notable in this early response. Flagellar genes were not downregulated, and the microarray data even suggested increasing expression as the stress prolonged. Moreover, we tested the effect of polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8000), a nonpermeating solute often used to simulate Ψ(m), on the gene expression profile and detected a different profile than that observed by directly imposing Ψ(m). This study is the first transcriptome profiling of KT2440 under directly controlled Ψ(m) and also the first to show the difference in gene expression profiles between a PEG 8000-simulated and a directly controlled Ψ(m).
    Applied and environmental microbiology 12/2011; 78(3):676-83. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) that are maturation-resistant and locked in a semimature state are promising tools in clinical applications for tolerance induction. Different immunomodulatory agents have been shown to induce a tolerogenic DC phenotype, such as the biologically active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), glucocorticoids, and a synergistic combination of both. In this study, we aimed to characterize the protein profile, function and phenotype of DCs obtained in vitro in the presence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), dexamethasone (DEX), and a combination of both compounds (combi). Human CD14(+) monocytes were differentiated toward mature DCs, in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and/or DEX. Cells were prefractionated into cytoplasmic and microsomal fractions and protein samples were separated in two different pH ranges (pH 3-7NL and 6-9), analyzed by 2D-DIGE and differentially expressed spots (p < 0.05) were identified after MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. In parallel, morphological and phenotypical analyses were performed, revealing that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)- and combi-mDCs are closer related to each other than DEX-mDCs. This was translated in their protein profile, indicating that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is more potent than DEX in inducing a tolerogenic profile on human DCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that combining 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) with DEX induces a unique protein expression pattern with major imprinting of the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) effect. Finally, protein interaction networks and pathway analysis suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), rather than DEX treatment, has a severe impact on metabolic pathways involving lipids, glucose, and oxidative phosphorylation, which may affect the production of or the response to ROS generation. These findings provide new insights on the molecular basis of DC tolerogenicity induced by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and/or DEX, which may lead to the discovery of new pathways involved in DC immunomodulation.
    Journal of Proteome Research 11/2011; 11(2):941-71. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses of large-scale association studies typically proceed solely within one data type and do not exploit the potential complementarities in other sources of molecular evidence. Here, we present an approach to combine heterogeneous data from genome-wide association (GWA) studies, protein-protein interaction screens, disease similarity, linkage studies, and gene expression experiments into a multi-layered evidence network which is used to prioritize the entire protein-coding part of the genome identifying a shortlist of candidate genes. We report specifically results on bipolar disorder, a genetically complex disease where GWA studies have only been moderately successful. We validate one such candidate experimentally, YWHAH, by genotyping five variations in 640 patients and 1,377 controls. We found a significant allelic association for the rs1049583 polymorphism in YWHAH (adjusted P = 5.6e-3) with an odds ratio of 1.28 [1.12-1.48], which replicates a previous case-control study. In addition, we demonstrate our approach's general applicability by use of type 2 diabetes data sets. The method presented augments moderately powered GWA data, and represents a validated, flexible, and publicly available framework for identifying risk genes in highly polygenic diseases. The method is made available as a web service at
    Genetic Epidemiology 07/2011; 35(5):318-32. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory evolution experiments have led to important findings relating organism adaptation and genomic evolution. However, continuous monitoring of long-term evolution has been lacking for natural systems, limiting our understanding of these processes in situ. Here we characterize the evolutionary dynamics of a lineage of a clinically important opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as it adapts to the airways of several individual cystic fibrosis patients over 200,000 bacterial generations, and provide estimates of mutation rates of bacteria in a natural environment. In contrast to predictions based on in vitro evolution experiments, we document limited diversification of the evolving lineage despite a highly structured and complex host environment. Notably, the lineage went through an initial period of rapid adaptation caused by a small number of mutations with pleiotropic effects, followed by a period of genetic drift with limited phenotypic change and a genomic signature of negative selection, suggesting that the evolving lineage has reached a major adaptive peak in the fitness landscape. This contrasts with previous findings of continued positive selection from long-term in vitro evolution experiments. The evolved phenotype of the infecting bacteria further suggests that the opportunistic pathogen has transitioned to become a primary pathogen for cystic fibrosis patients.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2011; 108(18):7481-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The field of systems biology is often held back by difficulties in obtaining comprehensive, high-quality, quantitative data sets. In this paper, we undertook an interlaboratory effort to generate such a data set for a very large number of cellular components in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used model organism that is also used in the production of fuels, chemicals, food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. With the current focus on biofuels and sustainability, there is much interest in harnessing this species as a general cell factory. In this study, we characterized two yeast strains, under two standard growth conditions. We ensured the high quality of the experimental data by evaluating a wide range of sampling and analytical techniques. Here we show significant differences in the maximum specific growth rate and biomass yield between the two strains. On the basis of the integrated analysis of the high-throughput data, we hypothesize that differences in phenotype are due to differences in protein metabolism.
    Nature Communications 12/2010; 1:145. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of insulin-secreting β-cells to inflammatory cytokines or high concentrations of free fatty acids, factors involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, β-cell dysfunction, and eventually apoptotic β-cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ER stress on β-cells at the protein level to evaluate the contribution of post-transcriptional and post-translational changes in ER stress-induced β-cell damage. INS-1E cells were exposed in vitro to the ER-stress inducer cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) at two concentrations, and protein changes were evaluated using 2D-DIGE. CPA, 25 μM, led to massive apoptosis, accompanied by a near complete protein translation shut-down. CPA, 6.25 μM, led to adaptation of the β-cells to ER stress. Identification of the differentially expressed proteins in the two conditions led to the discovery of a clear pattern of defense pathways, with post-translational modifications playing a crucial role. Key alterations included inhibition of insulin translation and post-translational modifications in ER chaperones HYOU1 and HSPA5. Also, a central role for 14-3-3 proteins is suggested. In conclusion, INS-1E cells are highly sensitive to ER stress, leading to important post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications that may contribute to β-cell dysfunction and death.
    Journal of Proteome Research 10/2010; 9(10):5142-52. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant organ development is associated with a wide spectrum of disorders, from schizophrenia to congenital heart disease, but systems-level insight into the underlying processes is very limited. Using heart morphogenesis as general model for dissecting the functional architecture of organ development, we combined detailed phenotype information from deleterious mutations in 255 genes with high-confidence experimental interactome data, and coupled the results to thorough experimental validation. Hereby, we made the first systematic analysis of spatio-temporal protein networks driving many stages of a developing organ identifying several novel signaling modules. Our results show that organ development relies on surprisingly few, extensively recycled, protein modules that integrate into complex higher-order networks. This design allows the formation of a complicated organ using simple building blocks, and suggests how mutations in the same genes can lead to diverse phenotypes. We observe a striking temporal correlation between organ complexity and the number of discrete functional modules coordinating morphogenesis. Our analysis elucidates the organization and composition of spatio-temporal protein networks that drive the formation of organs, which in the future may lay the foundation of novel approaches in treatments, diagnostics, and regenerative medicine.
    Molecular Systems Biology 06/2010; 6:381. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen ubiquitous to the natural environment but with the capability of moving to the host environment. Long-term infection of the airways of cystic fibrosis patients is associated with extensive genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa, and we have studied cases of the initial stages of infection in order to characterize the early adaptive processes in the colonizing bacteria. A combination of global gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterization of longitudinal isolates from cystic fibrosis patients revealed well-known characteristics such as conversion to a mucoid phenotype by mucA mutation and increased antibiotic resistance by nfxB mutation. Additionally, upregulation of the atu operon leading to enhanced growth on leucine provides a possible example of metabolic optimization. A detailed investigation of the mucoid phenotype uncovered profound pleiotropic effects on gene expression including reduction of virulence factors and the Rhl quorum sensing system. Accordingly, mucoid isolates displayed a general reduction of virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model, altogether suggesting that the adaptive success of the mucoid variant extends beyond the benefits of alginate overproduction. In the overall perspective the global phenotype of the adapted variants appears to place them on paths in direction of fully adapted strains residing in long-term chronically infected patients.
    Environmental Microbiology 06/2010; 12(6):1643-58. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P = 0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR = 2.20, P = 0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that between 15.1% and 21.8% patients of IHC-based negative ER status would be classified with ER positive breast cancer. Expression-based ER status classification may complement IHC to minimise false negative ER status classification and optimise patient stratification for endocrine therapies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15031. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypomethylating agent 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza-CR) is the first drug to prolong overall survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Surprisingly, the deoxyribonucleoside analog 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) did not have a similar effect on survival in a large clinical trial. Both drugs are thought to exert their effects after incorporation into DNA by covalent binding of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). While 5-Aza-CdR is incorporated into only DNA, 5-Aza-CR is also incorporated into RNA. Here, we have analyzed whether this difference in nucleic acid incorporation may influence the capacities of these drugs to regulate the expression of mRNA and microRNAs (miRNA), which may potentially affect the activities of the drugs in patients. A hematopoietic (HL-60; acute myeloid leukemia) and a solid (T24; transitional cell carcinoma) cancer cell line were treated with equitoxic doses of 5-Aza-CR and 5-Aza-CdR for 24 hrs, and the immediate (day 2) and lasting (day 8) effects on RNA expression examined. There was considerable overlap between the RNAs heritably upregulated by both drugs on day 8 but more RNAs were stably induced by the deoxy analog. Both drugs strongly induced expression of cancer testis antigens. On day 2 more RNAs were downregulated by 5-Aza-CR, particularly at higher doses. A remarkable downregulation of miRNAs and a significant upregulation of tRNA synthetases and other genes involved in amino acid metabolism was observed in T24 cells. Overall, this suggests that significant differences exist in the immediate action of the two drugs, however the dominant pattern of the lasting, and possible heritable changes, is overlapping.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9). · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) experiments enable capturing physical interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA in vivo. However, measurement of chromatin binding alone is not sufficient to detect regulatory interactions. A detected binding event may not be biologically relevant, or a known regulatory interaction might not be observed under the growth conditions tested so far. To correctly identify physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and genes and to determine their regulatory implications under various experimental conditions, we integrated ChIP-chip data with motif binding sites, nucleosome occupancy and mRNA expression datasets within a probabilistic framework. This framework was specifically tailored for the identification of functional and non-functional DNA binding events. Using this, we estimate that only 50% of condition-specific protein-DNA binding in budding yeast is functional. We further investigated the molecular factors determining the functionality of protein-DNA interactions under diverse growth conditions. Our analysis suggests that the functionality of binding is highly condition-specific and highly dependent on the presence of specific cofactors. Hence, the joint analysis of both, functional and non-functional DNA binding, may lend important new insights into transcriptional regulation.
    Bioinformatics 07/2009; 25(12):i137-44. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structural analogues of vitamin D have been put forward as therapeutic agents able to exploit the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D, without its undesired calcemic side effects. We have demonstrated that TX527 affects dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, resulting in the generation of a tolerogenic cell. In the present study, we aimed to explore the global protein changes induced by the analogue in immature DC (iDC) and mature human DC and to correlate them with alterations in DC morphology and function. Human CD14(+) monocytes were differentiated toward iDC or mature DCs, in the presence or absence of TX527 (10(-8) M) (n=4). Protein samples were separated into two different pH ranges (pH4-7 and 6-9), analyzed by 2-D DIGE and differentially expressed spots (p<0.01) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF (76.3 and 70.7% in iDC and mature DCs, respectively). Differential protein expression revealed three protein groups predominantly affected by TX527 treatment, namely proteins involved in cytoskeleton structure, in protein biosynthesis/proteolysis and in metabolism. Moreover, protein interactome-network analysis demonstrated close interaction between these different groups (p<0.001) and morphological and functional analyses confirmed the integrated effect of TX527 on human DCs, resulting in a cell with altered morphology, cell surface marker expression, endocytic and migratory capacity.
    Proteomics 07/2009; 9(14):3752-64. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that systemic blockade of IL-1beta in patients with type 2 diabetes with anakinra (a recombinant human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist, IL-1Ra), lowered glycated hemoglobin improved beta-cell function and reduced circulating levels of IL-6 and CRP (7). To investigate the effects of IL-1Ra in insulin-sensitive tissue, gene expression levels in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients treated with IL-1Ra were analysed. Gene expression profiles in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from five obese patients (BMI >27) were determined before and after 13 weeks of treatment with IL-1Ra (anakinra) using Affymetrix U133Plus2.0 GeneChips. Microarray data were normalized and analysed independently using four different algorithms; RMA, GCRMA, dChip and GCOS. Hypothesis tests were applied to the microarray data for each gene, and protein network analysis was used to identify biological networks/pathways affected by the treatment. Gene expression levels for candidate genes (COL1A1, CDKN1C, HSP70, HLA-A, IL-1 and IL-6) were determined by qRT-PCR in muscles of placebo- (n = 12) and anakinra-treated patients (n = 11). The concordance of the variations of the transcripts identified as significantly regulated after IL-1Ra treatment was low. No significantly altered expression levels could be demonstrated after false discovery rate correction. The protein interaction network did not reveal any altered networks/pathways. None of the candidate genes, quantified by qRT-PCR, were significantly altered when comparing the number of transcripts before and after treatment for each individual. conclusion: Treatment with IL-1Ra did not significantly affect gene expression levels in skeletal muscle in this limited and selected sample of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Larger studies might confirm the lack of effect of anakinra on muscle tissue gene expression.
    European cytokine network. 06/2009; 20(2):81-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p<0.01) were detected, from which we identified 74 spots (81.32%) corresponding to 41 different proteins. The proteins identified play a role in diverse processes, such as antigen processing/presentation, vesicle transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. In addition, a protein interaction network contained 29 (out of 41) proteins, suggesting that, although they functionally originate from distinct classes, these proteins are acting as a protein-interactome. In conclusion, the proteins shown here to be altered in expression upon maturation are in line with the morphological and functional changes observed during the maturation process, providing a better understanding of the processes involved. This will open new avenues for investigating treatment regimens for immune-associated disorders.
    Proteomics. Clinical applications 09/2008; 2(9):1349-60. · 2.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
264.51 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2011
    • KU Leuven
      • Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology (LEGENDO)
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 2010
    • Delft University Of Technology
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Delft, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • Technical University of Denmark
      • • Center for Microbial Biotechnology
      • • Center for Biological Sequence Analysis
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2007
    • La Jolla Bioengineering Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Bioengineering
      San Diego, California, United States
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
  • 2002
    • Genedata
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland