C E Furlong

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (68)310.24 Total impact

  • Neurotoxicology and Teratology 05/2014; 43:85–86. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), a member of a gene family that also includes PON1 and PON3, is expressed in most tissues, including the brain. In mouse brain, PON2 levels are highest in dopaminergic areas (e.g. striatum), and are higher in astrocytes than in neurons. PON2 is primarily located in mitochondria and exerts a potent antioxidant effect, protecting mouse CNS cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to characterize PON2 expression and functions in the brains of male and female mice. Levels of PON2 (protein, mRNA, and lactonase activity) were higher in brain regions and cells of female mice. Astrocytes and neurons from male mice were significantly more sensitive (by 3-4-fold) to oxidative stress-induced toxicity than the same cells from female mice. Glutathione levels did not differ between genders. Importantly, no significant gender differences in susceptibility to the same oxidants were seen in cells from PON2(-/-) mice. Treatment with estradiol induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the levels of PON2 protein and mRNA in male (4.5-fold) and female (1.8-fold) astrocytes, which was dependent on activation of estrogen receptor alpha. In ovariectomized mice, PON2 protein and mRNA were decreased to male levels in brain regions and in liver. Estradiol protected astrocytes from wild-type mice against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity, but did not protect cells from PON2(-/-) mice. These results suggest that PON2 is a novel major intracellular factor that protects CNS cells against oxidative stress, and confers gender-dependent susceptibility to such stress. The lower expression of PON2 in males may have broad ramifications for susceptibility to diseases involving oxidative stress, including neurodegenerative diseases.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2013; 22(1):184-201. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ∼2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 × 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 × 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 × 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2012; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom approximately 50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with approximately 2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 x 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 x 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 x 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 x 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 x 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups.
    American journal of human genetics. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Therapies that raise levels of HDL, which is thought to exert atheroprotective effects via effects on endothelium, are being examined for the treatment or prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the endothelial effects of HDL are highly heterogeneous, and the impact of HDL of patients with CAD on the activation of endothelial eNOS and eNOS-dependent pathways is unknown. Here we have demonstrated that, in contrast to HDL from healthy subjects, HDL from patients with stable CAD or an acute coronary syndrome (HDLCAD) does not have endothelial antiinflammatory effects and does not stimulate endothelial repair because it fails to induce endothelial NO production. Mechanistically, this was because HDLCAD activated endothelial lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1), triggering endothelial PKCβII activation, which in turn inhibited eNOS-activating pathways and eNOS-dependent NO production. We then identified reduced HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity as one molecular mechanism leading to the generation of HDL with endothelial PKCβII-activating properties, at least in part due to increased formation of malondialdehyde in HDL. Taken together, our data indicate that in patients with CAD, HDL gains endothelial LOX-1- and thereby PKCβII-activating properties due to reduced HDL-associated PON1 activity, and that this leads to inhibition of eNOS-activation and the subsequent loss of the endothelial antiinflammatory and endothelial repair-stimulating effects of HDL.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(7):2693-708. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 x 10(-6)), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 x 10(-8)). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 x 10(-11)). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait.
    American journal of human genetics. 01/2011; 88(1):6-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated serum enzyme that exhibits a broad substrate specificity. In addition to protecting against exposure to some organophosphorus (OP) pesticides by hydrolyzing their toxic oxon metabolites, PON1 is important in protecting against vascular disease by metabolizing oxidized lipids. Recently, PON1 has also been shown to play a role in inactivating the quorum sensing factor N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Native, untagged engineered recombinant human PON1 (rHuPON1) expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by conventional column chromatographic purification is stable, active, and capable of protecting PON1 knockout mice (PON1(-/-)) from exposure to high levels of the OP compound diazoxon. The bacterially derived rHuPON1 can be produced in large quantities and lacks the glycosylation of eukaryotic systems that can produce immunogenic complications when inappropriately glycosylated recombinant proteins are used as therapeutics. Previous studies have shown that the determination of PON1 status, which reveals both PON1(192) functional genotype and serum enzyme activity level, is required for a meaningful evaluation of PON1's role in risk of disease or exposure. We have developed a new two-substrate assay/analysis protocol that provides PON1 status without use of toxic OP substrates, allowing for use of this protocol in non-specialized laboratories. Factors were also determined for inter-converting rates of hydrolysis of different substrates. PON1 status also plays an important role in revealing changes in HDL-associated PON1 activities in male patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Immunolocalization studies of PONs 1, 2 and 3 in nearly all mouse tissues suggest that the functions of PONs 1 and 3 extend beyond the plasma and the HDL particle.
    Chemico-biological interactions 03/2010; 187(1-3):355-61. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology Letters - TOXICOL LETT. 01/2010; 196.
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase (PON1) enzymatic activity assays are used to characterize sensitivity to organophosphates and oxidative stress. Length of sample storage, temperature and other factors may influence variability of PON1 measurements, especially in longitudinal studies. Effects of assay temperature, storage duration up to 7 y (-80 degrees C), freeze-thaw cycles, the type of specimen (serum or heparinized plasma) and assay variability were evaluated for 4 PON1 substrate-specific assays using samples from two pediatric cohorts and laboratory volunteers. Intra- and inter-assay variation, as well as inter-laboratory variability for PON1 activities were <10%. The effect of storage duration up to 2 y was minimal. However, after 7 y, arylesterase, paraoxonase, and chlorpyrifos-oxonase activities decreased more noticeably. Similarly, while freeze-thaw cycles did not affect the PON1 activities in samples stored <2 y, this factor was more significant after 7 y for arylesterase. Assay temperature and specimen type also influenced PON1 measurements. Sources of technical variability of PON1 activity assays, including storage duration, freeze-thaw, and temperature should be monitored and minimized through study design, quality control procedures and statistical methods, especially in longitudinal studies where specimens may be stored for years prior to analysis.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 12/2008; 402(1-2):67-74. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four recent studies report a genetic association of the paraoxonase locus with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We tested the hypothesis that this association correlates with functional changes in paraoxonase 1 (PON1, MIM 168820). Sera from 140 ALS participants; 153 age-, race-, and sex-matched controls; and 30 matched CSF samples were tested for paraoxonase, diazoxonase, and arylesterase activities. Participants with ALS were genotyped using tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms across the PON locus. Survival data and enzyme activity were correlated with genotype. There was a trend toward increased paraoxonase activity in ALS compared with controls (mean control paraoxonase 701.9 +/- 469.7 U/L, mean ALS 792.5 +/- 574.1 U/L; p = 0.066 after correction) which correlated with increased frequency of the homozygous arginine (RR) variant of PON1(Q192R) (p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in PON1 protein levels, or arylesterase or diazoxonase activities. Organophosphate hydrolysis rates had no effect on ALS survival. Contrary to expectations, PON1 protein, paraoxonase, diazoxonase, and arylesterase activities were not reduced in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The increase in PON1(R192) frequency in ALS in our study supports previous genetic susceptibility studies. Our findings suggest that the influence of PON1 polymorphisms on ALS susceptibility is not due to reduced organophosphate hydrolysis.
    Neurology 04/2008; 70(12):929-34. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early research on population distributions of plasma PON1 paraoxonase activity indicated a polymorphic distribution with high, intermediate and low metabolizers. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding human PON1 and follow-on experiments demonstrated that the molecular basis of the activity polymorphism (PM) was a Q192R PM with PON1R192 specifying high paraoxonase activity. Further research demonstrated that the PON1192 polymorphism had little effect on the catalytic efficiencies of hydrolysis of phenylacetate and diazoxon (DZO), but did affect the efficiencies of hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), soman and sarin, with PON1R192 having a higher efficiency of CPO hydrolysis and PON1Q192 having higher rates of hydrolysis of soman and sarin. Plots of rates of DZO hydrolysis (at a salt concentration that differentially inhibited PON1R192) vs. paraoxon hydrolysis clearly separated the three PON1192 phenotypes (QQ, QR, RR) and also showed a wide range of activity among individuals with the same PON1192 genotype. The term PON1 status was introduced to include both PON1192 functional genotype and plasma PON1 level,both important in determining risk for either exposure to specific organophosphorus compounds (OPs) or disease. Characterization of 5 promoter-region polymorphisms by several groups indicated that an Sp1 binding site was responsible for significant(~30%) variation in plasma PON1 levels. Re-sequencing of the PON1 genes of 47 individuals (24 African-American/23 European) revealed an additional 180 polymorphisms in 27 kb of the PON1 genomic DNA including 8 more 5' regulatory region PMs, 1 coding region polymorphism (W194X), 162 additional intronic PMs and 9 additional 3' UTR PMs. The generation of PON1 null mice and “PON1 humanized mice” expressing either tgHuPON1R192 or tgHuPON1Q192 at the same levels on the PON1−/− background allowed for a functional analysis of the Q192R PM under physiological conditions. Toxicology experiments with the PON1 humanized mice and the PON1 null mice injected with purified human PON1192 alloforms clearly demonstrated that the catalytic efficiency of substrate hydrolysis is important in determining whether PON1 is able to protect against a given OP exposure. HuPON1R192 protects well against CPO and DZO exposure, but HuPON1Q192 does not protect well against CPO exposure and neither protects against PO exposure. Studies on PON1 status and carotid artery disease show that low PON1 levels are a risk factor. The effects of PON1192 alloforms on rates of hydrolysis of quorum sensing factors are not yet known. Taken together, these data along with those of the leading researchers in the PON1 field indicate that it is important to measure PON1 levels/activities in any epidemiological study. SNP analysis alone is inadequate for epidemiological studies, due to the wide variability of PON1 levels within the three PON1192 genotypes Q/Q, Q/R R/R). Even the most comprehensive PON1 SNP analyses are unable to accurately predict PON1 levels. PON1 activity or level accurately predicts CHD risk, while genotype does not
    12/2007: pages 267-281;
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    C.E. Furlong
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of studies on human paraoxonases. It honors the memory of the late Dr. Bert La Du (1920–2005), who with his graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and collaborators made many contributions to our knowledge of this family of enzymes and the genes that encode them. Dr. La Du was honored for these contributions at the First International Conference on Paraoxonases (PONs) – “Paraoxonases: Basic and Clinical Directions of Current Research” held in Ann Arbor, Michigan in 2004. Many of the scientists who trained with and/or collaborated with the late Dr. La Du were present at this Second International Conference on Paraoxonases and have contributed to this volume. This chapter begins with a review of some of the early esterase enzymology and the discovery of plasma paraoxonase activity. The pioneering work of Dr. Norman Aldridge who differentiated the A- and B-esterases is described. The studies that defined the polymorphic distribution of PON1 in human populations are discussed along with the many different biochemical assays that were developed to explore this interesting polymorphism. The experiments that led to the purification and cloning of human and rabbit PON1s are described along with the properties of this first enzyme know to retain its signal sequences for use in anchoring it into the HDL particle are discussed. Recent advances by Tawfik and co-workers which include the generation of a PON1 sequence that could be expressed, crystallized and characterized are presented along with the characterization of the many different substrates of this promiscuous enzyme including physiological lactone and xenobiotic lactone substrates. The lactonase activities were characterized by both Tawfik’s team and Dr. La Du’s research group. The expression and characterization of PON1, PON2 and PON3 by Dr. La Du’s research team is also discussed. This effort along with related work by other research groups has greatly expanded our knowledge of the many different activities of the PON family of enzymes. It is probably appropriate to include these proteins in the antioxidant family of proteins. The history of the role of the PONs in lipid metabolism and the association of the genetic variability in the PON family of enzymes is discussed. The important take home lesson from understanding the relationship of genetic variability of PON1 and risk for vascular disease was often stressed by Dr. La Du as well as other leaders in PON1 research is that is both the quantity (plasma PON1 level) as well as the quality of PON1 (position 192 genotype) that need to be considered when evaluating risk of disease. Experiments on the relationship of the genetic variability of PON1 and risk of exposure to organophosphorus compounds are also discussed. The take home message is the same, in some cases the quality of PON1 (Q192R) is important, but in all cases, the quantity of plasma PON1 is important. This consideration holds for all epidemiological studies that examine the relationship of PON genetic variability and disease
    12/2007: pages 3-31;
  • L.G. Costa, T.B. Cole, K.L. Jansen, C.E. Furlong
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein-associated enzyme capable of hydrolyzing multiple substrates, including several organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and nerve agents, oxidized lipids and a number of drugs or pro-drugs. Several polymorphisms in the PON1 gene have been described, which have been shown to affect either the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis or the expression level of the enzyme. Animal studies have shown that PON1 is an important determinant of the toxicity of certain OPs. Evidence for this was provided by cross-species comparisons, by administration of exogenous PON1 and by experiments in PON1 knockout and transgenic mice. Low PON1 plays also a role in the higher susceptibility of the young to OP toxicity. Recent findings also suggest that PON1 may modulate the toxicity resulting from exposure to mixtures of OP compounds
    12/2007: pages 209-220;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated widespread pesticide exposures in pregnant women and in children. Plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) plays an important role in detoxification of various organophosphates. The goals of this study were to examine in the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) birth cohort of Latina mothers and their newborns living in the Salinas Valley, California, the frequencies of five PON1 polymorphisms in the coding region (192QR and 55LM) and the promoter region (-162AG, -909CG, and -108CT) and to determine their associations with PON1 plasma levels [phenylacetate arylesterase (AREase) ] and enzyme activities of paraoxonase (POase) and chlorpyrifos oxonase (CPOase) . Additionally, we report results of PON1 linkage analysis and estimate the predictive value of haplotypes for PON1 plasma levels. We found that PON1-909, PON1-108, and PON1(192) had an equal frequency (0.5) of both alleles, whereas PON1-162 and PON1(55) had lower variant allele frequencies (0.2) . Nearly complete linkage disequilibrium was observed among coding and promoter polymorphisms (p < 0.001) , except PON1(192) and PON1-162 (p > 0.4) . Children's PON1 plasma levels (AREase ranged from 4.3 to 110.7 U/mL) were 4-fold lower than their mothers' (19.8 to 281.4 U/mL) . POase and CPOase activities were approximately 3-fold lower in newborns than in mothers. The genetic contribution to PON1 enzyme variability was higher in newborns (R2 = 25.1% by genotype and 26.3% by haplotype) than in mothers (R2 = 8.1 and 8.8%, respectively) . However, haplotypes and genotypes were comparable in predicting PON1 plasma levels in mothers and newborns. Most of the newborn children and some pregnant women in this Latino cohort may have elevated susceptibility to organophosphate toxicity because of their PON1192 genotype and low PON1 plasma levels.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2006; 114(7):985-91. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses acyl-HSL quorum-sensing signals to regulate genes controlling virulence and biofilm formation. We found that paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a mammalian lactonase with an unknown natural substrate, hydrolyzed the P. aeruginosa acyl-HSL 3OC12-HSL. In in vitro assays, mouse serum-PON1 was required and sufficient to degrade 3OC12-HSL. Furthermore, PON2 and PON3 also degraded 3OC12-HSL effectively. Serum-PON1 prevented P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing and biofilm formation in vitro by inactivating the quorum-sensing signal. Although 3OC12-HSL production by P. aeruginosa was important for virulence in a mouse sepsis model, Pon1-knock-out mice were paradoxically protected. These mice showed increased levels of PON2 and PON3 mRNA in epithelial tissues suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Thus, paraoxonase interruption of bacterial communication represents a novel mechanism to modulate quorum-sensing by bacteria. The consequences for host immunity are yet to be determined.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/2006; 253(1):29-37. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, serum paraoxonase (PON1) is tightly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. In human populations, PON1 exhibits a substrate dependent activity polymorphism determined by an Arg/Gln (R/Q) substitution at amino acid residue 192. The physiological role of this protein appears to be involvement in the metabolism of oxidized lipids. Several studies have suggested that the PON1R192 allele may be a risk factor in coronary artery disease. PON1 also plays an important role in the metabolism of organophosphates including insecticides and nerve agents. The PON1R192 isoform hydrolyzes paraoxon rapidly, but diazoxon, soman and sarin slowly compared with the PON1Q192 isoform. Both PON1 isoforms hydrolyze phenylacetate at approximately the same rate, while PON1R192 hydrolyzes chlorpyrifos oxon slightly faster than PONQ192. Animal model studies involving injection of purified rabbit PON1 into mice clearly demonstrated the ability of PON1 to protect cholinesterases from inhibition by OP compounds. The consequence of having low PON1 levels has been addressed with toxicology studies in PON1 knockout mice. These mice showed dramatically increased sensitivity to chlorpyrifos oxon, diazoxon and some increased sensitivity to the respective parent compounds. These observations are consistent with earlier studies that showed a good correlation between high rates of OP hydrolysis by serum PON1 and resistance to specific OP compounds. They are also consistent with the observations that newborns have an increased sensitivity to OP toxicity, due in part to their not expressing adult PON1 levels for weeks to months after birth, depending on the species. Together, these studies point out the importance of considering the genetic variability of PON1192 isoforms and levels as well as the developmental time course of PON1 appearance in serum in developing risk assessment models
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 01/2004; 8(1):31-43. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 05/2003; 74(4):546-7. · 4.92 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - J NEUROL NEUROSURG PSYCHIAT. 01/2003; 74(4):546-547.
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    ABSTRACT: Human HDL-associated paraoxonase (PON1) hydrolyzes a number of toxic organophosphorous compounds and reduces oxidation of LDLs and HDLs. These properties of PON1 account for its ability to protect against pesticide poisonings and atherosclerosis. PON1 also hydrolyzes a number of lactone and cyclic-carbonate drugs. Among individuals in a population, PON1 levels vary widely. We previously identified three polymorphisms in the PON1 regulatory region that affect expression levels in cultured human hepatocytes. In this study, we determined the genotypes of three regulatory-region polymorphisms for 376 white individuals and examined their effect on plasma-PON1 levels, determined by rates of phenylacetate hydrolysis. The -108 polymorphism had a significant effect on PON1-activity level, whereas the -162 polymorphism had a lesser effect. The -909 polymorphism, which is in linkage disequilibrium with the other sites, appears to have little or no independent effect on PON1-activity level in vivo. Other studies have found that the L55M polymorphism in the PON1-coding region is associated with differences in both PON1-mRNA and PON1-activity levels. The results presented here indicate that the L55M effect of lowered activity is not due to the amino acid change but is, rather, largely due to linkage disequilibrium with the -108 regulatory-region polymorphism. The codon 55 polymorphism marginally appeared to account for 15.3% of the variance in PON1 activity, but this dropped to 5% after adjustments for the effects of the -108 and Q192R polymorphisms were made. The -108C/T polymorphism accounted for 22.8% of the observed variability in PON1-expression levels, which was much greater than that attributable to the other PON1 polymorphisms. We also identified four sequence differences in the 3' UTR of the PON1 mRNA.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2001; 68(6):1428-36. · 11.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
310.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2014
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Medical Genetics
      • • Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1997
    • Texas Instruments Inc.
      Dallas, Texas, United States