Takashi Matsuwaki

Linköping University, Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden

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Publications (43)160 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to chronic stressors results in dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and a disruption in reproduction. CRH, the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis induces the secretion of ACTH from the pituitary, which stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis via the specific cell-surface melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). Previously, we demonstrated that MC2R(-/-) mice had undetectable levels of corticosterone despite high ACTH levels. Here, we evaluated the reproductive functions of female MC2R(-/-) mice and analyzed the mechanism of the disrupted cyclicity of these mice. The expression of CRH in the paraventricular nucleus was significantly increased in MC2R(-/-) mice under nonstressed conditions. Although MC2R(-/-) females were fertile, they showed a prolonged estrous cycle. After hormonal stimulation, MC2R(-/-) females produced nearly-normal numbers of eggs, but slightly less than MC2R(+/-) females, and showed near-normal ovarian histology. During diestrus, the number of GnRH-positive cells in the medial preoptic area was significantly reduced in MC2R(-/-) females. CRH type 1 receptor antagonist restored estrous cyclicity in MC2R(-/-) females. Kisspeptin-positive areas in the arcuate nucleus were comparable, whereas kisspeptin-positive areas in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus in MC2R(-/-) females were significantly reduced compared with MC2R(+/-) females, suggesting that arcuate nucleus kisspeptin is not involved, but anteroventral periventricular nucleus kisspeptin may be involved, in the maintenance of estrous cyclicity. Our findings show that high levels of hypothalamic CRH disturb estrous cyclicity in the female animals and that the MC2R(-/-) female is a unique animal model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.
    Endocrinology 09/2010; 151(11):5489-96. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements 06/2010; 11(2):1-1. · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) is known to have a pivotal role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a common phenomenon in aging, and it is widely accepted that sarcopenia is largely attributed to age-related decline in GH secretion. In the present study, we tested if human growth hormone transgenic rats (GH-TG rats) whose plasma GH levels are maintained relatively low could be an appropriate model for sarcopenia. Analyses of GH-TG rats revealed that they exhibit skeletal muscle growth defect as well as atrophy of myofibers. The number of myofibers in tibialis anterior muscle was comparable to that of WT rats, while the proportion of type I slow myofibers in tibialis anterior muscle was increased in GH-TG rats after 5 months. Neither increased expression of ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and MAFbx, nor indication of apoptotic cell death was observed. Notably, myogenic differentiation potential of skeletal muscle progenitor cells in GH-TG rats was lower than WT rats, and this was accompanied by increased adipogenic potential. These results indicate that GH-TG rats could be a useful model to elucidate the mechanism of sarcopenia induced by reduced GH action and raised the possibility that decreased GH action may cause an alteration of differentiation potential of skeletal muscle progenitor cells.
    Age 06/2010; 32(2):239-53. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements 06/2010; 11(2):92-92. · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), a suspected endocrine disruptor, induces testicular atrophy in prepubertal male rats, whether it exerts estrogenic activity in vivo remains a matter of debate. In the present study, we explored the estrogenic potency of DBP using 3-week-old male rats, and then examined the relationship between estrogen-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis and testicular steroidogenesis. Daily exposure to DBP for 7 days caused testicular atrophy due to loss of spermatogenic cells, whereas testicular steroidogenesis was almost the same with the control values. A single exposure of DBP decreased testicular steroidogenesis in addition to decreasing the level of serum LH at 3 h after DBP treatment, with an extremely high incidence of apoptotic spermatogenic cells at 6 h after administration. To elucidate the estrogenic activity of DBP, we carried out an inhibition study using pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) in a model of spermatogenic cell apoptosis induced by DBP or estradial-3-benzoate (EB). Although both the DBP- and EB-treated groups showed a significant increase in spermatogenic cell apoptosis, ICI pretreatment significantly decreased the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in these two groups. In contrast, testicular steroidogenesis and serum FSH were significantly reduced in all the treated groups, even in the DBP+ICI and EB+ICI groups. Taken together, these findings led us to conclude that estrogenic compounds such as DBP and EB induce spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats, probably by activating estrogen receptors in testis, and that reduction in testicular steroidogenic function induced by estrogenic compounds is not associated with spermatogenic cell apoptosis.
    Reproduction 11/2009; 139(2):427-37. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs), especially PGE(2), are involved in the hypothalamic control of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, acting at least in part on the terminal of GnRH axons in the median eminence. The present study aimed: (i) to clarify the role of PG(s) in regulating GnRH cell function at the level of the perikarya in the preoptic area; (ii) to determine the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozyme responsible for producing PG(s) that regulates GnRH perikarya; and (iii) to identify cell types that contain the responsible COX isozyme in female rats. A surge of luteinising hormone (LH) secretion was induced by oestrogen and progesterone in ovariectomised rats. Treatment of the rat before the LH surge with indomethacin, a nonselective COX inhibitor, or NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, did not interfere with the surge. However, treatment with indomethacin or flurbiprofen, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, significantly reduced the number of GnRH-immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area at the time of peak LH secretion during the surge. NS-398 did not affect the GnRH immunoreactivity. Double-labelled immunofluorescent histochemistry revealed COX-1 immunoreactivity in the vicinity of, but not within, GnRH containing neurones in the preoptic area. COX-2 immunoreactivity was not found in the same area. The COX-1 immunoreactivity was almost entirely localised in microglia in the preoptic area, but not in neurones or astrocytes. These results suggest that microglia in the preoptic area containing COX-1 are responsible for producing PG(s), which, in turn, facilitates the accumulation of GnRH during the gonadotrophin surge in female rats.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 10/2009; 21(12):1029-37. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth modulating factor released by a variety of cells. This molecule has gained the attention of the neuroscience community with recent discoveries of multifunctional roles of PGRN in normal brain and neurodegenerative disorders. We focus on novel roles of PGRN as a sex steroid-responsible gene in the developing and adult rodent brain. While the developing brain is feminine by default, hormone exposure, including androgen and estrogen, induces masculinization during the critical period. We have shown that PGRN is a sex steroid-responsible gene that may be involved in masculinization of the perinatal rat brain. We also found that in adult rats PGRN gene expression was up-regulated by estrogen in the hippocampus, suggesting that PGRN may mediate the mitogenic effects of estrogen in the active area of neurogenesis. Since it has been recently reported that mutations in PGRN gene are responsible for a type of frontotemporal lobar degeneration in humans, PGRN appears to be also involved in modulating neurodegeneration. Together, PGRN gene expression is induced by estrogen in both developing and adult brains, and it may play multifunctional roles in the organization of functional masculinization in the developing brain and the maintenance of adult brain function.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 09/2009; 55(4):351-5. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). We recently identified homozygous smallie mutant mice (BKS.HRS. Ddr2(slie/slie)/J, Ddr2(slie/slie) mutants), which lack a functional DDR2. Ddr2(slie/slie) mutant mice are dwarfed and infertile due to peripheral dysregulation of the endocrine system. To understand the role of DDR2 signaling in spermatogenesis, we studied the expression of several receptors, enzymes, and proteins related to spermatogenesis in wild-type and Ddr2(slie/slie) mutant mice at 10 weeks and 5 months of age. DDR2 were expressed in adult wild-type male mice in Leydig cells. The number of differentiated spermatozoa in the seminal fluid was significantly lower in the Ddr2(slie/slie) mutant mice than in the wild-type mice. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly greater in 5-month-old Ddr2(slie/slie) mutants. Testosterone was significantly reduced at 5 months of age, but LH was similar in both types of mice at both 10 weeks and 5 months of age. The expression levels of LH receptors (Lhcgr), StAR, P450scc, and Hsd3beta6 were not significantly different between the two types of mice at 10 weeks of age, but they were significantly reduced in 5-month-old Ddr2(slie/slie) mutants compared to wild-type mice of the same age. DDR2 was expressed in the Leydig cells of adult wild-type male mice. In conclusion, our results indicated that DDR2 signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of male spermatogenesis.
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 09/2009; 77(1):29-37. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal and glial deposition of misfolded, proteolytically processed, polyubiquitinated and abnormally phosphorylated C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of the TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a pathological hallmark of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and certain cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We demonstrate that TDP-43 can be proteolytically processed by caspases upon induction of apoptosis to a major 35 kDa and a minor 25 kDa CTF. These fragments are initially soluble, but over time they accumulate as insoluble and pathologically phosphorylated derivatives. However, proteolytic processing appears not to be absolutely required for the deposition of insoluble TDP-43 species, since a caspase resistant mutant of TDP-43 is also converted into insoluble species. Phosphorylation at S409/410 apparently occurs late during the conversion of soluble to insoluble TDP-43, suggesting that phosphorylation is not a prerequisite for aggregation. Loss of function of the progranulin (PGRN) gene causes FTLD-U with TDP-43 positive inclusions and has been suggested to lead to caspase activation and subsequent TDP-43 processing. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PGRN in cell culture as well as a PGRN gene knockout in mice failed to cause the formation of the disease characterizing CTFs of TDP-43. Our findings therefore suggest that caspase-mediated processing generates CTFs of similar biochemical properties as those occurring in nuclear and cytoplasmic deposits of FTLD-U patients independent of PGRN levels.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2009; 110(3):1082-94. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian brain exhibits sex differences with respect to structure and function. In our previous report, we found that progranulin (PGRN)-deficient (pgrn(-/-)) mice displayed an alteration in male-type behaviors, including reduced frequency of ejaculation and elevated levels of aggression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of PGRN in sex differences in anxiety. In the elevated plus maze, wild-type (pgrn(+/+)) female mice spent more time in the closed arms than the pgrn(+/+) males, suggesting that the level of anxiety was higher in females than males. On the other hand, no sex difference was observed in the pgrn(-/-) mice, and their anxiety levels were almost the same as those of the pgrn(+/+) females. To elucidate the effect of testosterone on male anxiety, male mice were castrated at 5 weeks of age and silastic tubes filled with either testosterone or cholesterol were then implanted into them for one week. These treatments did not affect anxiety in the open field in either genotypes, although the pgrn(-/-) males exhibited higher anxiety than pgrn(+/+) males. Next, we measured the volume of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the locus ceruleus (LC), as these are anxiety/stress-related nuclei that are known to have sex differences in their structures. In the pgrn(+/+) mice, there was a tendency for the volume of the LC to be larger in males than females. In addition, the pgrn(-/-) mice had a larger volume of LC than the pgrn(+/+) mice, although no sexual differences were observed. The number of cells in the LC was also larger in the pgrn(-/-) than in the pgrn(+/+) mice. No significant differences in the volumes of the PVN were observed between genotypes or sexes. These results suggest that PGRN plays a role in organization of the LC, which eventually modulates anxiety in novel environments.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 07/2009; 55(5):518-22. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several investigators have used murine models to investigate the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. The focal ischemic model is a closer approximation to human stroke which includes a necrotic core, penumbra, and undamaged tissue. Occlusion of a unilateral artery, especially the middle cerebral artery (MCA), is performed in this model, but collateral circulation often induces variation of ischemic lesions both qualitatively and quantitatively. It is likely that the more proximal the artery which is unilaterally occluded is, the more inconsistent the outcomes. The present study was designed to examine the reproducibility of infarct lesion by distal or proximal artery occlusion. Direct occlusion of the distal MCA was performed and compared with unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in C57BL/6 mice. Direct MCA occlusion (MCAO) consistently induced ischemic lesions in cortical areas. All model animals (n=14) survived 24 h after occlusion, and exhibited a maximum infarct volume (20.0 +/- 5.0%). In contrast, permanent and transient unilateral CCAO models had mortality rates of 62.5 and 25.0%, and showed severe to absent lesions with the infarct volumes of 29.0 +/- 20.8 and 33.2 +/- 24.2%, respectively. In conclusion, distal MCAO produces high reproducibility of ischemic insults and survivability compared to unilateral CCAO. Thus, distal MCAO is a useful method for the focal ischemic model.
    Experimental Animals 02/2009; 58(1):19-29. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle contains several progenitor/stem cells with myogenicity as well as adipogenicity such as satellite cells. Our previous study demonstrated that forced expression of PPAR gamma is sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of predetermined myoblasts in vitro. In the present study, we examined whether introduction of PPAR gamma gene could induce adipogenesis of satellite cells in vivo. A plasmid vector containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or PPAR gamma gene was introduced into rat tibialis anterior muscle by electroporation. Histological analyses revealed that electroporation induces degenerative/regenerative response in skeletal muscle, including activation of satellite cells. When EGFP gene was introduced, newly formed myotubes resulted from fusion of activated satellite cells, showed EGFP expression, indicating that electroporation could transfect satellite cells with exogenously introduced gene. Gene transfer of PPAR gamma resulted in an increase of PPAR gamma-positive mononucleated cells on day 3 after electroporation but failed to induce adipogenesis thereafter. These results suggested that, in addition to an expression of PPAR gamma, niches that support adipogenesis are required for satellite cells to enter adipogenesis in vivo.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 09/2008; 70(8):761-7. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enzyme 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) catabolizes progesterone into a biologically inactive steroid, 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20alpha-OHP). In the corpora lutea of rats and mice, 20alpha-HSD is considered to be involved in functional luteolysis. It is also distributed in other tissues including the placenta, endometrial epithelia and fetal skin, although the roles it plays in these tissues remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of 20alpha-HSD in the maintenance of pregnancy using mice with targeted disruption of the 20alpha-HSD gene. We first confirmed that the number of pups was significantly smaller in 20alpha-HSD-/- pairs than in 20alpha-HSD+/+ pairs. We then mated 20alpha-HSD+/- males and females so that each pregnant female produced 20alpha-HSD+/+, 20alpha-HSD+/- and 20alpha-HSD-/- offspring. The genotype ratio of the offspring did not match the Mendel's law of inheritance, and the numbers of 20alpha-HSD+/- and 20alpha-HSD-/- offspring were smaller than expected values. Although the genotype ratio of fetuses on days 13, 15 and 18 of pregnancy matched the Mendel's law, the total number of fetuses on day 18 was significantly smaller than that on day 13, suggesting that fetal loss occurred during late pregnancy. Next, we transferred 20alpha-HSD+/+ embryos to 20alpha-HSD+/+ or 20alpha-HSD-/- females and found that the number of offspring was significantly smaller in 20alpha-HSD-/- dams than in 20alpha-HSD+/+ dams. Expression of 20alpha-HSD mRNA in the fetus, placenta and uterus progressively increased from day 11 to 18 of pregnancy. In addition, concentrations of progesterone were significantly higher in the 20alpha-HSD-/- fetuses than in the 20alpha-HSD+/+ fetuses, while those of 20alpha-OHP were lower in the 20alpha-HSD-/- fetuses than in the 20alpha-HSD+/+ fetuses. These results suggest that both maternal and fetal 20alpha-HSD play a role in maintaining normal pregnancy at least partially by reducing progesterone concentrations in fetuses.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 08/2008; 54(6):408-12. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland is increased in response to many types of stressors and plays a principal role in stress responses. We have shown that the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) in the brain is increased under several stress conditions including immobilization (IMO), and that endogenous glucocorticoids counteract this stress-induced PG synthesis. It was also recently reported that IMO damages dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), which is known to cause symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study was therefore undertaken to determine the role of glucocorticoids in modulating the signs of PD induced by IMO. The pole test, in which each mouse was placed head upward at the top of a pole and the time taken to turn downward and to arrive on the floor was recorded, and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN were performed to evaluate bradykinesia and injury of DA neurons, respectively. Intact and adrenalectomized (ADX) mice were immobilized for 2 h twice, 1 day apart. Both bradykinesia and a decrease in the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the SN were observed in ADX mice, but not in intact mice, following IMO. These effects of IMO on ADX mice were restored by treatment with corticosterone or indomethacin, a PG synthesis inhibitor. These results suggest that glucocorticoids play a role in preventing the detrimental effect of IMO on nigral DA neurons and resulting bradykinesia, and that this effect of IMO involves PG-mediated mechanisms.
    Hormones and Behavior 07/2008; 54(1):41-6. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual differentiation of the brain in rodents is achieved by estrogens, which are converted from androgens in the brain, during the perinatal period. We have identified the progranulin (PGRN) gene as one of the sex steroid-inducible genes that may be involved in masculinization of the rat brain. In the present study, we generated a line of mice with targeted disruption of the PGRN gene, and investigated male sexual behaviour, aggression and anxiety. PGRN-deficient mice exhibited a decrease in ejaculation incidence, while the latency and frequency of both mount and intromission were unchanged. For the aggressive behaviour test, the resident-intruder paradigm was used, and PGRN-deficient mice exhibited enhanced aggressiveness. In wild-type mice, males exhibited lower levels of anxiety than females by the open field test, while male PGRN-deficient mice exhibited an elevated level of anxiety and sex difference in anxiety was not observed. In addition, mRNA expression of the serotonergic receptor 5-HT1A, which could be related to the inhibition of aggression and anxiety, was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of PGRN-deficient mice after aggressive encounters. On the other hand, deficiency of the PGRN gene did not affect serum testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that PGRN gene plays a role in establishing sexual dimorphic behaviours at least partially by modulating the brain serotonergic system.
    Behavioural Brain Research 01/2008; 185(2):110-8. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Veterinary Medical Science - J VET MED SCI. 01/2008; 70(8):761-767.
  • Journal of Reproduction and Development 01/2008; 54(6):408-412. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the corpus luteum of rats and mice, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone to a biologically inactive metabolite, 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20alpha-OHP). The reduction of progesterone by 20alpha-HSD is believed to be important for functional luteolysis in these rodent species. In addition to the corpus luteum, expression of 20alpha-HSD has been demonstrated in tissues such as the placenta, endometrial epithelia, and fetal skin, although the roles it plays in the latter tissues remain to be determined. To determine the contribution of 20alpha-HSD to functional luteolysis and to the rodent reproductive system more generally, we generated a strain of mice with targeted disruption of the 20alpha-HSD gene. In the 20alpha-HSD-/- mice we obtained, which lacked the genomic region essential for catalytic reaction, neither 20alpha-HSD activity in the corpus luteum nor an increase in the serum concentrations of 20alpha-OHP during pseudopregnancy or pregnancy was detected. The durations of the estrous cycle, pseudopregnancy, and pregnancy were significantly prolonged in the 20alpha-HSD-/- mice, although the serum progesterone levels decreased to levels low enough for delivery of pups at term of pregnancy. In addition, the number of pups, especially live pups, was markedly decreased in the 20alpha-HSD-/- mice. These findings suggest that the role of 20alpha-HSD in functional luteolysis is relatively minor but that it is involved in the survival of newborn mice.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 07/2007; 53(3):499-508. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that glucocorticoids counteract the suppressive effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on both pulsatile and surge secretion of LH. This suggests that glucocorticoids have a protective effect on reproductive function under infectious stress. In the present study, we examined whether glucocorticoids maintain pulsatile LH secretion under various conditions of acute stress and the possible involvement of prostaglandins (PGs) in glucocorticoid actions. Three different types of stressors, namely infectious (lipopolysaccharide, 0.5 microg/kg), hypoglycemic (2-deoxy-D-glucose, 100 mg/kg), and restraint stress (1 h) were applied to ovariectomized rats. In ovariectomized rats, LH pulses were partially suppressed by restraint, but not by lipopolysaccharide or 2-deoxy-D-glucose. On the other hand, adrenalectomy (ADX) significantly enhanced the suppressive effects of all the stressors applied on LH pulses. Treatment with both corticosterone (25 mg/kg) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) in ADX rats significantly attenuated the suppressive effects of these stressors on LH pulses. In addition, the immunoreactivity of cyclooxygenase-2, a PG-synthesizing enzyme, in the brain under stress conditions was much enhanced by ADX, and this was counteracted by corticosterone treatment. Similarly, an increase in body temperature under restraint stress was enhanced by ADX and suppressed by corticosterone. These results suggest that suppression of LH pulsatility by stress is mediated by PGs in the brain, and that increased release of endogenous glucocorticoids in response to stress counteracts this suppression by inhibiting PG synthesis, and thereby maintains reproductive function regardless of the nature of the stressor.
    Endocrinology 04/2006; 147(3):1087-93. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that water deprivation or injection of hypertonic saline induces anorexia. The present study examined the possible involvement of vasopressin in the suppression of food intake during high plasma osmolality. Intraperitoneal injection of vasopressin (20 microg/kg) into male rats significantly suppressed food intake for 1 hr. This anorectic effect of vasopressin was reversed by simultaneous injection of a peptide antagonist for V(1) receptor (40 microg/kg), but not for V(2) receptor (40 microg/kg). Intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline (20% NaCl, 2 ml/kg) similarly suppressed food intake for 2 hr, which was associated with a transient increase in plasma vasopressin concentrations. This hypertonic saline-induced suppression of food intake was blocked by a V(1) receptor antagonist. Vasopressin (40 ng/2 microl) directly administered into the third ventricle of the brain also suppressed food intake for 1 hr. These results suggest that vasopressin participates in the suppression of food intake during high plasma osmolality, the action of which is mediated by V(1) receptors in the brain.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 09/2004; 66(8):951-5. · 0.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

382 Citations
160.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Linköping University
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKE)
      Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden
  • 2003–2014
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      • • Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2009
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Yamanashi
      • Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering
      Kōfu-shi, Yamanashi-ken, Japan