Laura Zamorano

Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain

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Publications (28)113.61 Total impact

  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: During a Spanish surveillance study, two natural variants of DHA β-lactamases, DHA-6 and DHA-7 were found, with the replacements Ala226Thr and Phe322Ser respect to DHA-1, respectively. The enzymes were isolated from Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates, respectively. The aim of the study was the genetic, microbiological and biochemical characterization of the DHA-6 and DHA-7 β-lactamases. The blaDHA-6 andblaDHA-7 genes were located in I1 and HI2 incompatibility group plasmids of 87.3 and 310.4 kb, respectively. The gene context of both blaDHA-6 andblaDHA-7 was similar to that already described for blaDHA-1 gene and included the qnrB4 and aadA genes. The MICs for cephalothin, aztreonam, cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 8 to 30 fold lower for the DHA-6 than for DHA-1 and DHA-7 expressed in the same isogenic E.coli TG1 strain. Interestingly the MIC for cefoxitin was higher in DHA-6 expressing transformant compared to DHA-1 and DHA-7. Biochemical studies with pure β-lactamases revealed a slightly lower catalytic efficiency of DHA-6 against cephalothin, ceftazidime and cefotaxime compared to DHA-1 and DHA-7. To understand this behavior, stability experiments were carried out and showed that the DHA-6 protein displayed a significantly higher stability than DHA-1 and DHA-7 enzymes. The proximity of Thr226 to the N-terminal in the tertiary protein structure in DHA-6 may promote this stabilization and consequently could induce a slight reduction of the dynamic of this enzyme primarily affecting the hydrolysis of some of the bulkiest antibiotics.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous versatile environmental microorganism with a remarkable ability to grow under diverse environmental conditions. Moreover, P. aeruginosa is responsible for life threatening infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients, where the extraordinary capacity of this pathogen to develop antimicrobial resistance dramatically limits our therapeutic arsenal. Its large genome carries an outstanding number of genes belonging to regulatory systems, including multiple two component sensor-regulator systems modulating the response to the different environmental stimuli. Here we show that one of such systems, designated CreBC (carbon-source responsive) or BlrAB (beta -lactam resistance), might be of particular relevance. We first identified the stimuli triggering the activation of the CreBC system, specifically responding to PBP4 inhibition by certain β-lactam antibiotics. Second, through the analysis of a large comprehensive collection of mutants we demonstrate an intricate interconnection between the CreBC system, the peptidoglycan recycling pathway and the expression of the concerning chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. Third, we show that the CreBC system, and particularly its effector inner membrane protein CreD, plays a major role in bacterial fitness and biofilm development, especially in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactams. Finally, global transcriptomics reveals broad regulatory functions of CreBC in basic physiological aspects, particularly anaerobic respiration, both in the presence and absence of antibiotics. Therefore, the CreBC system is envisaged as a potentially interesting target for improving the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa infections.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the dynamics and mechanisms of resistance development to ceftazidime, meropenem, ciprofloxacin and ceftolozane-tazobactam in wild-type (PAO1) and mutator (PAOMS, mutS-) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strains were incubated for 24h with 0.5-64x MIC concentrations of each antibiotic in triplicate experiments. Tubes from the highest antibiotic concentration showing growth were re-inoculated in fresh medium containing concentrations up to 64x MIC for 7 consecutive days. Susceptibility profiles and resistance mechanisms were assessed in two isolated colonies from each step, antibiotic and strain. Ceftolozane-tazobactam resistant mutants were further characterized by whole genome analysis through RNA-seq. High-level resistance development was fastest for ceftazidime followed by meropenem and ciprofloxacin. None of the mutants selected with these antibiotics showed crossresistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam. On the other hand, ceftolozane-tazobactam resistance development was much slower and high-level resistance was only observed for the mutator strain. Ceftolozane-tazobactam moderately resistant (MICs 4-8 μg/ml) PAO1 derivatives showed only 2-4 mutations, that determined global pleiotropic effects associated with a severe fitness cost. High-level resistant (MICs 32-128 μg/ml) PAOMS derivatives showed 45-53 mutations. Major changes in global gene expression profiles were detected in all mutants, but only PAOMS mutants showed ampC overexpression, caused by dacB or ampR mutations. Moreover, all PAOMS mutants contained 1-4 mutations in conserved residues of AmpC (F147L, Q157R, G183D, E247K, or V356I). Complementation studies revealed that these mutations greatly increased ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime MICs but reduced those of piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem, when compared with wild-type ampC. Therefore, development of high-level resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam appears to occur efficiently only in a P. aeruginosa mutator background, in which multiple mutations lead to overexpression and structural modifications of AmpC.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A limited number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes (mainly ST-111, ST-175, and ST-235), known as high-risk clones, are responsible for epidemics of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains worldwide. We explored the potential biological parameters that may explain the success of these clones. A total of 20 isolates from each of 4 resistance groups (XDR, MDR, ModR [resistant to 1 or 2 classes], and MultiS [susceptible to all antipseudomonals]), recovered from a multicenter study of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections performed in 10 Spanish hospitals, were analyzed. A further set of 20 XDR isolates belonging to epidemic high-risk clones (ST-175 [n = 6], ST-111 [n = 7], and ST-235 [n = 7]) recovered from different geographical locations was also studied. When unknown, genotypes were documented through multilocus sequence typing. The biological parameters evaluated included twitching, swimming, and swarming motility, biofilm formation, production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, spontaneous mutant frequencies, and the in vitro competition index (CI) obtained with a flow cytometry assay. All 20 (100%) XDR, 8 (40%) MDR, and 1 (5%) ModR bloodstream isolate from the multicenter study belonged to high-risk clones. No significant differences were observed between clonally diverse ModR and MultiS isolates for any of the parameters. In contrast, MDR/XDR high-risk clones showed significantly increased biofilm formation and mutant frequencies but significantly reduced motility (twitching, swimming, and swarming), production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, and fitness. The defined biological markers of high-risk clones, which resemble those resulting from adaptation to chronic infections, could be useful for the design of specific treatment and infection control strategies.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2013; 57(11). · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel class C β-lactamase (FOX-8) was isolated from a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. The FOX-8 enzyme possessed a unique substitution (Phe313Leu) when compared to FOX-3. Isogenic E. coli strains carrying FOX-8 showed an 8 fold reduction in resistance to ceftazidime relative to FOX-3. In kinetic analysis FOX-8 displayed a 33 fold reduction in kcat/Km for ceftazidime compared to FOX-3. In the FOX family of β-lactamases, the Phe313 residue located in the R2 loop affects ceftazidime hydrolysis and alters the phenotype of E.coli strains carrying this variant.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A panel of 29 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from seven hospitals as part of a country-wide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Bulgarian hospitals was studied. Molecular typing through multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA6) yielded 23 different profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic tests for the detection of acquired carbapenemases yielded negative results in all cases. In contrast, 76% of the isolates produced other acquired β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Namely, 6 of the isolates (21%) produced a VEB-1 ESBL; 14 (48%) produced an OXA-10-type enzyme (7 OXA-10 and 7 OXA-10 ESBL variants, including 2 OXA-17 [A218G], 2 OXA-74 [C197T, A218G], and 3 OXA-142 [A218G, G470A]); 8 (28%) an OXA-2-type enzyme (all OXA-2); and 1 (3%) a PSE-1 carbenicillinase. Further analysis through multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that the six VEB-1-producing strains, recovered from four hospitals, belonged to ST111 or ST244 international high-risk clones. Additionally, nearly all of the isolates (97%) lacked OprD production, explaining carbapenem resistance. Overexpression of AmpC was documented in 5 (17%) of the isolates, including most of the MDR isolates not producing any acquired β-lactamase. Particularly noteworthy was the very high prevalence of MexXY-OprM overexpression, documented in 72% of the isolates, whereas the prevalence of MexAB-OprM overexpression was lower (21%). In summary, while the production of metallo-β-lactamases is uncommon among P. aeruginosa isolates from Bulgarian hospitals, MDR profiles frequently result from the production of ESBLs combined with the lack of production of the carbapenem porin OprD and the overexpression of the MexXY-OprM efflux pump.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 04/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2012; · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) and carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae collected from 35 hospitals in Spain and to establish their epidemiological relationships. We conducted a prospective multi-centre study on pAmpC- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical samples collected from February to July 2009. The strains suspected to carry pAmpC were resistant or showed intermediate susceptibility to co-amoxiclav and second- or third-generation cephalosporins. Strains suspected to carry a carbapenemase were selected because they showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to imipenem >1 mg/L. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a sequencing strategy were used to characterise the enzymes. The clonal relationships between isolates was analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 100,132 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected, 1,654 were compatible with the production of pAmpC or carbapenemases. We found a prevalence of 0.64 % of pAmpC (n = 635) and 0.04 % of carbapenemases (n = 43). The most prevalent pAmpC enzymes were CMY-type (78.3 %), DHA-type (19.5 %), ACC-type (1.6 %) and FOX-type (0.6 %). The CMY-type was the most frequent in Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis species, whereas the DHA-type was mainly found in Klebsiella spp. The enzymes involved in carbapenem resistance were VIM-1, IMP-22 and the new IMP-28. Nine new bla genes were described: bla (CMY-54), bla (CMY-55), bla (CMY-56), bla (CMY-57), bla (CMY-96), bla (DHA-6), bla (DHA-7), bla (FOX-8) and bla (IMP-28). The prevalence of pAmpC or carbapenemases found is not negligible. The CMY-types were the predominant pAmpC, whereas the VIM or IMP enzymes were the predominant carbapenemases. Furthermore, we observed a great genetic diversity among pAmpC-producing strains and a close clonal relationship between carbapenemase-producing strains.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2012; · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the mechanisms leading to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pan-β-lactam resistance (PBLR) development during the treatment of nosocomial infections, with a particular focus on the modification of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) profiles and imipenem, ceftazidime, and ceftolozane (former CXA-101) PBP binding affinities. For this purpose, six clonally related pairs of sequential susceptible-PBLR isolates were studied. The presence of oprD, ampD, and dacB mutations was explored by PCR followed by sequencing and the expression of ampC and efflux pump genes by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The fluorescent penicillin Bocillin FL was used to determine PBP profiles in membrane preparations from all pairs, and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) of ceftolozane, ceftazidime, and imipenem were analyzed in 3 of them. Although a certain increase was noted (0 to 5 2-fold dilutions), the MICs of ceftolozane were ≤4 μg/ml in all PBLR isolates. All 6 PBLR isolates lacked OprD and overexpressed ampC and one or several efflux pumps, particularly mexB and/or mexY. Additionally, 5 of them showed modified PBP profiles, including a modified pattern (n = 1) or diminished expression (n = 1) of PBP1a and a lack of PBP4 expression (n = 4), which correlated with AmpC overexpression driven by dacB mutation. Analysis of the essential PBP IC(50)s revealed significant variation of PBP1a/b binding affinities, both within each susceptible-PBLR pair and across the different pairs. Moreover, despite the absence of significant differences in gene expression or sequence, a clear tendency toward increased PBP2 (imipenem) and PBP3 (ceftazidime, ceftolozane, imipenem) IC(50)s was noted in PBLR isolates. Thus, our results suggest that in addition to AmpC, efflux pumps, and OprD, the modification of PBP patterns appears to play a role in the in vivo emergence of PBLR strains, which still conserve certain susceptibility to the new antipseudomonal cephalosporin ceftolozane.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2012; 56(9):4771-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca carrying a novel IMP metallo-β-lactamase was discovered in Madrid, Spain. The bla(IMP-28) gene is part of a chromosomally located class I integron. The IMP-28 k(cat)/K(m) values for ampicillin, ceftazidime, and cefepime and, to a lesser extent, imipenem and meropenem, are clearly lower than those of IMP-1. The His306Gln mutation may induce important modifications of the L3 loop and thus of substrate accessibility and hydrolysis and be the main reason for this behavior.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2012; 56(8):4540-3. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the presence of OprD mutations in 60 strains of metallo-ß-lactamase-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa intermediately susceptible (IS [n = 12]; MIC = 8 μg/ml) or susceptible (S [n = 48]; MICs ≤ 1 to 4 μg/ml) to imipenem and/or meropenem that were isolated from patients with bacteremia in order to evaluate their impact on carbapenem susceptibility profiles. The presence of mutations in oprD was detected by sequencing analysis. OprD expression was assessed by both outer membrane protein (OMP) analysis and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Fourteen (23%) isolates had an OprD identical to that of PAO1, and OprD modifications were detected in 46 isolates (77%). Isolates were classified as OprD "full-length types" (T1 [n = 40, including both wild-type OprD and variants showing several polymorphisms]) and OprD "deficient types" (T2 [n = 3 for OprD frameshift mutations] and T3 [n = 17 for premature stop codons in oprD]). RT-PCR showed that 5 OprD type T1 isolates presented reduced transcription of oprD (0.1- to 0.4-fold compared to PAO1), while oprD levels increased more than 2-fold over that seen with PAO1 in 4 OprD type T1 isolates. A total of 50% of the isolates belonging to OprD "deficient types" were susceptible to both carbapenems, and 40% were susceptible to meropenem and intermediately susceptible to imipenem. Only one isolate (5%) within this group was intermediately susceptible to both carbapenems, and one (5%) was susceptible to imipenem and intermediately susceptible to meropenem. We concluded that OprD inactivating mutations in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa are not restricted only to carbapenem-resistant isolates but are also found in isolates with imipenem or meropenem MICs of only 0.06 to 4 μg/ml.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2012; 56(4):1703-13. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multidrug resistance (MDR) conjugative plasmid of ca. 50 kb (designated pERGB) was detected in a linezolid and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with sequence type 125 (ST125-MRSA-IVc). This strain was detected in two patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previously treated with multiple antimicrobials, including linezolid. pERGB was transferable by conjugation and carried the resistance genes cfr (oxazolidinones, phenicols, lincosamides, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A), ant(4')-Ia (tobramycin), tet(L) (tetracycline), and dfrK (trimethoprim). A novel genetic structure, linking all of these resistance genes for the first time, was elucidated through sequencing of a 15,259-bp fragment from pERGB. Active surveillance to prevent the dissemination of such highly concerning MDR transferable elements is needed.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2012; 56(4):2139-42. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and impact of the overexpression of AmpC and efflux pumps were evaluated with a collection of 190 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from bloodstream infections in a 2008 multicenter study (10 hospitals) in Spain. The MICs of a panel of 13 antipseudomonal agents were determined by microdilution, and the expressions of ampC, mexB, mexY, mexD, and mexF were determined by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Up to 39% of the isolates overexpressed at least one of the mechanisms. ampC overexpression (24.2%) was the most prevalent mechanism, followed by mexY (13.2%), mexB (12.6%), mexF (4.2%), and mexD (2.2%). The overexpression of mexB plus mexY, documented for 5.3% of the isolates, was the only combination showing a significantly (P=0.02) higher prevalence than expected from the frequencies of the individual mechanisms (1.6%). Additionally, all imipenem-resistant isolates studied (25 representative isolates) showed inactivating mutations in oprD. Most of the isolates nonsusceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam (96%) and ceftazidime (84%) overexpressed ampC, while mexB (25%) and mexY (29%) overexpressions gained relevance among cefepime-nonsusceptible isolates. Nevertheless, the prevalence of mexY overexpression was highest among tobramycin-nonsusceptible isolates (37%), and that of mexB was highest among meropenem-nonsusceptible isolates (33%). Regarding ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, besides the expected increased prevalence of efflux pump overexpression, a highly significant link to ampC overexpression was documented for the first time: up to 52% of ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates overexpressed ampC, sharply contrasting with the 24% documented for the complete collection (P<0.001). In summary, mutation-driven resistance was frequent in P. aeruginosa isolates from bloodstream infections, whereas metallo-β-lactamases, detected in 2 isolates (1%) producing VIM-2, although with increasing prevalences, were still uncommon.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2011; 55(5):1906-11. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Constitutive AmpC hyperproduction is the most frequent mechanism of resistance to the weak AmpC inducers antipseudomonal penicillins and cephalosporins. Previously, we demonstrated that inhibition of the β-N-acetylglucosaminidase NagZ prevents and reverts this mechanism of resistance, which is caused by ampD and/or dacB (PBP4) mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we compared NagZ with a second candidate target, the AmpG permease for GlcNAc-1,6-anhydromuropeptides, for their ability to block AmpC expression pathways. Inactivation of nagZ or ampG fully restored the susceptibility and basal ampC expression of ampD or dacB laboratory mutants and impaired the emergence of one-step ceftazidime-resistant mutants in population analysis experiments. Nevertheless, only ampG inactivation fully blocked ampC induction, reducing the MICs of the potent AmpC inducer imipenem from 2 to 0.38 μg/ml. Moreover, through population analysis and characterization of laboratory mutants, we showed that ampG inactivation minimized the impact on resistance of the carbapenem porin OprD, reducing the MIC of imipenem for a PAO1 OprD mutant from >32 to 0.5 μg/ml. AmpG and NagZ targets were additionally evaluated in three clinical isolates that are pan-β-lactam resistant due to AmpC hyperproduction, OprD inactivation, and overexpression of several efflux pumps. A marked increase in susceptibility to ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam was observed in both cases, while only ampG inactivation fully restored wild-type imipenem susceptibility. Susceptibility to meropenem, cefepime, and aztreonam was also enhanced, although to a lower extent due to the high impact of efflux pumps on the activity of these antibiotics. Thus, our results suggest that development of small-molecule inhibitors of AmpG could provide an excellent strategy to overcome the relevant mechanisms of resistance (OprD inactivation plus AmpC induction) to imipenem, the only currently available β-lactam not significantly affected by P. aeruginosa major efflux pumps.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2011; 55(5):1990-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AmpC hyperproduction is the most frequent mechanism of resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is driven by ampD mutations or the recently described inactivation of dacB, which encodes the nonessential penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP 4. Recent work showed that nagZ inactivation attenuates beta-lactam resistance in ampD mutants. Here we explored whether the same could be true for the dacB mutants with dacB mutations alone or in combination with ampD mutations. The inactivation of nagZ restored the wild-type beta-lactam MICs and ampC expression of PAO1 dacB and ampD mutants and dramatically reduced the MICs (for example, the MIC for ceftazidime dropped from 96 to 4 microg/ml) and the level of ampC expression (from ca. 1,000-fold to ca. 50-fold higher than that for PAO1) in the dacB-ampD double mutant. On the other hand, nagZ inactivation had little effect on the inducibility of AmpC. The NagZ inhibitor O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate attenuated the beta-lactam resistance of the AmpC-hyperproducing strains, showing a greater effect on the dacB mutant (reducing the ceftazidime MICs from 24 to 6 microg/ml) than the ampD mutant (reducing the MICs from 8 to 4 microg/ml). Additionally, nagZ inactivation in the dacB mutant blocked the overexpression of creD (blrD), which is a marker of the activation of the CreBC (BlrAB) regulator involved in the resistance phenotype. Finally, through population analysis, we show that the inactivation of nagZ dramatically reduces the capacity of P. aeruginosa to develop ceftazidime resistance, since spontaneous mutants were not obtained at concentrations > or = 8 microg/ml (the susceptibility breakpoint) for the nagZ mutant but were obtained with wild-type PAO1. Therefore, NagZ is envisaged to be a candidate target for preventing and reverting beta-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2010; 54(9):3557-63. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CXA-101, previously designated FR264205, is a new antipseudomonal cephalosporin. The objective of this study was to determine the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) inhibition profile of CXA-101 compared to that of ceftazidime (PBP3 inhibitor) and imipenem (PBP2 inhibitor). Killing kinetics, the induction of AmpC expression, and associated changes on cell morphology were also investigated. The MICs for CXA-101, ceftazidime, and imipenem were 0.5, 1, and 1 microg/ml, respectively. Killing curves revealed that CXA-101 shows a concentration-independent bactericidal activity, with concentrations of 1x the MIC (0.5 microg/ml) producing a > 3-log reduction in bacterial load after 8 h of incubation. Live-dead staining showed that concentrations of CXA-101 as low as 0.5x the MIC stopped bacterial septation and induced an intense filamentation, which is consistent with the documented high affinity of PBP3. CXA-101 was found to be a potent PBP3 inhibitor and showed affinities > or = 2-fold higher than those of ceftazidime for all of the essential PBPs (1b, 1c, 2, and 3). Compared to imipenem, in addition to the obvious inverse PBP2/PBP3 affinities, CXA-101 showed a significantly higher affinity for PBP1b but a lower affinity for PBP1c. Furthermore, CXA-101, like ceftazidime and in contrast to imipenem, was found to be a very weak inducer of AmpC expression, consistent with the low PBP4 affinity documented.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2010; 54(9):3933-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1482–1487AbstractChronic respiratory infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main driver of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The development of resistance to all available antibiotics is a frequent outcome of these infections. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of the new cephalosporin CXA-101 (FR264205) against a collection of 100 isolates obtained from 50 CF patients from two Spanish hospitals. The collection included the first (early) and the last (late) available isolate from each patient (average interval 68 ± 39 months). The MIC50 and MIC90 of CXA-101 were 0.5 and 2 mg/L and the geometric mean MIC was 0.7 mg/L; the MICs for 95% of the isolates were ≤8 mg/L (tentative breakpoint). Only meropenem yielded comparable results, although the MIC90 of this antibiotic was significantly higher (8 mg/L). CXA-101 showed conserved activity against a high proportion of isolates resistant to each of the antibiotics tested (ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, levofloxacin and tobramycin), with MIC50 values of 1–2 mg/L. Moreover, CXA-101 retained good activity against multidrug-resistant strains, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 2 and 16 mg/L. CXA-101 was also active against late CF isolates (the MIC for 96% was ≤8 mg/L); it was the only antibiotic tested to which a similar percentage of early and late isolates was susceptible. These results show that, despite a slight increase in MICs, major cross-resistance to CXA-101 did not develop during treatment of CF patients with the currently available antipseudomonal agents. Therefore, CXA-101 is envisaged as a valuable alternative for the treatment of chronic respiratory infection caused by P. aeruginosa in CF patients.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 08/2010; 16(9):1482 - 1487. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2010; 65(7):1540-2. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence, nature, involved genetic elements and epidemiology of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida isolated in a Spanish hospital between 2005 and 2008. Etests were used for susceptibility testing and screening for MBLs, confirmed through bla(VIM) PCRs and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MBL-carrying plasmids were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism, Southern blot and electroporation. MBL genetic elements were studied by cloning and sequencing. MBL-producing P. putida was detected in eight patients (one clone each; two harbouring bla(VIM-1) and six harbouring bla(VIM-2)), representing 14% of all the infections by the P. putida/fluorescens group. MBLs were detected in only 0.3% of P. aeruginosa infections (11 patients) during the same period. PFGE revealed four P. aeruginosa clones: one producing bla(VIM-13) (two patients); and three producing bla(VIM-2) (two patients, six patients and one patient, respectively). MLST indicated that the VIM-13 clone was the internationally spread sequence type (ST)235, while the major VIM-2 lineage corresponded to ST179, which is associated with chronic respiratory infections. The VIM-1 integron was shown to have both plasmid and chromosomal location, while the VIM-13 integron was only chromosomal. The VIM-2 integron was located in the same transposon (Tn402/Tn5053-like) in all P. aeruginosa and P. putida isolates, suggesting its crucial role in the dissemination of VIM-2. The high diversity and proportion of MBL-positive P. putida suggests an environmental reservoir of these resistance determinants. Dissemination of these multidrug resistance elements to successful P. aeruginosa clones presents a major epidemiological and clinical threat.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 03/2010; 65(3):474-8. · 5.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

354 Citations
113.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Hospital Universitari Son Espases
      • Department of Microbiology
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
  • 2013
    • National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
      Ulpia Serdica, Sofia-Capital, Bulgaria
  • 2012–2013
    • Complejo Hospitalario Universitario a Coruña (CHUAC)
      La Corogne, Galicia, Spain
    • Complexo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña
      La Corogne, Galicia, Spain
    • University of Liège
      • Centre of Protein Engineering
      Luik, Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Manitoba
      • Department of Microbiology
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Institute of Food Science Research
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009–2010
    • Hospital Son Dureta
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
    • Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain