[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N-K-Cl cotransporters (NKCCs) mediate the coupled, electroneutral movement of Na(+) , K(+) and Cl(-) ions across cell membranes. There are two isoforms of this cation cotransporter, NKCC1 and NKCC2. NKCC2 is expressed primarily in the kidney and is the target of diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered as a result of screening of ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available.
In this study, the effect of a series of diuretically active bumetanide derivatives was investigated on human NKCC2 variant A (hNKCC2A) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
hNKCC2A displayed an IC50 towards bumetanide of 4 μM. A good correlation between the diuretic potency of bumetanide and its derivatives in dogs and their inhibition of hNKCC2A was found (r(2) = 0.817; P<0.01). Replacement of the carboxylic group of bumetanide by a nonionic residue, e.g., an anilinomethyl group, resulted in a loss of inhibition of hNKCC2A, indicating that an acidic group is required for transporter inhibition. Exchange of the phenoxy group of bumetanide by a 4-chloroanilino group or the sulfamoyl group by a methylsulfonyl group resulted in compounds with higher potency to inhibit hNKCC2A than bumetanide.
The Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system as used in these experiments allows studying the structural requirements that determine relative potency of loop diuretics on human NKCC2 splice variants, and may lead to the discovery of novel high-ceiling diuretics.
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British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/bph.13231 · 4.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethanol is commonly used as a solvent in injectable formulations of poorly watersoluble drugs. The concentrations of ethanol in such formulations are generally considered reasonably safe. It is long known that ethanol can potentiate central effects of sedatives and tranquillizers, particularly the benzodiazepines, most likely as a result of a synergistic interaction at the GABA(A) receptor. However, whether this occurs at the low systemic doses of ethanol resulting from its use as solvent in parenteral formulations of benzodiazepines is not known. In the present study we evaluated whether a commercial ethanol-containing aqueous solution of diazepam exerts more potent anti-seizure effects than an aqueous solution of diazepam hydrochloride or an aqueous emulsion of this drug in the intrahippocampal kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice. Spontaneous epileptic seizures in this model are known to be resistant to major antiepileptic drugs. Administration of the ethanol-containing formulation of diazepam caused an almost complete suppression of seizures. This was not seen when the same dose (5 mg/kg) of diazepam was administered as aqueous solution or emulsion, although all three diazepam formulations resulted in similar drug and metabolite concentrations in plasma. Our data demonstrate that ethanol-containing solutions of diazepam are superior to block difficult-to-treat seizures to other formulations of diazepam. To our knowledge, this has not been demonstrated before and, if this finding can be translated to humans, may have important consequences for emergency treatment of acute seizures, series of seizures, and initial treatment of status epilepticus in patients.
Epilepsy Research 10/2014; 108(10). DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.10.002 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the co-morbidities observed in epilepsy patients depression is the most frequent one. Likewise, depression by itself is accompanied by an increased risk to develop epilepsy. Both epilepsy and depression are characterized by a high incidence of pharmacoresistance, which might be based on overactivity of multidrug transporters like P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. Using genetically modified mice in preclinical epilepsy research is pivotal for investigating this bidirectional relationship. In the present study, we used the sucrose consumption test (SCT) in the pilocarpine and the intrahippocampal kainate mouse post-status epilepticus model to reveal anhedonic behavior, i.e. hyposensitivity to pleasure, as a key symptom of depression. Mice were repetitively investigated by SCT during early epilepsy and the chronic phase of the disease, during which response to antidepressant drug treatment was assessed. SCT revealed long-lasting anhedonia in both models. Anhedonia appeared to be pharmacoresistant, as neither chronic treatment with imipramine in the pilocarpine model nor chronic treatment with fluoxetine in the kainate model could annihilate the differences in sucrose consumption between control and epileptic mice. Moreover, knock-out of P-glycoprotein did not improve the treatment effect of fluoxetine. In conclusion, our findings show for the first time that the SCT is suited for detection of depression-like behavior in mouse models of temporal-lobe epilepsy. Both models might serve as tools to further investigate the neurobiology and pharmacology of epilepsy-associated pharmacoresistant depression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 25% of patients with epilepsy are refractory to treatment, so that new, more effective antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are urgently needed. Animal models that simulate the clinical situation with individuals responding and not responding to treatment are important to determine mechanisms of AED resistance and develop novel more effective treatments. We have previously developed and characterized such a model in which spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) develop after a status epilepticus induced by sustained electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala. In this model, prolonged treatment of epileptic rats with phenobarbital (PB) results in two subgroups, PB responders and PB nonresponders. When PB nonresponders were treated in previous experiments with phenytoin (PHT), 83% of the PB-resistant rats were also resistant to PHT. In the present study we examined if rats with PB resistant seizures are also resistant to lamotrigine (LTG), using continuous EEG/video recording of spontaneous seizures over 10 consecutive weeks. For this purpose, a new group of epileptic rats was produced and selected by treatment with PB into responders and nonresponders. As in previous studies, PB nonresponders had a significantly higher seizure frequency before onset of treatment. During subsequent treatment with LTG, all PB nonresponders and 60% of the PB responders exhibited >75% reduction of seizure frequency and were therefore considered LTG responders. Plasma levels of LTG did not differ significantly between responders and nonresponders. The data of this pilot study indicate that LTG is more effective than PHT to suppress seizures in PB nonresponders in this model, but that not all PB responders also respond to LTG. Overall, our data provide further evidence that AED studies in post-SE TLE models are useful in determining and comparing AED efficacy and investigating predictors and mechanisms of pharmacoresistance.
Epilepsy Research 09/2014; 108(7). DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.05.008 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticonvulsant activity and safety of imepitoin, a novel antiepileptic drug licensed in the European Union, were evaluated in a multicentre field efficacy study as well as in a safety study under laboratory conditions. Efficacy of imepitoin was compared with phenobarbital in 226 client-owned dogs in a blinded parallel group design. The administration of imepitoin twice daily in incremental doses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg demonstrated comparable efficacy to phenobarbital in controlling seizures in dogs. The frequency of adverse events including somnolence/sedation, polydipsia and increased appetite was significantly higher in the phenobarbital group. In phenobarbital-treated dogs, significantly increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and other liver enzymes occurred, while no such effect was observed in the imepitoin group. In a safety study under laboratory conditions, healthy beagle dogs were administered 0, 30, 90 or 150 mg/kg imepitoin twice daily for 26 weeks. A complete safety evaluation including histopathology was included in the study. A no-observed-adverse-event level of 90 mg/kg twice daily was determined. These results indicate that imepitoin is a potent and safe antiepileptic drug for dogs.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1111/jvp.12151 · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The remission rate is above 50% in previously pharmacoresistant patients but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in rodents mimics antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in humans and is widely used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of ECT. For the translational value of findings in animal models it is essential to establish models with the highest construct, face and predictive validity possible. The commonly used model for ECT in rodents does not meet the demand for high construct validity. For ECT, cortical surface electrodes are used to induce therapeutic seizures whereas ECS in rodents is exclusively performed by auricular or corneal electrodes. However, the stimulation site has a major impact on the type and spread of the induced seizure activity and its antidepressant effect. We propose a method in which ECS is performed by screw electrodes placed above the motor cortex of rats to closely simulate the clinical situation and thereby increase the construct validity of the model. Cortical ECS in rats induced reliably seizures comparable to human ECT. Cortical ECS was more effective than auricular ECS to reduce immobility in the forced swim test. Importantly, auricular stimulation had a negative influence on the general health condition of the rats with signs of fear during the stimulation sessions. These results suggest that auricular ECS in rats is not a suitable ECT model. Cortical ECS in rats promises to be a valid method to mimic ECT.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 06/2014; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.02.007 · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronically implanted intracranial depth electrodes are widely used for studying electroencephalographic activities in deep cerebral locations and for electrical stimulation of such locations. We have previously reported that prolonged implantation of an electrode in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats facilitates subsequent kindling from this site, indicating a pro-kindling or pro-epileptogenic effect. To further characterize this phenomenon, we analyzed data from experiments in which we induced a self-sustaining status epilepticus (SSSE) by BLA stimulation following different periods of post-surgical delay. In a total of 183 Sprague-Dawley rats, three groups with different periods of postsurgical delay to onset of electrical stimulation were compared: group 1 (16 days on average), group 2 (28 days) and group 3 (48 days). Three types of SSSE were observed after BLA stimulation: type 1 (nonconvulsive), type 2 (nonconvulsive occasionally interrupted by generalized convulsive activity), and type 3 (generalized convulsive). While groups 1 and 2 did not differ in the frequency of these SSSE types, the group with the longest interval between electrode implantation and stimulation (group 3) showed significantly more severe SSSE than the two other groups. The data indicate that intracranial electrode implantation may increase the sensitivity of the implanted area to seizure induction, extending previous findings in the kindling model. Potential mechanisms of these findings include the functional consequences of local microhemorrhages and blood-brain barrier destruction.
Epilepsy research 05/2014; 108(4). DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.01.025 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1/MDR1) is a major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting the penetration of various compounds. In other tissues, trafficking of Pgp from subcellular stores to the cell surface has been demonstrated and may constitute a rapid way of the cell to respond to toxic compounds by functional membrane insertion of the transporter. It is not known whether drug-induced Pgp trafficking also occurs in brain capillary endothelial cells that form the BBB. In this study, trafficking of Pgp was investigated in human brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) that were stably transfected with a doxycycline-inducible MDR1-EGFP fusion plasmid. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells exhibited a 15-fold increase in Pgp-EGFP fusion protein expression, which was associated with an increased efflux of the Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). The chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was used to study drug-induced trafficking of Pgp. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of single hCMEC/D3-MDR1-EGFP cells revealed that Pgp redistribution from intracellular pools to the cell surface occurred within 2 h of MMC exposure. Pgp-EGFP exhibited a punctuate pattern at the cell surface compatible with concentrated regions of the fusion protein in membrane microdomains, i.e., lipid rafts, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis of biotinylated cell surface proteins in Lubrol-resistant membranes. MMC exposure also increased the functionality of Pgp as assessed in three functional assays with Pgp substrates (Rho123, eFluxx-ID Gold, calcein-AM). However, this increase occurred with some delay after the increased Pgp expression and coincided with the release of Pgp from the Lubrol-resistant membrane complexes. Disrupting rafts by depleting the membrane of cholesterol increased the functionality of Pgp. Our data present the first direct evidence of drug-induced Pgp trafficking at the human BBB and indicate that Pgp has to be released from lipid rafts to gain its full functionality.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88154. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088154 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is increased in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. This may restrict the penetration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) into the brain. However, the mechanisms underlying increased Pgp expression in epilepsy patients are not known. One possibility is that AEDs induce the expression and functionality of Pgp in BCECs. Several older AEDs that induce human cytochrome P450 enzymes also induce Pgp in hepatocytes and enterocytes, but whether this extends to Pgp at the human BBB and to newer AEDs is not known.
This prompted us to study the effects of various old and new AEDs on Pgp functionality in the human BCEC line, hCMEC/D3, using the rhodamine 123 (Rho123) efflux assay. For comparison, experiments were performed in two rat BCEC lines, RBE4 and GPNT, and primary cultures of rat and pig BCECs. Furthermore, known Pgp inducers, such as dexamethasone and several cytostatic drugs, were included in our experiments.
Under control conditions, GPNT cells exhibited the highest and RBE4 the lowest Pgp expression and Rho123 efflux, while intermediate values were determined in hCMEC/D3. Known Pgp inducers increased Rho123 efflux in all cell lines, but marked inter-cell line differences in effect size were observed. Of the various AEDs examined, only carbamazepine (100 μM) moderately increased Pgp functionality in hCMEC/D3, while valproate (300 μM) inhibited Pgp.
These data do not indicate that treatment with AEDs causes a clinically relevant induction in Pgp functionality in BCECs that form the BBB.
Pharmaceutical Research 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11095-013-1264-4 · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major unmet medical need is the lack of treatments to prevent (or modify) epilepsy in patients at risk, for example, after epileptogenic brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or prolonged acute symptomatic seizures like complex febrile seizures or status epilepticus. Typically, following such brain insults there is a seizure-free interval ("latent period"), lasting months to years before the onset of spontaneous recurrent epileptic seizures. The latent period after a brain insult offers a window of opportunity in which an appropriate treatment may prevent or modify the epileptogenic process induced by a brain insult. A similar latent period occurs in patients with epileptogenic gene mutations. Studies using animal models of epilepsy have led to a greater understanding of the factors underlying epileptogenesis and have provided significant insight into potential targets by which the development of epilepsy may be prevented or modified. This review focuses largely on some of the most common animal models of epileptogenesis and their potential utility for evaluating proposed antiepileptogenic therapies and identifying useful biomarkers. The authors also describe some of the limitations of using animal models in the search for therapies that move beyond the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Promising results of previous studies designed to evaluate antiepileptogenesis and the role of monotherapy versus polytherapy approaches are also discussed. Recent data from both models of genetic and acquired epilepsies strongly indicate that it is possible to prevent or modify epileptogenesis, and, hopefully, such promising results can ultimately be translated into the clinic.
Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 01/2014; 11(2). DOI:10.1007/s13311-013-0250-1 · 3.88 Impact Factor