[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p'-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were extensively investigated in the sediment samples collected from seven major river basins around China. The concentrations were in the range of 0.05-6.15 × 10(4) ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), 0.29-21.7 ng g(-1) dw and 0.01-6.49 ng g(-1) dw for PBDEs, PCBs and PCDD/Fs, respectively. The concentrations showed wide variations among different river basins, while the congener profiles in all the sediments were generally characterized by only a few compounds, such as BDE-209, -99 and -47, CB-11 and -28, OCDD and OCDF, etc. The spatial analysis identified a decreasing trend of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from south to north China, consistent with regional industrialization. However, relatively higher level of POPs was also observed in the upstream of Yellow River Basin. The present study gives insight into the spatial occurrence of the three POPs in the major river basins in China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive investigation into the occurrence of Dechlorane Plus (DP) in environmental samples around a DP manufacturing plant in East China was performed. The total syn-DP and anti-DP concentrations found in the soil, sediment, active air, and passive air samples were 0.50–2,315 pg/g dry weight (dw), 0.32–20.5 ng/g dw, 5.52–3,332 pg/m3, and 1.00–4,560 pg/m3, respectively. There were consistent trends in the spatial distributions of DP in the soil and air samples, with the DP concentrations decreasing dramatically as the distance from the plant increased. The mean anti-DP isomer fractional abundances (f
anti) in the soil, sediment, active air, and passive air samples were 0.67, 0.68, 0.70, and 0.64, respectively. These f
anti values were consistent with the f
anti value for the technical DP produced in the DP manufacturing plant (0.68), meaning that the DP had been released during the local DP production activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight aquatic biota species were collected from an e-waste dismantling area in East China to investigate bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The mean concentrations of PCBs varied widely from 6.01×104 to 2.27×106 pg g-1 dry weight (dw). The ∑25PCB concentrations in eel was significantly higher than those in other species. The levels for PCDD/Fs changed from 8.13 pg g-1 dw in toad to 617 pg g-1 dw in stone snail. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) ranged from 2.57 to 2352 pg WHO-TEQ g-1 dw with geometric mean value of 64.7 pg WHO-TEQ g-1 dw, which greatly exceeded the maximum levels of 4 pg g-1 ww set by the European Commission. The log-transferred bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 25 PCB congeners ranged from 1.0 to 6.6, with the highest value for CB-205 in crucian carp and the lowest value for CB-11 in frog. A parabolic correlation was observed between log BCF and log Kow (R2=0.53, p<0.001), where the maximum value occurred at approximately log Kow of 7. A similar correlation was also found in the plot of log BCF against numbers of chlorine atoms of PCBs (R2=0.57, p<0.001), indicating that medium-halogenated congeners of PCBs are more easily accumulated by aquatic biotas. There were no significant correlations between the log-transferred concentrations and trophic levels of aquatic species, suggesting that trophic magnification for PCBs and PCDD/Fs was not observed in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in sediments and fish from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Average concentrations of total (Σ) PCDD/Fs and ΣPBDEs in sediments ranged from 68.8 to 479pgg(-1) dry weight (dw) and 60.8 to 179pgg(-1) dw, respectively. Contamination levels of sedimentary PCDD/Fs and PBDEs were low to moderate compared to other urbanized regions worldwide. The concentrations in different fish species (Nile perch; Lates niloticus and Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus) were 5.32 to 49.0pgg(-1) wet weight (ww) for PCDD/Fs and 59.3 to 495pgg(-1) ww for PBDEs. Higher concentrations of the pollutants were found in L. niloticus than O. niloticus, which could be attributed to species differences in feeding habits and lifestyles. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for PCDD/Fs ranged from 0.08 to 0.33pgTEQg(-1) dw and 0.001-0.14pgTEQg(-1) ww in sediments and fish, respectively. The TEQ values were low compared to the data for fresh water fish reported in literature and within a permissible level of 3.5pgg(-1) ww recommended by the European Commission. Based on the Commission set value and minimum risk level criteria formulated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the fish from the Murchison Bay was fit for human consumption.
Science of The Total Environment 09/2014; 500-501C:1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.076 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two interference peaks which generally appeared in company with 13C labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (13C12-2,3,7,8-TCDF) in the same ion channel during dioxin analysis for biological samples were identified using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and high resolution gas chromatography/low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/LRMS). It was firstly inferred that the interference peaks should be the two isomers of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), which was a breakdown product of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), one of the typical organic chlorine pesticides (OCPs). Thereafter, the standard solution of DDE including o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE was analyzed for confirmation. By evaluation of the peak separation in HRGC/HRMS, comparison of the GC retention times and ion abundance ratios of the two interference peaks in real samples with the two DDE isomers in standard solution, the interference peaks were finally confirmed as o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE in sequence on a DB-5MS column. This study provided valuable information for accurate identification of dioxin compounds during the biological sample analysis.
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 09/2014; 32(9):971-4. DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1123.2014.05031
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) found in animal feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate, CuSO4) were investigated and traced back to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds in the chlor-alkali industry. PCDD/Fs could be transported through the supply chain: hydrochloric acid (HCl) by-produced during formation of chlorinated organic compounds in chlor-alkali industry → spent acid etching solution (acid-SES) generated in printed circuit board production → industrial cupric salt → CuSO4 in animal feed, and finally enter the food chain. The concentration ranges in HCl and acid-SES were similar, of which the level in acid-SES was also consistent with that in various cupric salt products including CuSO4 based on Cu element content. PCDD/Fs also showed very similar congener profiles in all the sample types. This indicates a probable direct transport pathway of PCDD/Fs into the food chain, which may eventually be exposed to humans through consumption. To date this is the first study in China that systematically reports on the PCDD/Fs transport from industrial pollution sources to industrial processes and finally enters the human food chain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments and two fish species collected from the Murchison Bay in Lake Victoria, using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer. Total PCB concentrations (Σ18PCBs) varied widely with mean values ranging from 777 to 4325 pg g− 1 dry weight (dw) for sediments and 80 to 779 pg g− 1 wet weight (ww) for fish. The PCB levels in the sediments were significantly higher at the station closest to Nakivubo channel, presumably due to effluents discharged by the channel, which may contain domestically produced commercial PCB mixtures. For fish, the concentrations in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) were significantly greater than those in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at all study stations, possibly due to dietary differences among species. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for the dioxin-like PCBs were 0.04–0.64 pg g− 1 dw and 0.01–0.39 pg g− 1 ww for sediments and fish, respectively. The non-ortho PCBs exhibited the highest contribution to the Σ12TEQs (> 75%) compared to the mono-ortho PCBs in both fish species. The TEQs in the present study were lower than many reported worldwide in literature for fish and were within the permissible level recommended by the European Commission, implying that the fish did not pose health hazards related to PCBs to the consumers.
Science of The Total Environment 06/2014; s 482–483(1):349–357. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.009 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in surface sediments (< 30 cm depth) and two fish species: Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The samples were collected from the Napoleon Gulf on the northern shore of Lake Victoria. The analysis was done using a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer for PCBs and a GC equipped with an electron capture detector for HCHs. Total (Σ) PCBs in the muscles of fish varied widely with mean values ranging from 41 to 670 pg g− 1 lipid weight (lw). The PCB levels in L. niloticus were significantly greater than those in O. niloticus. The large variability observed in the data was attributed to differences in feeding habits and trophic levels. While O. niloticus is a filter-eating fish species feeding mainly on phytoplankton and zooplankton, L. niloticus have predatory feeding behaviors and prefer a diet of live fish and, therefore, are more prone to bio-accumulate contaminants. The mean PCB concentrations in the sediments varied from 362 to 848 pg g− 1 dry weight. Variations in PCB levels were observed from one study site to another, this was attributed to the nature and particle size of the sediments. HCH isomers were detected in fish at mean concentrations of up to 45,900 pg g− 1 lw. The PCB and HCH concentrations were lower than those from previous studies elsewhere in literature and were below the maximum residue limits set by the European Commission and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, implying that the fish was fit for human consumption.
Science of The Total Environment 05/2014; 481(1):55–60. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.039 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grassland development serves as an important part of the national sustainable development strategy in China. This paper defines the strategic objectives of grassland development in China based on the national strategy, the current status of grassland development in China and the status of grassland development internationally. As China is at a transformational stage of implementing an ecological economic system in grassland development, top priorities should be given to enhance the values of grassland ecosystem services, reduce the pressures on the grasslands, and restructure the grassland industry. Case studies on three pasture areas in Sichuan and Inner Mongolia, which have distinct ecological and climatic features and are at different development stages, revealed that the core issue for sustainable development of grassland in China is in addressing the conflict between the people and grasslands. Improving the social security system and enhancing the capacity of the herders in implementing sustainable development are the recommended pathways for sustainable grassland development in China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A non-Aroclor PCB congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has recently attracted wide concerns because of its environmental ubiquity and specific sources potentially associated with yellow pigment production. In order to investigate PCB 11 and other PCBs in the yellow pigment products, 24 yellow pigment samples were collected from three different manufacturing plants in China. ∑20PCBs and PCB 11 were in the range of 50.7-9.19×10(5)ngg(-1) and 41.7-9.18×10(5)ngg(-1), respectively, which was much higher than those reported in previous study. The corresponding TEQ values ranged between 0.16 and 4.21×10(3)ng WHO2005-TEQkg(-1). The contribution of PCB 11 to ∑20PCBs reached up to 85.5% (median value) followed by PCB 28, PCB 77, and PCB 52 with contributions of 10.5%, 6.70%, and 5.40%, respectively. Significant differences were observed for PCB 11 concentrations among the different types of yellow pigment from the same plant and among the same sample types from different plants. The PCB 11 concentrations in diarylide yellow pigments produced from 3,3'-dichlorbenzidine were the highest in all the samples. It demonstrates that yellow pigment is a significant source not only for the widespread pollution of PCB 11 but also for other PCBs, especially for the lower chlorinated congeners.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in soils from an E-waste dismantling area in East China between 2005 and 2011. Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was employed for the sample analysis. PCB levels declined as expected, while PCDD/Fs generally remained at a constant level during the sampling period, and PBDE concentrations tended to be slightly lower after 2007 although the decline was not statistically significant. The congener profiles indicated that lowly-halogenated congeners of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accounted for the decreasing levels and relative proportions of the POPs, suggesting that they have been gradually eliminated from the field soil over the years. However, the concentration levels of some heavy congeners (e.g., CB-209, OCDD and OCDF) showed different trends from those of the lighter ones. The general tendencies of the three types of POPs in soils were consistent with those reported in other studies in this area. The results implied that the enhanced regulations and centralized dismantling action introduced in 2005 might exert a limited influence on these three types of POPs in soils during the sampling period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dechlorane Plus (DP), as a widely used flame retardant in different electrical and textile applications, has recently attracted great concern in the world. The present study investigated the DP levels and distribution in the human samples from both the occupational population and nearby area in east China. The DP concentrations ranged from 89.8 to 2958 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in whole blood and 4.08 to 2159 ng/g dry weight (dw) in hair. For the workers engaged in the DP manufacturing plant, the DP levels were significantly higher than those in most of the other two control groups from the nearby area. The values of anti-DP fractional abundance (fanti ratio) were commonly lower in the human samples from both the manufacturing plant and nearby area compared with those in the commercial products, which might suggest a stereoselective biotransformation of DP in human body. Furthermore, significantly positive relationship (p<0.05) was obtained between i) the concentrations (and fanti) in the paired blood and hair samples, indicating a similar distribution pattern of the two DP isomers in the paired samples; ii) the DP levels in human body and the exposure time (p<0.05), which suggest that further assessment could be needed to investigate potential long-term risks to the occupational population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a high-production volume, chlorinated flame retardant comprising two major isomers, syn- and anti-DP. In this study, levels of DP were measured in soil and earthworm samples in farmland from a typical E-waste dismantling area in China. The concentrations of total DP ranged from 0.17 to 1,990 ng g(-1) dw in soil samples and 3.43 to 89.2 ng g(-1) lw in earthworm samples. Higher DP levels were found in some main E-waste dismantling sites than those in other sites. The ratios of anti-DP to total DP (f anti) ranged from 0.57 to 0.80 in soil samples and 0.47 to 0.81 in earthworm samples, respectively. The f anti in most samples in this study was in the range of the reported technical DP values. These results showed that improper E-waste dismantling activities could result in the emission of DP. Most earthworm samples showed very low BSAFs (biota-to-soil accumulation factors) for total DP. The values of BSAF were in the range of 0.0007-1.85, with an average value of 0.23. This study presents the first report of the DP in earthworms, which would be useful for ecological risk assessment of DP in terrestrial ecosystem.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health 06/2013; 35(5). DOI:10.1007/s10653-013-9545-8 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on regional heterogeneity of environmental characteristics and factors influencing those characteristics, environmental units may be classified into homogeneous zones. Then, essential strategies and mitigation measures in each zone may be developed and environmental quality may be holistically improved using a system of environmental management regionalization (EMRZ). Here, an EMRZ scheme for China was devised by outlining regional management using integrated qualitative and quantitative methods. First, the land was subdivided into four environmental management domains using China's three physical geographic domains. Second, using a regionalization indicator system, the environmental characteristics of neighboring provinces in four domains was quantified using the one-dimensional Euclidean distance method; regions with high similarity were merged into one environmental management region (EMR) and the preliminary draft of EMRs was obtained. Based on the preliminary scheme, eight EMRs using prefecture-level administrative regions were obtained through boundary adjustment based on important natural geographical boundaries and existing regional plans. These include the Northeastern China Region, the North China Plain Region, the Loess Plateau Region, Southeast Coast Region, the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, the Southwestern China Region, the Northwestern China Region, and the Tibetan Plateau Region. Priority environmental problems of each EMR were discussed. The main contribution of this study is that it develops a novel methodological framework for EMRZ integrating qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and considers the spatial contiguity of each EMR and the spatial integrity of each administrative unit. Future research will focus on priority goals and establishment of suitable environmental management policies for each EMR based on known local environmental problems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in a seasonal passive sampling scheme during June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the spatial concentration, congener profiles and evaluate the potential inhalation risk in different functional areas in Tianjin, China. The spatial air concentrations and I-TEQs ranged 1.08×102–8.19×103 fg m−3 (average 2.63×103 fg m−3) and 4.08–325 fg I-TEQ m−3 (average 91.4 fg I-TEQ m−3) respectively for PCDD/Fs. The concentration and I-TEQs of PCBs were 3.08×104–3.01×105 fg m−3 (average 1.39×105 fg m−3) and 1.72–49.6 fg I-TEQ m−3 (average 18.5 fg I-TEQ m−3). It is obvious that PCB concentrations were several hundred times higher than the PCDD/Fs. However, the ambient air PCDD/Fs contributed a major part to the total toxicity equivalents, varying from 72.7% to 89.0% (average 81.8%). The atmospheric PCDD/F levels were observed to be higher in winter for most of sampling sites in the downtown. Besides, inhalation risk assessment showed that local residents might suffer more risk near the point sources than those in living area, industrial zones and background area in Tianjin City. However, the total daily dioxin intake was approximately several to hundreds of times lower than the WHO criteria, showing relatively low exposure risks from the impact of industry point sources in Tianjin City.
Chinese Science Bulletin 03/2013; 58(9). DOI:10.1007/s11434-013-5694-5 · 1.58 Impact Factor