Johannes M Aerts

Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (72)429.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucosylceramidase. Due to the lack of a fully functional enzyme there is progressive build-up of the lipid component glucosylceramide. Insufficient glucosylceramidase activity results in hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias and bone disease in patients. Gene therapy represents a future therapeutic option for patients unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy and lacking a suitable bone marrow donor. By proof-of-principle experiments we have previously demonstrated a reversal of symptoms in a murine disease model of type 1 Gaucher disease, using gammaretroviral vectors harboring strong viral promoters to drive glucosidase beta acid (GBA) gene expression. To investigate whether safer vectors can correct the enzyme deficiency, we utilized self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (SIN LVs) with the GBA gene under the control of human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and CD68 promoter, respectively. Here we report prevention of, as well as reversal of, manifest disease symptoms after lentiviral gene transfer. Glucosylceramidase activity above levels required for clearance of glucosylceramide from tissues resulted in reversal of splenomegaly, reduced Gaucher cell infiltration and a restoration of hematological parameters. These findings support the use of SIN-LVs with cellular promoters in future clinical gene therapy protocols for type 1 Gaucher disease.Molecular Therapy (2015); doi:10.1038/mt.2015.16.
    Molecular Therapy 02/2015; 23(5). DOI:10.1038/mt.2015.16 · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our quest to contribute to the definition of a molecular preeclamptic signature we encountered acid beta glucosidase (GBA, encoding for the enzyme glucocerebrosidase) as a gene that is up regulated in preeclamptic placentas. GBA deficiency causes Gaucher's disease, a lysosomal storage disease. GBA hydrolyzes glucosylceramide to free glucose and ceramide. Ceramide is a bioactive signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cell movement, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Purified GBA from placenta extracts was used to treat Gaucher patients with enzyme replacement therapy before the recombinant protein became available. The reason for the abundant expression in placenta and its role in the (patho) physiology of pregnancy is a complete enigma. We used multiple molecular techniques such as real time polymerase chain reaction, a lysosomal enzyme activity assay, 5' race to detect alternatively spliced variants, transfection of different variants in HEK-293 cells and Western blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assays to determine cellular localization and micro-array analysis to determine correlation of GBA expression to expression levels of other genes in placenta. GBA is up regulated and there is increased lysosomal activity in the preeclamptic placenta. In placenta multiple variants are present but only the full-length GBA protein possesses classical lysosomal activity indicating its role in the lysosomal pathway in placenta. GBA is located in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta and immunofluorescence is suggestive of lysosomal localization. 158 genes correlate either positively or negatively with GBA expression. Gene enrichment analysis confirms the lysosomal pathway in placenta. The increased levels of GBA are most probably a result of the increased cell turnover in the preeclamptic placenta. However since we expect higher levels of ceramide in those cases it may also put ceramide forward as a novel etiological factor in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. J.M. Jebbink: None. R.G. Boot: None. R. Keijser: None. P.D. Moerland: None. J. Aten: None. G.J. Veenboer: None. M. van Wely: None. M. Buimer: None. E. Ver Loren van Themaat: None. J.M. Aerts: None. J.A. van der Post: None. G.B. Afink: None. C. Ris-Stalpers: None. Copyright © 2014.
    01/2015; 5(1):135-6. DOI:10.1016/j.preghy.2014.10.277
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations within the lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GC) result in Gaucher disease and represent a major risk factor for developing Parkinson disease (PD). Loss of GC activity leads to accumulation of its substrate glucosylceramide and α-synuclein. Since lysosomal activity of GC is tightly linked to expression of its trafficking receptor, the lysosomal integral membrane protein type-2 (LIMP-2), we studied α-synuclein metabolism in LIMP-2-deficient mice. These mice showed an α-synuclein dosage-dependent phenotype, including severe neurological impairments and premature death. In LIMP-2-deficient brains a significant reduction in GC activity led to lipid storage, disturbed autophagic/lysosomal function, and α-synuclein accumulation mediating neurotoxicity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, apoptotic cell death, and inflammation. Heterologous expression of LIMP-2 accelerated clearance of overexpressed α-synuclein, possibly through increasing lysosomal GC activity. In surviving DA neurons of human PD midbrain, LIMP-2 levels were increased, probably to compensate for lysosomal GC deficiency. Therefore, we suggest that manipulating LIMP-2 expression to increase lysosomal GC activity is a promising strategy for the treatment of synucleinopathies.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(43). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1405700111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities, malonyldialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status was further investigated. Significant reduction of C16:0 and C18:0 plasmalogens in red blood cells of Gaucher disease patients was confirmed. In parallel, a significant increase in the glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio in red blood cell membranes, as well as an average 200-fold increase in plasma glucosylsphingosine levels was observed. Red blood cell malonyldialdehyde levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas their total antioxidant status was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between plasmalogen species and glucosylceramide, ceramide, glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio, glucosylsphingosine and malonyldialdehyde, significant for the C16:0 species and all the above parameters with the exception of malonyldialdehyde levels, was found along with a positive non-significant correlation with the total antioxidant status. Our results indicate that increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total antioxidant status exist in Gaucher disease patients. They demonstrate a clear link between plasmalogen levels and the primary glycolipid abnormalities characterizing the disorder and an association with the increased oxidative stress observed in Gaucher disease patients.
    Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 06/2014; 53(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2014.01.005 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelial dysfunction of Fabry disease results from α-galactosidase A deficiency leading to the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide. Vasculopathy in the α-galactosidase A null mouse is manifested as oxidant-induced thrombosis, accelerated atherogenesis, and impaired arterial reactivity. To better understand the pathogenesis of Fabry disease in humans, we generated a human cell model by using RNA interference. Hybrid endothelial cells were transiently transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specifically directed against α-galactosidase A. Knockdown of α-galactosidase A was confirmed using immunoblotting and globotriaosylceramide accumulation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity was correspondingly decreased by >60%. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), a specific marker for reactive nitrogen species and quantified using mass spectrometry, increased by 40- to 120-fold without corresponding changes in other oxidized amino acids, consistent with eNOS-derived reactive nitrogen species as the source of the reactive oxygen species. eNOS uncoupling was confirmed by the observed increase in free plasma and protein-bound aortic 3NT levels in the α-galactosidase A knockout mice. Finally, 3NT levels, assayed in biobanked plasma samples from patients with classical Fabry disease, were over sixfold elevated compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Thus, 3NT may serve as a biomarker for the vascular involvement in Fabry disease.Kidney International advance online publication, 8 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.520.
    Kidney International 01/2014; 86(1). DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.520 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease (GD) and Fabry disease (FD) are two relatively common inherited glycosphingolipidoses caused by deficiencies in the lysosomal glycosidases glucocerebrosidase and alpha-galactosidase A, respectively. For both diseases enzyme supplementation is presently used as therapy. Cells and tissues of GD and FD patients are uniformly deficient in enzyme activity, but the two diseases markedly differ in cell types showing lysosomal accumulation of the glycosphingolipid substrates glucosylceramide and globotriaosylceramide, respectively. The clinical manifestation of Gaucher disease and Fabry disease is consequently entirely different and the response to enzyme therapy is only impressive in the case of GD patients. This review compares both glycosphingolipid storage disorders with respect to similarities and differences. Presented is an update on insights regarding pathophysiological mechanisms as well as recently available biochemical markers and diagnostic tools for both disorders. Special attention is paid to sphingoid bases of the primary storage lipids in both diseases. The value of elevated glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease and globotriaosylsphingosine in Fabry disease for diagnosis and monitoring of disease is discussed as well as the possible contribution of the sphingoid bases to (patho)physiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New frontiers in sphingolipid biology.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; 1841(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.11.004 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal beta cells are considered developmentally immature and hence less glucose-responsive. To study the acquisition of mature glucose-responsiveness, we compared glucose-regulated redox state, insulin synthesis and secretion of beta cells purified from neonatal or 10-weeks old rats to their transcriptomes and proteomes measured by oligonucleotide and LC-MS/MS profiling. Lower glucose-responsiveness of neonatal beta cells was explained by two distinct properties: higher activity at low glucose and lower activity at high glucose. Basal hyperactivity was associated with higher NAD(P)H, a higher fraction of neonatal beta cells actively incorporating 3H-Tyrosine, and persistently increased insulin secretion below 5 mM glucose. Neonatal beta cells lacked the steep glucose-responsive NAD(P)H rise between 5-10 mM glucose characteristic for adult beta cells, and accumulated less NAD(P)H at high glucose. They had 2-fold lower expression of malate/aspartate-NADH shuttle and most glycolytic enzymes. Genome-wide profiling situated neonatal beta cells at a developmental crossroad: they showed advanced endocrine differentiation when specifically analyzed for their mRNA/protein level of classical neuroendocrine markers. On the other hand, discrete neonatal beta cell subpopulations still expressed mRNAs/proteins typical for developing/proliferating tissues. One example, Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) was used to investigate if neonatal beta cells with basal hyperactivity corresponded to a more immature subset with high DLK1, but no association was found. In conclusion, current study supports the importance of glycolytic NADH-shuttling in stimulus-function coupling, presents basal hyperactivity as novel property of neonatal beta cells, and provides potential markers to recognize intercellular developmental differences in the endocrine pancreas.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 09/2013; 52(1). DOI:10.1530/JME-13-0106 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal asphyctic (FA) preconditioning, induced by a brief episode of experimental hypoxia-ischemia, offers neuroprotection to a subsequent more severe asphyctic insult at birth. Extensive cell stress and apoptosis are important contributing factors of damage in the asphyctic neonatal brain. Since ceramide acts as a second messenger for multiple apoptotic stimuli including hypoxia/ischemia, we sought to investigate the possible involvement of the ceramide pathway in endogenous neuroprotection induced by FA preconditioning. Global FA was induced in rats by clamping both uterine and ovarian vasculature for 30 min. FA resulted in acute changes in brain ceramide/sphingomyelin metabolic enzymes, ceramide synthase 1, 2 and 5, acid sphingomyelinase, sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase and the ceramide transporter. This observation correlated with an increase in neuronal apoptosis and in astrocyte number. After birth, ceramide and sphingomyelin levels remained high in FA brains, suggesting that a long-term regulation of the ceramide pathway may be involved in the mechanism of tolerance to subsequent, otherwise lethal, asphyctic event.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2013; 54(7). DOI:10.1194/jlr.M034447 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for plasma-based tests that can directly measure the extent of beta cell injury in vivo, in patients receiving islet grafts and in animal models. Here we propose protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A (PPP1R1A) as novel biomarker for acute beta cell destruction. LC-MS/MS proteome analysis of FACS-purified beta cells, tissue-comparative Western blotting and immunohistochemistry indicated relatively high molar abundance and selectivity of PPP1R1A in beta cells. PPP1R1A was discharged into the extracellular space of chemically-injured rat and human islets in vitro, proportionate to the extent of beta cell death. Streptozotocin injection in rats led to a progressive PPP1R1A depletion from the cytoplasm of disintegrating beta cells, and a marked surge in plasma levels detectable by an affinity capture method. A similar massive PPP1R1A discharge in blood was also detected in 3 patients immediately after intraportal islet transplantation. Our findings provide first proof-of-principle for PPP1R1A as real-time biomarker of beta cell destruction in animal models and patients, and warrant development of more sensitive methods for its further validation in clinical trials.
    Diabetes 04/2013; 62(8). DOI:10.2337/db12-1507 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2013; 108(2):S97-S98. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.11.267 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Biochemical markers that accurately reflect the severity and progression of disease in patients with Fabry disease and their response to treatment are urgently needed. Globotriaosylsphingosine, also called lysoglobotriaosylceramide (lysoGb3), is a promising candidate biomarker.METHODS: We synthesized lysoGb3 and isotope-labeled [5,6,7,8,9] (13)C(5)-lysoGb3 (internal standard). After addition of the internal standard to 25 μL plasma or 400 μL urine from patients with Fabry disease and healthy controls, samples were extracted with organic solvents and the lysoGb3 concentration was quantified by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry). Calibration curves were constructed with control plasma and urine supplemented with lysoGb3. In addition to lysoGb3, lyso-ene-Gb3 was quantified. Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 786.4 > 282.3 [M+H](+) for lysoGb3, m/z 791.4 > 287.3 [M+H](+) for [5,6,7,8,9] (13)C(5)-lysoGb3, and 784.4 > 280.3 [M+H](+) for lyso-ene-Gb3.RESULTS: The mean (SD) plasma lysoGb3 concentration from 10 classically affected Fabry hemizygotes was 94.4 (25.8) pmol/mL (range 52.7-136.8 pmol/mL), from 10 classically affected Fabry heterozygotes 9.6 (5.8) pmol/mL (range 4.1-23.5 pmol/mL), and from 20 healthy controls 0.4 (0.1) pmol/mL (range 0.3-0.5 pmol/mL). Lyso-ene-Gb3 concentrations were 10%-25% of total lysoGb3. The urine concentration of lysoGb3 was 40-480 times lower than in corresponding plasma samples. Lyso-ene-Gb3 concentrations in urine were comparable or even higher than the corresponding lysoGb3 concentrations.CONCLUSIONS: This assay for the quantification of lysoGb3 and lyso-ene-Gb3 in human plasma and urine samples will be an important tool in the diagnosis of Fabry disease and for monitoring the effect of enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease.
    Clinical Chemistry 12/2012; 59(3). DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2012.192138 · 7.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding cassette protein A1 deficient (Abca1(-/-)) mice that lack HDL and wild-type (WT) mice were intravenously injected with chylomicron-like emulsion particles that contained radiolabeled cholesterol that is liberated in the liver and partly reenters the circulation. Both groups secreted radiolabeled cholesterol from plasma into intestinal lumen and TICE was unaltered between the two mouse models. To further investigate the role of HDL, we injected HDL with radiolabeled cholesterol in WT mice and Abca1(-/-)×Sr-b1(-/-) mice that lack HDL and are also unable to clear HDL via the liver. The intestines of both mice were unable to take up and secrete radiolabeled cholesterol from HDL via TICE. Although a generally accepted major player in the hepatobiliary route-based cholesterol excretion, HDL plays no significant role in TICE in mice.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 07/2012; 53(10):2017-23. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M022194 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal disorder and is caused by an inherited autosomal recessive deficiency in β-glucocerebrosidase. This enzyme, like other glycohydrolases involved in glycosphingolipid (GSL) metabolism, is present in both plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular fractions. We analyzed the activities of CBE-sensitive β-glucosidase (GBA1) and AMP-DNM-sensitive β-glucosidase (GBA2) in total cell lysates and PM of human fibroblast cell lines from control (normal) subjects and from patients with GD clinical types 1, 2, and 3. GBA1 activities in both total lysate and PM of GD fibroblasts were low, and their relative percentages were similar to those of control cells. In contrast, GBA2 activities were higher in GD cells than in control cells, and the degree of increase differed among the three GD types. The increase of GBA2 enzyme activity was correlated with increased expression of GBA2 protein as evaluated by QRT-PCR. Activities of β-galactosidase and β-hexosaminidase in PM were significantly higher for GD cells than for control cells and also showed significant differences among the three GD types, suggesting the occurrence of cross-talk among the enzymes involved in GSL metabolism. Our findings indicate that the profiles of glycohydrolase activities in PM may provide a valuable tool to refine the classification of GD into distinct clinical types.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 04/2012; 35(6):1081-91. DOI:10.1007/s10545-012-9478-x · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Lipidology 04/2012; 7(2):241-248. DOI:10.2217/clp.12.14 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified GALNT2 as a candidate gene in lipid metabolism, but it is not known how the encoded enzyme ppGalNAc-T2, which contributes to the initiation of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation, mediates this effect. In two probands with elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced triglycerides, we identified a mutation in GALNT2. It is shown that carriers have improved postprandial triglyceride clearance, which is likely attributable to attenuated glycosylation of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, as observed in their plasma. This protein inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses plasma triglycerides. We show that an apoC-III-based peptide is a substrate for ppGalNAc-T2 while its glycosylation by the mutant enzyme is impaired. In addition, neuraminidase treatment of apoC-III which removes the sialic acids from its glycan chain decreases its potential to inhibit LPL. Combined, these data suggest that ppGalNAc-T2 can affect lipid metabolism through apoC-III glycosylation, thereby establishing GALNT2 as a lipid-modifying gene.
    Cell metabolism 12/2011; 14(6):811-8. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2011.11.005 · 16.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of symptomatic nonneuronopathic (type 1) Gaucher patients (n = 64, median = 230.7 nM, range 15.6-1035.2 nM; normal (n = 28): median 1.3 nM, range 0.8-2.7 nM). The method developed for mass spectrometric quantification of plasma glucosylsphingosine is sensitive and robust. Plasma glucosylsphingosine levels correlate with established plasma markers of Gaucher cells, chitotriosidase (ρ = 0.66) and CCL18 (ρ = 0.40). Treatment of Gaucher disease patients by supplementing macrophages with mannose-receptor targeted recombinant glucocerebrosidase results in glucosylsphingosine reduction, similar to protein markers of Gaucher cells. Since macrophages prominently accumulate the lysoglycosphingolipid on glucocerebrosidase inactivation, Gaucher cells seem a major source of the elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine. Our findings show that plasma glucosylsphingosine can qualify as a biomarker for type 1 Gaucher disease, but that further investigations are warranted regarding its relationship with clinical manifestations of Gaucher disease.
    Blood 08/2011; 118(16):e118-27. DOI:10.1182/blood-2011-05-352971 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and its associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we characterized the impact of AMP-DNM on substrate oxidation patterns, food intake, and body weight gain in obese mice. Eight ob/ob mice treated with 100 mg/(kg d) AMP-DNM mixed in the food and 8 control ob/ob mice were placed in metabolic cages during the first, third, and fifth week of the experiment for measurement of substrate oxidation rates, energy expenditure, activity, and food intake. Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment. Initiation of treatment with AMP-DNM resulted in a rapid increase in fat oxidation by 129% (P = .05), a decrease in carbohydrate oxidation by 35% (P = .01), and a reduction in food intake by approximately 26% (P < .01) compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM decreased hepatic triglyceride content by 66% (P < .01) and, in line with the elevated fat oxidation rates, increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a expression. Treatment with AMP-DNM increased plasma levels of the appetite-regulating peptide YY compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM rapidly reduces food intake and increases fat oxidation, resulting in improvement of the obese phenotype. These features of AMP-DNM, together with its insulin-sensitizing capacity, make it an attractive candidate drug for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic derangements.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 08/2011; 61(1):99-107. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.05.013 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease is a prevalent and severe complication of long term parenteral nutrition. We present here for the first time data on the presence of ceramide, a bioactive compound involved in a variety of metabolic processes, in different lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition. Further research is needed to determine whether this potential harmful bioactive compound is involved in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 03/2011; 35(2):270-1. DOI:10.1177/0148607110381404 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is treated by two-weekly infusions with α-galactosidase A, which is deficient in this X-linked globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) storage disorder. Elevated plasma globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3) is a hallmark of classical Fabry disease. We investigated effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on plasma levels of lysoGb3 and Gb3 in patients with classical Fabry disease treated with agalsidase alfa at 0.2mg/kg, agalsidase beta at 0.2mg/kg or at 1.0mg/kg bodyweight. Each treatment regimen led to prominent reductions of plasma lysoGb3 in Fabry males within 3 months (P=0.0313), followed by relative stability later on. Many males developed antibodies against α-galactosidase A, particularly those treated with agalsidase beta. Patients with antibodies tended towards smaller correction in plasma lysoGb3 concentration, whereas treatment with high dose agalsidase beta allowed a reduction comparable to patients without antibodies. Pre-treatment plasma lysoGb3 concentrations of Fabry females were relatively low. In all females and with each treatment regimen, ERT gave reduction or stabilisation of plasma lysoGb3. Our investigation revealed that ERT of Fabry patients reduces plasma lysoGb3, regardless of the recombinant enzyme used. This finding shows that ERT can correct a characteristic biochemical abnormality in Fabry patients.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2011; 1812(1):70-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.09.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycosphingolipids are structural membrane components, residing largely in the plasma membrane with their sugar-moieties exposed at the cell's surface. In recent times a crucial role for glycosphingolipids in insulin resistance has been proposed. A chronic state of insulin resistance is a rapidly increasing disease condition in Western and developing countries. It is considered to be the major underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, a combination of metabolic abnormalities that increases the risk for an individual to develop Type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, polycystic ovary syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. As discussed in this chapter, the evidence for a direct regulatory interaction of glycosphingolipids with insulin signaling is still largely indirect. However, the recent finding in animal models that pharmacological reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis ameliorates insulin resistance and prevents some manifestations of metabolic syndrome, supports the view that somehow glycosphingolipids act as critical regulators, Importantly, since reductions in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis have been found to be well tolerated, such approaches may have a therapeutic potential.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2011; 721:99-119. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-0650-1_7 · 2.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
429.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • • Department of Medical Biochemistry
      • • Academic Medical Center
      • • Department of Hematology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1990–2015
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      • • Biochemistry and Metabolic Diseases
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Maastricht University
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands