[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Most known GRN mutations are null mutations, such as nonsense and frameshift mutations, which create a premature stop codon resulting in loss of function of the progranulin protein. Complete or near-complete genomic GRN deletions have also been found in three families, but heterozygous partial deletions that remove only one or two exons have not been reported to date. In this study, we analysed three unrelated FTLD patients with low plasma progranulin levels but no point GRN mutations by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF). We detected two heterozygous partial GRN deletions in two patients. One deletion removed exon 1 and part of intron 1. The second deletion was complex: it removed 1,410 bp extending from the part of intron 1 to the part of exon 3, with a small 5-bp insertion at the breakpoint junction (c.-7-1121_159delinsGATCA). Our findings illustrate the usefulness of a quantitative analysis in addition to GRN gene sequencing for a comprehensive genetic diagnosis of FTLD, particularly in patients with low plasma progranulin levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating mental illness with a strong genetic component. Identification of the genetic factors related to schizophrenia has been challenging and its genetic architecture is still largely unknown. To evaluate the contribution of damaging de novo mutations to schizophrenia, we sequenced the exomes of 58 sporadic cases of schizophrenia and their healthy parents. Exomes were captured and sequenced using the Agilent and Illumina technologies, respectively and genetic variants were called using our analytical pipeline that integrates BWA, Samtools, Pindel2 and Annovar. We identified 55 validated de novo variants, 21 of which were predicted as deleterious including 16 missense, 2 conserved splice site, 2 nonsense mutations and 1 frameshift deletion. The observed exonic point mutation rate of 0.91 events per trio or 1.7 x 10-8 per base per generation and the non-synonymous to synonymous ratio of 2.25 did not differ from neutral expectations. We did not observe multiple independent de novo variants in the same gene in our cohort. However, when combined to the other studies (Girard et al. 2011; Xu et al. 2012), our data allowed the identification of a second proband carrying a missense de novo SNV in the RGS12 gene, a finding unlikely to have occurred by chance (Monte Carlo simulation; P<0.0001). To further explore a potential role for RGS12 in schizophrenia, homozygous Rgs12 knock-out mice were tested for sensorimotor gating capabilities as measured by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses, one of the well-documented biological markers for schizophrenia in humans. Remarkably, these mice showed a significantly impaired sensorimotor gating when compared to wild-type and heterozygous mice indicating that Rgs12 may underlie certain aspects of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Overall, this study provides a list of 21 putative candidate genes for schizophrenia and establishes the RGS12 gene as a strong candidate.
American Society of Human Genetics, Boston, USA; 10/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perturbation of lipid metabolism favours progression of Alzheimer disease, in which processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has important implications. APP cleavage is tightly regulated by cholesterol and APP fragments regulate lipid homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether up or down regulation of full-length APP expression affected neuronal lipid metabolism. Expression of APP decreased HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis and SREBP mRNA levels, while its down regulation had opposite effects. APP and SREBP1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in the Golgi. This interaction prevented Site-2 protease-mediated processing of SREBP1, leading to inhibition of transcription of its target genes. A GXXXG motif in APP sequence was critical for regulation of HMGCR expression. In astrocytes, APP and SREBP1 did not interact nor did APP affect cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuronal expression of APP decreased both HMGCR and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and consequently cholesterol turnover, leading to inhibition of neuronal activity, which was rescued by geranylgeraniol, generated in the mevalonate pathway, in both APP expressing and mevastatin treated neurons. We conclude that APP controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 04/2013; 5(4):608-25. · 7.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a region upstream the BIN1 gene as the most important genetic susceptibility locus in Alzheimer's disease (AD) after APOE. We report that BIN1 transcript levels were increased in AD brains and identified a novel 3 bp insertion allele ∼28 kb upstream of BIN1, which increased (i) transcriptional activity in vitro, (ii) BIN1 expression levels in human brain and (iii) AD risk in three independent case-control cohorts (Meta-analysed Odds ratio of 1.20 (1.14-1.26) (P=3.8 × 10(-11))). Interestingly, decreased expression of the Drosophila BIN1 ortholog Amph suppressed Tau-mediated neurotoxicity in three different assays. Accordingly, Tau and BIN1 colocalized and interacted in human neuroblastoma cells and in mouse brain. Finally, the 3 bp insertion was associated with Tau but not Amyloid loads in AD brains. We propose that BIN1 mediates AD risk by modulating Tau pathology.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 February 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rs75932628-T variant of the gene encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) has recently been identified as a rare risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we examined the association between TREM2 exon 2 variants and early-onset AD in a sample of Caucasian subjects of French origin including 726 patients with age of onset ≤65 years and 783 controls. Only the rs75932628-T variant (predicted to cause an R47H substitution) conferred a significant risk for early-onset AD (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.3 to 16.8; p = 0.009). These results confirm the association between this variant and AD and underline its involvement in early-onset cases.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 02/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyslexia is a frequent neurodevelopmental learning disorder. To date, nine susceptibility loci have been identified, one of them being DYX9, located in Xq27. We performed the first French SNP linkage study followed by candidate gene investigation in dyslexia by studying 12 multiplex families (58 subjects) with at least two children affected, according to categorical restrictive criteria for phenotype definition. Significant results emerged on Xq27.3 within DYX9. The maximum multipoint LOD score reached 3,884 between rs12558359 and rs454992. Within this region, seven candidate genes were investigated for mutations in exonic sequences (CXORF1, CXORF51, SLITRK2, FMR1, FMR2, ASFMR1, FMR1NB), all having a role during brain development. We further looked for 5'UTR trinucleotide repeats in FMR1 and FMR2 genes. No mutation or polymorphism co-segregating with dyslexia was found. This finding in French families with Dyslexia showed significant linkage on Xq27.3 enclosing FRAXA, and consequently confirmed the DYX9 region as a robust susceptibility locus. We reduced the previously described interval from 6.8 (DXS1227-DXS8091) to 4 Mb also disclosing a higher LOD score.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify a new idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC)-causing gene. METHODS: In a 3-generation family with no SLC20A2 mutation, we performed whole exome sequencing in 2 affected first cousins, once removed. Nonsynonymous coding variants, splice acceptor and donor site variants, and frameshift coding indels (NS/SS/I) were filtered against dbSNP131, the HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes Project, and our in-house database including 72 exomes. RESULTS: Seventeen genes were affected by identical unknown NS/SS/I variations in the 2 patients. After screening the relatives, the p.Leu658Pro substitution within the PDGFRB gene remained the sole unknown mutation segregating with the disease in the family. This variation, which is predicted to be highly damaging, was present in 13 of 13 affected subjects and absent in 8 relatives without calcifications. Sequencing PDGFRB of 19 other unrelated IBGC cases allowed us to detect another potentially pathogenic substitution within PDGFRB, p.Arg987Trp, also predicted to be highly damaging. PDGFRB encodes a protein involved in angiogenesis and in the regulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) transport in vascular smooth muscle cells via Pit-1, a Pi transporter encoded by SLC20A1. CONCLUSION: Mutations of PDGFRB further support the involvement of this biological pathway in IBGC pathophysiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs). METHOD The family sample included 2,461 individuals from 631 pedigrees (581 in the primary European-ancestry analyses). Association was tested for single SNPs and genetic pathways. Polygenic scores based on family study results were used to predict case-control status in the Schizophrenia Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC) data set, and consistency of direction of effect with the family study was determined for top SNPs in the PGC GWAS analysis. Within-family segregation was examined for schizophrenia-associated rare CNVs. RESULTS No genome-wide significant associations were observed for single SNPs or for pathways. PGC case and control subjects had significantly different genome-wide polygenic scores (computed by weighting their genotypes by log-odds ratios from the family study) (best p=10-17, explaining 0.4% of the variance). Family study and PGC analyses had consistent directions for 37 of the 58 independent best PGC SNPs (p=0.024). The overall frequency of CNVs in regions with reported associations with schizophrenia (chromosomes 1q21.1, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, and 22q11.2 and the neurexin-1 gene [NRXN1]) was similar to previous case-control studies. NRXN1 deletions and 16p11.2 duplications (both of which were transmitted from parents) and 22q11.2 deletions (de novo in four cases) did not segregate with schizophrenia in families. CONCLUSIONS Many common SNPs are likely to contribute to schizophrenia risk, with substantial overlap in genetic risk factors between multiply affected families and cases in large case-control studies. Our findings are consistent with a role for specific CNVs in disease pathogenesis, but the partial segregation of some CNVs with schizophrenia suggests that researchers should exercise caution in using them for predictive genetic testing until their effects in diverse populations have been fully studied.
American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2012; 169(9):963-973. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) gene are associated with FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration) with tau pathology. These mutations result in a decreased ability of tau to bind MTs (microtubules), an increased production of tau with four MT-binding repeats or enhanced tau aggregation. In two FTLD patients, we recently described CNVs (copy number variations) affecting the MAPT gene, consisting of a partial deletion and a complete duplication of the gene. The partial deletion resulted in a truncated protein lacking the first MT-binding domain, which had a dramatic decrease in the binding to MTs but acquired the ability to bind MAP (microtubule-associated protein) 1-B. In this case, tauopathy probably resulted from both a loss of normal function and a gain of function by which truncated tau would sequester another MAP. In the other FTLD patient, the complete duplication might result in the overexpression of tau, which in the mouse model induces axonopathy and tau aggregates reminiscent of FTLD-tau pathology. Interestingly, the same rearrangement was also described in several children with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders and dysmorphic features, as well as in a schizophrenic patient. Finally, complete deletions of the MAPT gene have been associated with mental retardation, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Biochemical Society Transactions 08/2012; 40(4):672-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hexanucleotide expansion repeats in the C9ORF72 gene are a major cause of familial and, to a lesser extent, sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and FTLD-ALS. To examine whether C9ORF72 expansions could be involved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), we genotyped the hexanucleotide repeat region in a large cohort of 114 EOAD patients who all had positive AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. We found hexanucleotide expansion repeats of the C9ORF72 gene in 3 out of 114 patients (2.6%). We raise several hypotheses to explain our results and discuss the current status of AD CSF biomarkers in the dementia diagnostic algorithm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 37-year-old man suffering from insidious visual agnosia and spastic paraparesis due to a PSEN1 mutation. His mother was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease after a biopsy. He was assessed by multimodal neuroimaging, including new in vivo positron emission tomography amyloid imaging (F-AV45). His data were compared with those from healthy participants and patients with sporadic predemential Alzheimer disease. He exhibited posterior cortical thickness reduction, posterior hypometabolism, and increased amyloid ligand uptake in the posterior cortex and the striatum. We show that F-AV45 positron emission tomography allows visualization of the unusual pattern of amyloid deposits that co-localize with cortical atrophy in this genetic form of Alzheimer disease.
Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 04/2012; · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe 56 novel autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) families with PSEN1, PSEN2, and AβPP mutations or duplications, raising the total of families with mutations on known genes to 111 (74 PSEN1, 8 PSEN2, 16 AβPP, and 13 AβPP duplications) in the French series. In 33 additional families (23% of the series), the genetic determinism remained uncharacterized after this screening. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels were obtained for patients of 58 families (42 with known mutations and 16 without genetic characterization). CSF biomarkers profile was consistent with an AD diagnosis in 90% of families carrying mutations on known genes. In families without mutation, CSF biomarkers were consistent with AD diagnosis in 14/16 cases. Overall, these results support further genetic heterogeneity in the determinism of ADEOAD and suggest that other major genes remain to be characterized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Performing exome sequencing in 14 autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) index cases without mutation on known genes (amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin1 (PSEN1) and presenilin2 (PSEN2)), we found that in five patients, the SORL1 gene harbored unknown nonsense (n=1) or missense (n=4) mutations. These mutations were not retrieved in 1500 controls of same ethnic origin. In a replication sample, including 15 ADEOAD cases, 2 unknown non-synonymous mutations (1 missense, 1 nonsense) were retrieved, thus yielding to a total of 7/29 unknown mutations in the combined sample. Using in silico predictions, we conclude that these seven private mutations are likely to have a pathogenic effect. SORL1 encodes the Sortilin-related receptor LR11/SorLA, a protein involved in the control of amyloid beta peptide production. Our results suggest that besides the involvement of the APP and PSEN genes, further genetic heterogeneity, involving another gene of the same pathway is present in ADEOAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have led to the discovery of nine new loci of genetic susceptibility in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the landscape of the AD genetic susceptibility is far away to be complete and in addition to single-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses as performed in conventional GWAS, complementary strategies need to be applied to overcome limitations inherent to this type of approaches. We performed a genome-wide haplotype association (GWHA) study in the EADI1 study (n=2025 AD cases and 5328 controls) by applying a sliding-windows approach. After exclusion of loci already known to be involved in AD (APOE, BIN1 and CR1), 91 regions with suggestive haplotype effects were identified. In a second step, we attempted to replicate the best suggestive haplotype associations in the GERAD1 consortium (2820 AD cases and 6356 controls) and observed that 9 of them showed nominal association. In a third step, we tested relevant haplotype associations in a combined analysis of five additional case-control studies (5093 AD cases and 4061 controls). We consistently replicated the association of a haplotype within FRMD4A on Chr.10p13 in all the data set analyzed (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: (1.43-1.96); P=1.1 x 10(-10)). We finally searched for association between SNPs within the FRMD4A locus and Abeta plasma concentrations in three independent non-demented populations (n=2579). We reported that polymorphisms were associated with plasma Abeta42/Abeta40 ratio (best signal, P=5.4 x 10(-7)). In conclusion, combining both GWHA study and a conservative three-stage replication approach, we characterised FRMD4A as a new genetic risk factor of AD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 March 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rare diseases have been associated with more and more genetic and non genetic causes and risk factors. But this has not been systematically assessed in catatonia, one of the psychiatric syndromes, that is most frequently associated with medical condition.
We sought to assess the medical and developmental risk factors of catatonia in children and adolescents.
From 1993 to 2009, 58 youths aged 10 to 18 years were prospectively admitted for catatonia and were followed up after discharge. A multidisciplinary approach assessed patients' medical condition and developmental history. A causality assessment scored medical risk (maximum score=10; κ=0.91). We compared the prevalence of catatonia in these patients to that of 80 inpatients with bipolar I disorder admitted from 1993 to 2003 who were also followed up.
We found that 13 (22.4%) patients had medical conditions and 18 (31%) had a history of developmental disorder in the catatonia group, whereas 1 (1.3%) and 17 (22.6%) patients had the same conditions in the bipolar group (p<0.001; p=0.17, respectively). Medical conditions associated with catatonia included auto-immune encephalitis (systemic lupus erythematosus [N=3] and anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis [N=1]), seizures (N=1), ciclosporin encephalitis (N=1), post hypoglycaemic coma encephalitis (N=1), and genetic or metabolic conditions (chorea [N=2], 5HT cerebrospinal fluid deficit [N=1], storage disease [N=1], fatal familial insomnia [FFI; N=1], and PRODH mutations [N=1]). Six patients responded to a specific treatment approach related to their medical condition (e.g., plasma exchange in the case of auto-immune encephalitis).
Catatonia in children and adolescents is associated with a high prevalence of medical conditions. This needs to be acknowledged as it may greatly delay the treatment of catatonia and the diagnosis of medically related catatonia. Tragically, this may deny patients treatment opportunities.
Schizophrenia Research 03/2012; 137(1-3):151-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole exome sequencing (WES) has become the strategy of choice to identify a coding allelic variant for a rare human monogenic disorder. This approach is a revolution in medical genetics history, impacting both fundamental research, and diagnostic methods leading to personalized medicine. A plethora of efficient algorithms has been developed to ensure the variant discovery. They generally lead to ~20,000 variations that have to be narrow down to find the potential pathogenic allelic variant(s) and the affected gene(s). For this purpose, commonly adopted procedures which implicate various filtering strategies have emerged: exclusion of common variations, type of the allelics variants, pathogenicity effect prediction, modes of inheritance and multiple individuals for exome comparison. To deal with the expansion of WES in medical genomics individual laboratories, new convivial and versatile software tools have to implement these filtering steps. Non-programmer biologists have to be autonomous combining themselves different filtering criteria and conduct a personal strategy depending on their assumptions and study design.
We describe EVA (Exome Variation Analyzer), a user-friendly web-interfaced software dedicated to the filtering strategies for medical WES. Thanks to different modules, EVA (i) integrates and stores annotated exome variation data as strictly confidential to the project owner, (ii) allows to combine the main filters dealing with common variations, molecular types, inheritance mode and multiple samples, (iii) offers the browsing of annotated data and filtered results in various interactive tables, graphical visualizations and statistical charts, (iv) and finally offers export files and cross-links to external useful databases and softwares for further prioritization of the small subset of sorted candidate variations and genes. We report a demonstrative case study that allowed to identify a new candidate gene related to a rare form of Alzheimer disease.
EVA is developed to be a user-friendly, versatile, and efficient-filtering assisting software for WES. It constitutes a platform for data storage and for drastic screening of clinical relevant genetics variations by non-programmer geneticists. Thereby, it provides a response to new needs at the expanding era of medical genomics investigated by WES for both fundamental research and clinical diagnostics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studying rare extreme forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) may prove to be a useful strategy in identifying new genes involved in monogenic determinism of AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP), PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations account for only 85% of autosomal dominant early-onset AD (ADEOAD) families. We hypothesised that rare copy number variants (CNVs) could be involved in ADEOAD families without mutations in known genes, as well as in rare sporadic young-onset AD cases. Using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation, we assessed the presence of rare CNVs in 21 unrelated ADEOAD cases, having no alteration on known genes, and 12 sporadic AD cases, with an age of onset younger than 55 years. The analysis revealed the presence of 7 singleton CNVs (4 in ADEOAD and 3 in sporadic cases) absent in 1078 controls and 912 late-onset AD cases. Strikingly, 4 out of 7 rearrangements target genes (KLK6, SLC30A3, MEOX2, and FPR2) encoding proteins that are tightly related to amyloid-β peptide metabolism or signalling. Although these variants are individually rare and restricted to particular subgroups of patients, these findings support the causal role, in human pathology, of a set of genes coding for molecules suspected for a long time to modify Aβ metabolism or signalling, and for which animal or cellular models have already been developed.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 12/2011; 20(6):613-7. · 3.56 Impact Factor