Thirumalai R Ramalingam

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (42)385.54 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The roles of macrophages in type 2-driven inflammation and fibrosis remain unclear. Here, using CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice and three models of interleukin 13 (IL-13)-dependent inflammation, fibrosis, and immunity, we show that CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages are required for the maintenance of type 2 immunity within affected tissues but not secondary lymphoid organs. Direct depletion of macrophages during the maintenance or resolution phases of secondary Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation caused a profound decrease in inflammation, fibrosis, and type 2 gene expression. Additional studies with CD11c-DTR and CD11b/CD11c-DTR double-transgenic mice suggested that macrophages but not dendritic cells were critical. Mechanistically, macrophage depletion impaired effector CD4(+) T helper type 2 (Th2) cell homing and activation within the inflamed lung. Depletion of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages similarly reduced house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation and suppressed IL-13-dependent immunity to the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Consequently, therapeutic strategies targeting macrophages offer a novel approach to ameliorate established type 2 inflammatory diseases.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 29 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.34.
    Mucosal Immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/mi.2015.34 · 7.54 Impact Factor
  • Trisha Pasricha, Thirumalai R. Ramalingam, Thomas A. Wynn
    Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-688. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)32328-3 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages coexpress both the interleukin (IL)-2Rγ chain (γc) and IL-13Rα1. These receptor chains can heterodimerize with IL-4Rα to form type I or type II IL-4 receptor complexes, respectively. We used macrophages derived from Il2rg and Il13ra1 knockout (KO) mice to evaluate the requirements for these receptor chains for induction of the alternative macrophage activation (AMA) pathway by IL-4 and IL-13. Absence of γc significantly decreased activation of STAT6 by IL-4 but not IL-13. However, although activation of STAT6 by IL-4 was markedly reduced in γc KO macrophages, it was not abolished, indicating that IL-4 can still signal through type II IL-4 receptors via the IL-13Rα1 chain. IL-13 failed to activate STAT6 in macrophages derived from Il13ra1 KO mice; however, these cells remained fully responsive to IL-4. The inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to signal in Il13ra1(-/-) macrophages correlated with the inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to induce expression of genes such as Arg1, Retnla and Ccl11 that are characteristically expressed by alternatively activated macrophages. In addition, IL-13 but not IL-4 failed to induce membrane fusion and giant cell formation by Il13ra1 KO macrophages. These findings demonstrate that the IL-13Rα1 chain is essential for induction of the AMA pathway by IL-13 but not IL-4. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Innate Immunity 03/2015; DOI:10.1159/000376579 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote type 2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Several previous studies reported inconsistent results on the role of exogenous IL-25 in development of colonic inflammation and none were performed in animals with a genetic deletion of IL-25. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis using mice deficient in IL-25. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad libitum either for seven days (acute) or for three cycles of seven days with DSS followed by 14 days without DSS (chronic) to induce colitis, respectively. The loss of body weight, appearance of diarrhea and bloody stools, and shortening of colon length were significantly less pronounced in IL-25(-/-) mice compared to WT mice after exposure to acute DSS. Histological examination showed that DSS-treated IL-25(-/-) mice had only mild inflammation in the colon, while severe inflammation developed in DSS-treated WT mice. A significant up-regulation of IL-33 was observed in acute DSS-treated WT but not in the IL-25(-/-) mice. There was significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon of acute DSS-treated IL-25(-/-) compared to WT mice. IL-25(-/-) mice were also partially protected from chronic DSS challenge especially during the first 2 cycles of DSS exposure. In contrast to IL-25(-/-) mice, IL-13(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. Finally, stimulation of T84 colonic epithelial cells with IL-25 up-regulated the expression of IL-33 and several pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data indicate that endogenous IL-25 acts as a pro-inflammatory factor in DSS-induced colitis, which is unlikely to be mediated by IL-13 but possibly the induction of IL-33 and other pro-inflammatory mediators from colonic epithelial cells. The present study suggests that IL-25 may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in at least a subgroup of patients.
    11/2014; 4:72. DOI:10.1186/2045-3701-4-72
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    ABSTRACT: Mice expressing a Cre recombinase from the lysozyme M-encoding locus (Lyz2) have been widely used to dissect gene function in macrophages and neutrophils. Here, we show that while naïve resident tissue macrophages from IL-4Rαflox/deltaLysMCre mice almost completely lose IL-4Rα function, a large fraction of macrophages elicited by sterile inflammatory stimuli, Schistosoma mansoni eggs, or S. mansoni infection, fail to excise Il4rα. These F4/80hiCD11bhi macrophages, in contrast to resident tissue macrophages, express lower levels of Lyz2 explaining why this population resists LysMCre-mediated deletion. We show that in response to IL-4 and IL-13, Lyz2loIL-4Rα+ macrophages differentiate into an arginase 1-expressing alternatively-activated macrophage (AAM) population, which slows the development of lethal fibrosis in schistosomiasis. In contrast, we identified Lyz2hiIL-4Rα+ macrophages as the key subset of AAMs mediating the downmodulation of granulomatous inflammation in chronic schistosomiasis. Our observations reveal a limitation on using a LysMCre mouse model to study gene function in inflammatory settings, but we utilize this limitation as a means to demonstrate that distinct populations of alternatively activated macrophages control inflammation and fibrosis in chronic schistosomiasis.
    PLoS Pathogens 09/2014; 10(9):e1004372. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004372 · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 06/2014; 134(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.05.019 · 11.25 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-655. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)62383-0 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Vahe Badalyan, Robert W. Thompson, Thomas A. Wynn, Thirumalai R. Ramalingam
    Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-826. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)62999-1 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: How the immune system adapts to malnutrition to sustain immunity at barrier surfaces, such as the intestine, remains unclear. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with profound defects in adaptive immunity. Here, we found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are severely diminished in vitamin A-deficient settings, which results in compromised immunity to acute bacterial infection. However, vitamin A deprivation paradoxically resulted in dramatic expansion of interleukin-13 (IL-13)-producing ILC2s and resistance to nematode infection in mice, which revealed that ILCs are primary sensors of dietary stress. Further, these data indicate that, during malnutrition, a switch to innate type 2 immunity may represent a powerful adaptation of the immune system to promote host survival in the face of ongoing barrier challenges.
    Science 01/2014; 343(6169):432-7. DOI:10.1126/science.1247606 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59441. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059441 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine member of the IL-1 family. The biological activities of IL-33 are associated with promotion of Th2 and inhibition of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Exogenous IL-33 induces a typical "type 2" immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, yet the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) to be fully elucidated. In addition, the role of IL-33 in the regulation of gastrointestinal function is not known. The current study investigated IL-33-dependent intestinal immunity and function in mice. Exogenous IL-33 induced a polarized type 2 cytokine response in the intestine that was entirely MyD88-dependent, but STAT6- and IL-13-independent. Mice injected with recombinant IL-33 exhibited intestinal smooth muscle hypercontractility, decreased epithelial responses to acetylcholine and glucose, and increased mucosal permeability. IL-33 effects on the intestinal epithelial function were STAT6-dependent, and both IL-4 and IL-13 appeared to play a role. The effects on smooth muscle function, however, were attributable to both STAT6-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In addition, IL-13 induction of insulin-like growth factor-1 was implicated in IL-33-induced smooth muscle hypertrophy. Finally, alternative activation of macrophages induced by IL-33 revealed a novel pathway that is IL-4-, IL-13-, and STAT6-independent. Thus, manipulating IL-33 or related signaling pathways represents a potential therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases associated with dysregulated intestinal function.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 12/2012; 304(4). DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00357.2012 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    Thomas A Wynn, Thirumalai R Ramalingam
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrosis is a pathological feature of most chronic inflammatory diseases. Fibrosis, or scarring, is defined by the accumulation of excess extracellular matrix components. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process eventually leads to organ malfunction and death. Fibrosis affects nearly every tissue in the body. Here we discuss how key components of the innate and adaptive immune response contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. We also describe how cell-intrinsic changes in important structural cells can perpetuate the fibrotic response by regulating the differentiation, recruitment, proliferation and activation of extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts. Finally, we highlight some of the key mechanisms and pathways of fibrosis that are being targeted as potential therapies for a variety of important human diseases.
    Nature medicine 07/2012; 18(7):1028-40. DOI:10.1038/nm.2807 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive fibrosis contributes to the morbidity of several chronic diseases; it typically develops slowly, so the mechanisms that control its progression and resolution have been difficult to model. The proteins interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13Rα2 regulate hepatic fibrosis following infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We examined whether these mediators interact to slow the progression of hepatic fibrosis in mice with schistosomiasis. IL-10(-/-), IL-12/23(p40)(-/-), and IL-13Rα2(-/-) mice were crossed to generate triple knockout (TKO) mice. We studied these mice to determine whether the simultaneous deletion of these 3 negative regulators of the immune response accelerated mortality from liver fibrosis following infection with S mansoni. Induction of inflammation by S mansoni, liver fibrosis, and mortality increased greatly in TKO mice compared with wild-type mice; 100% of the TKO mice died by 10 weeks after infection. Morbidity and mortality were associated with the development of portal hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, thrombocytopenia, esophageal and gastric varices, anemia, and increased levels of liver enzymes, all features of advanced liver disease. IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13Rα2 reduced the production and activity of the profibrotic cytokine IL-13. A neutralizing antibody against IL-13 reduced the morbidity and mortality of the TKO mice following S mansoni infection. IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13Rα2 act cooperatively to suppress liver fibrosis in mice following infection with S mansoni. This model rapidly reproduces many of the complications observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis, so it might be used to evaluate the efficacy of antifibrotic reagents being developed for schistosomiasis or other fibrotic diseases associated with a T-helper 2 cell-mediated immune response.
    Gastroenterology 08/2011; 141(6):2200-9. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.08.008 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    Thomas A Wynn, Thirumalai R Ramalingam
    Nature medicine 05/2011; 17(5):547-8. DOI:10.1038/nm0511-547 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play key roles in wound repair and fibrosis by regulating extracellular matrix turnover. Macrophages can process matrix components themselves, but also recruit and alter the functions of other cell types that directly build or degrade extracellular matrix. Classically activated macrophages (CAM, also called M1) tend to promote tissue injury while alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, also called M2) are often linked with the mechanisms of wound repair and fibrosis. However, rather than promoting collagen deposition, recent studies suggest that arginase-1-expressing AAM suppress chronic inflammation and fibrosis by inhibiting antigen-specific T cell responses. This unit describes methods to measure arginase activity in macrophages and whole tissues as well as assays to quantify the T cell suppressive activity of AAMs. Modified hydroxyproline and soluble collagen assays that can be used to quantify collagen levels in tissues and brochoalveolar lavage fluid are also described. The protocols in this unit should provide the investigator with all the necessary information required to measure arginase activity and to correlate the observed activity with the progression and resolution of fibrosis.
    Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 04/2011; Chapter 14:Unit14.22. DOI:10.1002/0471142735.im1422s93
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-13 is a Th2-associated cytokine responsible for many pathological responses in allergic asthma including mucus production, inflammation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. In addition, IL-13 is required for immunity to many helminth infections. IL-13 signals via the type-II IL-4 receptor, a heterodimeric receptor of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα, which is also used by IL-4. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, but with much higher affinity than the type-II IL-4 receptor. Binding of IL-13 to IL-13Rα2 has been shown to attenuate IL-13 signaling through the type-II IL-4 receptor. However, molecular determinants that dictate the specificity and affinity of mouse IL-13 for the different receptors are largely unknown. Here, we used high-density overlapping peptide arrays, structural modeling, and molecular docking methods to map IL-13 binding sequences on its receptors. Predicted binding sequences on mouse IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2 were in agreement with the reported human IL-13 receptor complex structures and site-directed mutational analysis. Novel structural differences were identified between IL-13 receptors, particularly at the IL-13 binding interface. Notably, additional binding sites were observed for IL-13 on IL-13Rα2. In addition, the identification of peptide sequences that are unique to IL-13Rα1 allowed us to generate a monoclonal antibody that selectively binds IL-13Rα1. Thus, high-density peptide arrays combined with molecular docking studies provide a novel, rapid, and reliable method to map cytokine-receptor interactions that may be used to generate signaling and decoy receptor-specific antagonists.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 01/2011; 79(1):282-93. DOI:10.1002/prot.22881 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(11)60524-6 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-25 (IL-17E) is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family. IL-25-deficient mice exhibit impaired Th2 immunity against nematode infection, implicating IL-25 as a key component in mucosal immunity. The sources of IL-25 and mechanisms responsible for the induction of Th2 immunity by IL-25 in the gastrointestinal tract remain poorly understood. There is also little information on the regulation of IL-25 during inflammation or its role in gut function. In the current study, we investigated the regulation of IL-25 during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection and the contribution of IL-25 to the infection-induced alterations in intestinal function. We found that epithelial cells, but not immune cells, are the major source of IL-25 in the small intestine. N. brasiliensis infection-induced upregulation of IL-25 depends upon IL-13 activation of STAT6. IL-25(-/-) mice had diminished intestinal smooth muscle and epithelial responses to N. brasiliensis infection that were associated with an impaired Th2 protective immunity. Exogenous IL-25 induced characteristic changes similar to those after nematode infection but was unable to restore the impaired host immunity against N. brasiliensis infection in IL-13(-/-) mice. These data show that IL-25 plays a critical role in nematode infection-induced alterations in intestinal function that are important for host protective immunity, and IL-13 is the major downstream Th2 cytokine responsible for the IL-25 effects.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(11):6921-9. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1000450 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is required to maintain immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. IL-10 null mice spontaneously develop colitis or are more susceptible to induction of colitis by infections, drugs, and autoimmune reactions. IL-13 regulates inflammatory conditions; its activity might be compromised by the IL-13 decoy receptor (IL-13Rα2). We examined the roles of IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in intestinal inflammation in mice. To study the function of IL-13Rα2, il10(-/-) mice were crossed with il13rα2(-/-) to generate il10(-/-)il13rα2(-/-) double knockout (dKO) mice. Colitis was induced with the gastrointestinal toxin piroxicam or Trichuris muris infection. Induction of colitis by interferon (IFN)-γ or IL-17 in IL-10 null mice requires IL-13Rα2. Following exposure of il10(-/-) mice to piroxicam or infection with T muris, production of IL-13Rα2 increased, resulting in decreased IL-13 bioactivity and increased inflammation in response to IFN-γ or IL-17A. In contrast to il10(-/-) mice, dKO mice were resistant to piroxicam-induced colitis; they also developed less severe colitis during chronic infection with T muris infection. In both models, resistance to IFN-γ and IL-17-mediated intestinal inflammation was associated with increased IL-13 activity. Susceptibility to colitis was restored when the dKO mice were injected with monoclonal antibodies against IL-13, confirming its protective role. Colitis and intestinal inflammation in IL10(-/-) mice results from IL-13Rα2-mediated attenuation of IL-13 activity. In the absence of IL-13Rα2, IL-13 suppresses proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. Reagents that block the IL-13 decoy receptor IL-13Rα2 might be developed for inflammatory bowel disease associated with increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-17.
    Gastroenterology 10/2010; 140(1):254-64. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.09.047 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2010; 138(5). DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(10)60167-9 · 13.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
385.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2014
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Naval Medical Research Center
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States