[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether an elevated vaginal leucocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) predicts the presence of vaginal or cervical infections, and to assess the relation of vaginal WBC counts to clinical manifestations.
We retrospectively analysed the relation of vaginal leucocyte counts to vaginal and cervical infections and to clinical manifestations in non-pregnant women diagnosed with BV at an STD clinic visit.
Of 296 women with BV studied, the median age was 24 years and 81% were African-American. Elevated vaginal leucocyte counts were associated with objective signs of vaginitis and cervicitis and also predicted candidiasis (OR 7.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 28.9), chlamydia (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.7), gonorrhoea (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), or trichomoniasis (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 7.3). In general, as a screening test for vaginal or cervical infections, vaginal leucocyte count had moderate sensitivities and specificities, low positive predictive values, and high negative predictive values.
An elevated vaginal leucocyte count in women with BV was a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. Vaginal leucocyte quantification may provide an alternative approach to assessing need for empirical therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, particularly in resource-limited high STD risk settings that provide syndromic management.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to measure the performance of the Affirm Ambient Temperature Transport System (ATTS) over time and to estimate the length of time the system can preserve a vaginal specimen containing the three common organisms causing vaginitis: Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, and Gardnerella vaginalis (one of the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis). Women with symptoms of vaginitis presenting to one of three clinical centers were evaluated over a 4- to 8-week period. Four simultaneously obtained swabs were collected and tested by the Affirm VPIII assay at time zero with and without a preservative reagent, at 24 h with reagent, and at either 48 or 72 h with reagent. For each of the three organisms, Trichomonas, Gardnerella, and Candida, positivity at each time point was evaluated and compared to that at reference time zero with and without the ATTS. A total of 940 specimens were obtained from the three clinical sites. Eight hundred three were positive for one or more of the three organisms. Gardnerella had the highest overall positive rate (62%), followed by Candida with 18% and Trichomonas at 9%. The percent sensitivity versus control for Trichomonas ranged from 100% at time zero with and without reagent to 91% by 72 h. Gardnerella and Candida sensitivity remained at 100% for each time period. The Affirm VPIII ATTS system performed within 10% of the control swab (no transport reagent) at all four time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h) for Trichomonas, Gardnerella, and Candida.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2001; 39(9):3197-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the midtrimester prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in women who had subsequent spontaneous preterm birth.
In a prospective study of lower genital tract infections, we identified 127 women who subsequently had spontaneous preterm birth. Vaginal samples were obtained between 21 and 25 weeks' gestation for pH, for bacterial vaginosis Gram stain, and cultures that yielded Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. M genitalium was identified by using validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers, and the results were compared to pregnancy outcomes.
Of 124 women with spontaneous preterm births, only five (3.9%) had PCR assays positive forM genitalium. The mean +/- SD delivery gestational age was similar for women with a positive PCR (34.6 +/- 2.2 weeks) and a negative PCR (34.0 +/- 2.7 weeks) (P =.62). None of the women with positive PCR results tested positive for any other sexually transmitted disease, whereas 36 (30%) women with negative PCR results tested positive.
The occurrence of M genitalium in the vagina at midtrimester is infrequent in women with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2001; 185(1):163-5. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mobiluncus spp are highly associated with bacterial vaginosis, but their role in its pathogenesis is unknown. The authors used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare the prevalence of Mobiluncus in women with and without bacterial vaginosis.
To compare the prevalence of Mobiluncus spp among women with and without bacterial vaginosis and to compare the sensitivities of PCR and Gram stain for detection.
Vaginal specimens from 74 women were analyzed by PCR and Gram stain for the presence of Mobiluncus spp. Comparisons were made between the prevalence of this organism between the two cohorts and between the Gram stain and PCR detection methods.
Mobiluncus was detected by PCR in 84.5% of women with bacterial vaginosis and in 38% of women without infection. M curtisii was rarely detected in the latter group, though it was found in 65.3% of women with bacterial vaginosis. The sensitivity and specificity of Gram stain compared with PCR were 46.9% and 100%, respectively.
Mobiluncus is more common in healthy women than previously suspected, with M mulieris as the predominant species. The significant difference in the prevalence of M curtisii between women with bacterial vaginosis and uninfected women suggests that this species could be involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis.
Sex Transm Dis 05/2001; 28(4):195-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis causes symptomatic vaginal discharge and has been associated with preterm birth and with the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. Half of all women with bacterial vaginosis are free of symptoms, and treatment of these women is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of poor symptom recognition in this group of women.
Seventy-five women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who had asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis were entered into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing metronidazole gel with placebo. Subjects' perceptions about changes in vaginal discharge and odor were determined, and treatment and placebo groups were compared by means of standard statistical analysis.
When subjects were stratified by treatment group, there were no differences in their retrospective assessments of vaginal discharge and odor. A subset of women who had normalization of clinical parameters or of Gram stain scores did admit retrospectively to improvement; however, the difference between this group and the group without normalization was not statistically significant. Twenty-one percent of treated women subsequently had vaginal candidiasis.
A greater percentage of women with resolution of bacterial vaginosis did retrospectively notice improvement in vaginal discharge and odor in comparison with those women without resolution; however, this was not statistically significant. These findings do not support routine treatment of women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2001; 183(6):1434-9. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaginal trichomonosis is a highly prevalent infection which has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and preterm birth. Culture is the current "gold standard" for diagnosis. As urine-based testing using DNA amplification techniques becomes more widely used for other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, a similar technique for trichomonosis would be highly desirable. Women attending an STD clinic for a new complaint were screened for Trichomonas vaginalis by wet-preparation (wet-prep) microscopy and culture and for the presence of T. vaginalis DNA by specific PCR of vaginal and urine specimens. The presence of trichomonosis was defined as the detection of T. vaginalis by direct microscopy and/or culture from either vaginal samples or urine. The overall prevalence of trichomonosis in the population was 28% (53 of 190). The sensitivity and specificity of PCR using vaginal samples were 89 and 97%, respectively. Seventy-four percent (38 of 51) of women who had a vaginal wet prep or vaginal culture positive for trichomonads had microscopic and/or culture evidence of the organisms in the urine. Two women were positive for trichomonads by wet prep or culture only in the urine. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR using urine specimens were 64 and 100%, respectively. These results indicate that the exclusive use of urine-based detection of T. vaginalis is not appropriate in women. PCR-based detection of T. vaginalis using vaginal specimens may provide an alternative to culture.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2000; 38(10):3585-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new self-contained medium system for the cultivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was compared to modified Thayer-Martin medium for the diagnosis of gonorrhea from endocervical specimens. There was no difference in the ability of the two methods to support the growth of N. gonorrhoeae.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2000; 38(10):3825-6. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in patients entering residential drug treatment.
Data on sexual and substance abuse histories were collected. Participants provided specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing. Trichomonas vaginalis culture, and syphilis serologic testing.
Of 311 patients, crack cocaine use was reported by 67% and multisubstance use was reported by 71%. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors were common. The prevalence of infection was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis, 2.3%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1.6%; trichomoniasis, 43%; and syphilis, 6%.
STD counseling and screening may be a useful adjunct to inpatient drug treatment.
American Journal of Public Health 11/2000; 90(10):1615-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of Amies gel agar transport medium to maintain the viability of Trichomonas vaginalis was determined by comparing transported vaginal specimens to specimens immediately inoculated into culture medium. The prevalence of trichomonosis in the study population was 26% (68 of 260 women). The immediate inoculation method detected infections in 64 of 68 infected women (sensitivity of 94.1%). The transport method detected 62 of 68 infections (sensitivity of 91.2%). There was no significant difference between the two methods.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/1999; 37(11):3749-50. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two commercial swab transport systems, Copan Amies gel agar with and without charcoal (Copan Diagnostics, Corona, Calif.), were compared to direct inoculation onto modified Thayer-Martin medium for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1,490 endocervical specimens obtained from women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Copan swabs were held in the transport system for 24 h at room temperature prior to inoculation onto modified Thayer-Martin medium. All cultures were incubated at 35 degrees C in 5% CO(2), and bacteria were identified on the basis of Gram stain, oxidase, and biochemical reactions. Copan Amies gel agar transport system without charcoal detected 77 of 81 (95%) direct inoculation culture-positive specimens, and Copan Amies gel agar transport system with charcoal detected 53 of 56 (95%) directly inoculated culture-positive specimens. Copan Amies gel agar without charcoal inoculated after 6 h supported growth of 56 (98%) positive cultures out of only 55 directly inoculated culture-positive specimens. This study demonstrates that Copan swabs represent a reasonable alternative, providing convenience, low cost, and ease of use while still maintaining a satisfactory recovery rate of N. gonorrhoeae from clinical specimens, if specimens can be inoculated onto selective media within a relatively short time period not involving overnight shipment.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/1999; 37(11):3583-5. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by dramatic changes in the vaginal ecosystem. Women without evidence of vaginal infection may exhibit transient changes in their flora. We prospectively followed up women by using diaries and self-obtained vaginal smears to correlate behaviors with changes in flora. The majority of women (38/51, 78%) had significant, although transient, changes. Behaviors associated with unstable flora were a history of BV, a greater number of partners, and more frequent episodes of receptive oral sex. Only the latter remained significantly associated in the multivariate analysis. Variables that were associated with day-to-day variability in the flora included use of vaginal medication, menses, greater number of partners, spermicide use, more frequent vaginal intercourse, and less frequent use of condoms. Only a minority of women (11/51, 22%) maintained a "normal" lactobacillus-predominant flora. Factors associated with instability of the flora are similar to those epidemiologically associated with BV.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/1999; 180(5):1632-6. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparison of delayed versus immediate inoculation of culture medium for the diagnosis of trichomonosis was conducted. The sensitivities of the two methods were 100 and 97.4%, respectively. Delayed inoculation of culture medium for women without evidence of trichomonosis on direct microscopic examination is a valid diagnostic procedure.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/1999; 37(7):2369-70. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional survey of sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients assessed sexual activity and condom use during the time between STD symptom onset and clinic attendance.
Patients were asked to report sexual activity and condom use while STD symptoms were present. Medical records were abstracted for diagnoses.
The study population (n = 3025) was predominately African American (75.3%) and male (63.5%), with a mean age of 28.1 years. Sexual activity while experiencing STD symptoms was reported by 39.7% of 2,508 symptomatic patients, 17.2% of whom reported always using a condom. Logistic regression models identified the significant independent determinants of sexual intercourse while symptomatic were duration of symptoms before clinic visit [0-7 days versus 8 or more days, OR = 5.9]; race [African American versus other races (primarily Hispanics), OR = 2.1]; and gender [men versus women, OR = 1.5]. Older age [> or = 30 years versus 18-29 years, OR = 1.5] and higher education attainment [> or = high school versus > high school, OR = 1.5] were the significant factors associated with reporting always using a condom.
These data suggest patient groups with behaviors likely to enhance STD transmission could be targeted for educational messages.
Sex Transm Dis 05/1999; 26(5):286-90. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates are increasing rapidly in Asia, a full understanding of the extent of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in many of these areas is lacking. There have been anecdotes of rising rates of STDs in Mongolia, a country thus far relatively unaffected by HIV. To further the understanding of STDs, a prevalence study was conducted in the STD clinic in Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city in Mongolia. Among 260 patients, the prevalence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis was 31.1%, 8.1% and 8.6% respectively for males and 10.3%, 9.9% and 6.0% for females. Sixty-seven per cent of females had trichomoniasis and 19.7% of males had non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Forty-two per cent of gonococcal isolates had plasmid mediated resistance to penicillin, and chromosomal resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin was documented. No patients were infected with HIV. STDs are a significant problem in Mongolia. Improved control efforts are urgently needed to prevent the emergence of HIV.
International Journal of STD & AIDS 07/1998; 9(6):354-8. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare trovafloxacin, a new quinolone antibiotic with enhanced activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with ofloxacin as single-dose oral therapy for uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis or cervicitis.
In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 625 patients (270 men, 355 women) with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis or cervicitis received one 100-mg tablet of trovafloxacin or two 200-mg capsules of ofloxacin as a single dose under direct supervision.
Single-dose oral therapy with trovafloxacin was equivalent both bacteriologically and clinically to ofloxacin. Among evaluable patients, N gonorrhoeae was eradicated in 99% of trovafloxacin recipients and in 98% of ofloxacin recipients. Each treatment was well tolerated; vaginitis was the most frequently observed side effect (4% trovafloxacin, 7% ofloxacin).
Based on the results presented here, trovafloxacin is a promising agent for single-dose therapy of uncomplicated gonorrhea.
The American Journal of Medicine 01/1998; 104(1):28-32. · 4.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparison of self- and clinician-collected vaginal specimens for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis was conducted. The sensitivities of culture methods using self- and clinician-collected specimens were 84.6 and 88.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the sensitivities of culture methods using self- and clinician-collected vaginal specimens for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/1997; 35(6):1618-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess patterns of self-treatment and its effects on the duration of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms before medical care.
A cross-sectional interview survey in public STD clinics (7 U.S. cities). Patients, seeking treatment for STD symptoms or having a known infected sexual contact, reported self-treatment behaviors and symptom duration. Additional data were abstracted from medical charts.
Self-treatment, primarily over-the-counter topical medications (54.8%), was reported by 21.8% of 2,508 symptomatic patients. Self-treaters were significantly more likely to be African-American (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8), female (OR = 1.7), over age 30 (OR = 1.3), report > 1 symptom (OR = 1.4), and report a genital lesion (OR = 2.1). Symptom duration was 2 days longer among self-treaters (p < 0.01). African-Americans (OR = 1.5), men (OR = 1.2), and self-treaters of symptoms other than genital lesions (OR = 1.4) had a significantly longer time from symptom onset to receiving medical care.
Self-treatment is common among patients with STDs. Self-treatment of a genital lesion, unlike certain demographic factors and self-treatment of other STD symptoms, did not prolong the time to medical treatment.
Sex Transm Dis 07/1997; 24(6):372-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor