Kaare Christensen

University of Southern Mississippi, HBG, Mississippi, United States

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Publications (520)2538.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Isolated tremor in the elderly is commonly diagnosed as essential tremor (ET). The prevalence of tremor increases steeply with increasing age, whereas hereditary tremor is becoming less common. Moreover, late-manifesting tremor seems to be associated with dementia and earlier mortality. We hypothesize that different entities underlie tremor in the elderly. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight subjects from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins older than 70 y answered screening questions for ET in 2001. Two thousan fifty-six (84%) participants drew Archimedes spirals to measure their tremor severity, and classical aging phenotypes were assessed. A subgroup of 276 individuals fulfilling either screening criteria for ET or being controls were personally assessed. Medications and mortality data are available. The spiral score increased with age. The spiral score correlated with tremor severity. For the whole cohort, mortality was significantly correlated with the spiral score, and higher spiral scores were associated with lower physical and cognitive functioning. Multivariate analysis identified higher spiral scores as an independent risk factor for mortality. In contrast, the ET patients did not show an increased but rather a lower mortality rate although it was not statistically significant. Consistent with a slower than normal aging, they were also physically and cognitively better functioning than controls. Because incident tremors beyond 70 y of age show worse aging parameters and mortality than controls and ET, we propose to label it 'aging-related tremor' (ART). This tremor starts later in life and is accompanied by subtle signs of aging both cognitively and physically. More detailed clinical features and pathogenesis warrant further assessment. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/mds.26265 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal telomere length shortens with repeated cell divisions. Human leukocyte DNA telomere length (LTL) determined has been shown to shorten during aging. LTL shortening has correlated with decreased longevity, dementia, and other age-associated processes. Since LTL varies widely between individuals in a given age group, it has been hypothesized to be a marker of biological aging. However, the principal basis for the variation of human LTL has not been established, although various studies have reported heritability. Here we use a family-based study of longevity to study heritability of LTL in 3037 individuals. We show that LTL is shorter in older individuals, and in males, and has a high heritability (overall h2 = 0.54). In the offspring generation, who are in middle-life, we find an ordinal relationship: persons more-closely-related to elderly probands have longer LTL than persons less-closely-related, who nonetheless have longer LTL than unrelated spouses of the offspring generation. These results support a prominent genetic underpinning of LTL. Elucidation of such genetic bases may provide avenues for intervening in the aging process.
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    Science Advances 06/2015; 1(5):e1400216. DOI:10.1126/sciadv.1400216
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    ABSTRACT: For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 05/2015; 10(10):1017. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL)(1) and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated with health and mortality. Because osteoporosis is an age-related condition and LTL is considered to be a biomarker of aging, we hypothesized that shorter LTL could predict lower BMD. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is an association of LTL with BMD and to determine whether this possible association is independent of age. The BMDs of the lumbar spine (LS)(2), femoral neck (FN)(3) and total hip (TH)(4) were evaluated in 460 women using DXA. LTL was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The women completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire. The associations were estimated by regression models that considered age, body mass index (BMI)(5), menopause, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. We found a statistically significant unadjusted association between LTL and age (estimate and 95 % confidence interval (CI)(6): -0.003 (-0.005; -0.002)); and between BMI adjusted age and logarithmic transformed BMD. Estimates and 95 % CI were as follows: LS: -0.13 (-0.26; -0.01); right TH:-0.44 (-0.53; -0.34); left TH: -0.38 (-0.48; -0.28); right FN: -0.57 (-0.67; -0.46) and left FN: -0.51 (-0.62; -0.40). There were no statistically significant associations between BMD and LTL (both logarithmically transformed) with or without age adjustments. The age-adjusted estimates and CI were as follows: LS: -0.10 (-0.71; 0.52); right TH:-0.13 (-0.66; 0.41); left TH: -0.13 (-0.67; 0.42); right FN: -0.03 (-0.58; 0.52) and left FN: 0.09 (-0.47; 0.66). In conclusion, we found no statistically significant associations between BMD and LTL, although the estimates of the crude associations were all positive, indicating hypothesis consistency; that shorter LTL predict lower BMD values. This positive association was no longer apparent after adjusting for age. As expected, age was statistically significantly associated with both telomere length and BMI adjusted BMD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental gerontology 04/2015; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2015.04.004 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (<7 h/24) sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P < 0.05) and sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P < 0.05) were significantly associated with reduced mtDNA copy number within twin pairs. Thus every 1-minute decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mtDNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. Copyright © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC. All rights reserved.
    Sleep 04/2015; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: the genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive function in the old people have been well addressed for the Western populations using twin modelling showing moderate to high heritability. No similar study has been conducted in the world largest and rapidly ageing Chinese population living under distinct environmental condition as the Western populations. Objective: this study aims to explore the genetic and environmental impact on normal cognitive ageing in the Chinese twins. Design/setting: cognitive function was measured on 384 complete twin pairs with median age of 50 years for seven cognitive measurements including visuospatial, linguistic skills, naming, memory, attention, abstraction and orientation abilities. Data were analysed by fitting univariate and bivariate twin models to estimate the genetic and environmental components in the variance and co-variance of the cognitive assessments. Results: intra-pair correlation on cognitive measurements was low to moderate in monozygotic twins (0.23-0.41, overall 0.42) and low in dizygotic twins (0.05-0.30, overall 0.31) with the former higher than the latter for each item. Estimate for heritability was moderate for overall cognitive function (0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.53) and low to moderate for visuospatial, naming, attention and orientation abilities ranging from 0.28 to 0.38. No genetic contribution was estimated to linguistic skill, abstraction and memory which instead were under low to moderate control by shared environmental factors accounting for 23-33% of the total variances. In contrast, all cognitive performances showed moderate to high influences by the unique environmental factors. Conclusions: genetic factor and common family environment have a limited contribution to cognitive function in the Chinese adults. Individual unique environment is likely to play a major role in determining the levels of cognitive performance.
    Age and Ageing 04/2015; 44(3). DOI:10.1093/ageing/afv015 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans. Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age-dependent germ stem cell selection process, whereby the selected stem cells have longer telomeres, are more homogenous with respect to telomere length, and share resistance to aging. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Aging cell 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/acel.12334 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. © 2015 World Obesity.
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    ABSTRACT: Familial clustering of longevity is well documented and includes both genetic and other familial factors, but the specific underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined whether low incidence of specific cancers is a mechanism for familial clustering of longevity. The study population of individuals from longevity-enriched families consisted of 3267 offspring from 610 Danish long-lived families defined by two siblings attaining an age of 90 years or more. The offspring of the long-lived siblings were followed from 1968 to 2009. Using high-quality registry data, observed numbers of cancers were compared with expected numbers based on gender-, calendar period-, and age-specific incidence rates in the general population. During the 41-year-follow-up period, a total of 423 cancers occurred in 397 individuals. The standardized incidence ratios (95% confidence interval) for offspring of long-lived individuals were 0.78 (0.70-0.86) for overall cancer; 0.66 (0.56-0.77) for tobacco-related cancer; 0.34 (0.22-0.51) for lung cancer; 0.88 (0.71-1.10) for breast cancer; 0.91 (0.62-1.34) for colon cancer. The low incidence of tobacco-related cancers in long-lived families compared with non-tobacco-related cancers suggests that health behavior plays a central role in lower early cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings in Denmark. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Annals of epidemiology 03/2015; 25(8). DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.03.004 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297 dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually unique environmental factors, estimated at 72% (95% CI 56% to 84%) affected LTL attrition rate with no indication of shared environmental effects. This is the first study that estimated heritability of LTL and also its age-dependent attrition. As LTL attrition is much slower in adults than in children and given that having a long or a short LTL is largely determined before adulthood, our findings suggest that heritability and early life environment are the main determinants of LTL throughout the human life course. Thus, insights into factors that influence LTL at birth and its dynamics during childhood are crucial for understanding the role of telomere genetics in human ageing and longevity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 03/2015; 52(5). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102736 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) is a tool for measuring the extent of health and disease across multiple systems. We conducted a genome-wide association study and a genome-wide linkage analysis to map quantitative trait loci associated with the HAI and a modified HAI weighted for mortality risk in 3,140 individuals selected for familial longevity from the Long Life Family Study. The genome-wide association study used the Long Life Family Study as the discovery cohort and individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Study and the Framingham Heart Study as replication cohorts. There were no genome-wide significant findings from the genome-wide association study; however, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms near ZNF704 on chromosome 8q21.13 were suggestively associated with the HAI in the Long Life Family Study (p < 10(-) (6)) and nominally replicated in the Cardiovascular Health Study and Framingham Heart Study. Linkage results revealed significant evidence (log-odds score = 3.36) for a quantitative trait locus for mortality-optimized HAI in women on chromosome 9p24-p23. However, results of fine-mapping studies did not implicate any specific candidate genes within this region of interest. ZNF704 may be a potential candidate gene for studies of the genetic underpinnings of longevity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/gerona/glv006 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Long Life Family Study (LLFS) is a multicenter longitudinal study of exceptional survival among members of long-lived sibships (probands), their offspring, and spouses of either group. For these four "roles", we asked: Does membership in a long-lived family protect against disease? We used 2008-2010 Beneficiary Annual Summary Files from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to compare prevalences of 17 conditions among 781 LLFS participants in Medicare with those of 3,227 non-LLFS matches from the general Medicare population. Analyses accounted for nesting within LLFS families. Seven conditions were significantly less common among LLFS probands than their matches: Alzheimer's, hip fracture, diabetes, depression, prostate cancer, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Four diseases not strongly linked to mortality (arthritis, cataract, osteoporosis, glaucoma) were significantly more common for LLFS probands. Despite fewer people and less disease in those roles, LLFS offspring and LLFS spouses of either generation also had significantly lower risk for Alzheimer's, diabetes, and heart failure. Common, severe mortality-associated diseases are less prevalent among LLFS probands and their offspring than in the general population of aging Americans. Quality-of-life-limiting diseases such as arthritis and cataract are more prevalent, potentially through more diagnosing of milder forms in otherwise healthy and active individuals. LLFS spouses are also relatively healthy. As the younger cohorts age into Medicare and develop more conditions, it will be important to see whether these tentative findings strengthen. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/gerona/glv015 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524 twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 03/2015; 25(5). DOI:10.1097/FPC.0000000000000133 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have identified multiple strongly associated regions, the causal variants are unknown. To address this, we selected 13 regions from GWASs and other studies, performed targeted sequencing in 1,409 Asian and European trios, and carried out a series of statistical and functional analyses. Within a cluster of strongly associated common variants near NOG, we found that one, rs227727, disrupts enhancer activity. We furthermore identified significant clusters of non-coding rare variants near NTN1 and NOG and found several rare coding variants likely to affect protein function, including four nonsense variants in ARHGAP29. We confirmed 48 de novo mutations and, based on best biological evidence available, chose two of these for functional assays. One mutation in PAX7 disrupted the DNA binding of the encoded transcription factor in an in vitro assay. The second, a non-coding mutation, disrupted the activity of a neural crest enhancer downstream of FGFR2 both in vitro and in vivo. This targeted sequencing study provides strong functional evidence implicating several specific variants as primary contributory risk alleles for nonsyndromic clefting in humans. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2015; 96(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.004 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the impact of treatment with middle ear ventilation tube insertion (VTI) in children with otitis media (OM) on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level. Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, the National Health Service Register and Statistics Denmark. Cumulative incidence proportions were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and hazard ratios with Cox regression analysis. The first surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma in a child (STMEC1) was considered an event. A total of 217,206 children, born after December 31, 1996, who had VTI from January 1, 1997 to August 31, 2011 were identified. Of these, 374 subsequently had a STMEC1. A corresponding 36,981 children without any VTI were identified for comparison using a random 5% sample of the Danish population. Of these, 5 had a STMEC1. The cumulative incidence proportion with STMEC1 at 12 years of age for children with 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 VTI's was 0.04% (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.12%), 0.21% (0.18-0.26%), 0.35% (0.28-0.43%), 0.40% (0.30-0.54%), and 0.55% (0.44-0.70%), respectively. In the regression model each additional year of age before the first VTI increased the risk of STMEC1 by 54% (47-63%), while each additional year between two successive tube insertions increased the risk by 28% (15-43%). We found that prolonged OM requiring multiple VTIs was associated with an increased risk of STMEC1. Early age at first VTI and short time between two VTIs was associated with a lower risk of STMEC1. This may be the result of reduced time with negative middle ear pressure and OM. However, these findings may be susceptible to selection bias, as age at first VTI and time between VTIs, as well as the outcome variable, STMEC1, may all depend on the underlying indication for VTI. In short the present study suggests that treatment with VTI in children with OM reduces the risk of STMEC1 on a population level. However, for the individual child the absolute risk reduction is very small, and the decision of treatment with VTI must always rely on the symptoms and clinical findings in the individual child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.02.005 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Hormones and Behavior 02/2015; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.01.007 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL), which is fashioned by multiple genes, has been linked to a host of human diseases, including sporadic melanoma. A number of genes associated with LTL have already been identified through genome-wide association studies. The main aim of this study was to establish whether DCAF4 (DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor 4) is associated with LTL. In addition, using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), we examined whether LTL-associated genes in the general population might partially explain the inherently longer LTL in patients with sporadic melanoma, the risk for which is increased with ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis and de novo genotyping of 20 022 individuals revealed a novel association (p=6.4×10(-10)) between LTL and rs2535913, which lies within DCAF4. Notably, eQTL analysis showed that rs2535913 is associated with decline in DCAF4 expressions in both lymphoblastoid cells and sun-exposed skin (p=4.1×10(-3) and 2×10(-3), respectively). Moreover, IPA revealed that LTL-associated genes, derived from GWA meta-analysis (N=9190), are over-represented among genes engaged in melanoma pathways. Meeting increasingly stringent p value thresholds (p<0.05, <0.01, <0.005, <0.001) in the LTL-GWA meta-analysis, these genes were jointly over-represented for melanoma at p values ranging from 1.97×10(-169) to 3.42×10(-24). We uncovered a new locus associated with LTL in the general population. We also provided preliminary findings that suggest a link of LTL through genetic mechanisms with UVR and melanoma in the general population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2015; 52(3). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102681 · 5.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
2,538.40 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2015
    • University of Southern Mississippi
      HBG, Mississippi, United States
  • 1999–2015
    • University of Southern Denmark
      • Institute of Public Health
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 1992–2015
    • Odense University Hospital
      • • Department of Clinical Genetics
      • • Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology
      • • Department of Endocrinology - M
      • • Department of Neurology - N
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
    • Institut for Sygdomsforebyggelse
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2013
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • King's College London
      • Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009
    • Second University of Naples
      Caserta, Campania, Italy
  • 2001–2009
    • Duke University
      • Department of Sociology
      Durham, NC, United States
    • Army Center for Epidemiology and Public Health
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2008
    • University of Oklahoma
      • Department of Psychology
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 2007
    • National Institute of Public Health, Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Economics
      Warwick, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2007
    • Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
    • Aalborg University
      Ålborg, North Denmark, Denmark
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Iowa
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Iowa City, IA, United States
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Psychology
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Unit of Neurobiology
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 1997–2007
    • Aarhus University
      • • Department of Clinical Epidemiology
      • • Institute of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 1997–2006
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      • • Department of Occupational Medicine
      • • Department of Clinical Epidemiology
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2003
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2002
    • Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
      Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany