Erik Mittra

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (69)256.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ((18)F-FPPRGD2) in cancer patients and to compare its uptake in malignant lesions with (18)F-FDG uptake. A total of 35 patients (11 men, 24 women, mean age 52.1 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled prospectively and had (18)F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean) were measured in 23 normal tissues in each patient, as well as in known or suspected cancer lesions. Differences between (18)F-FPPRGD2 uptake and (18)F-FDG uptake were also evaluated in 28 of the 35 patients. Areas of high (18)F-FPPRGD2 accumulation (SUVmax range 8.9 - 94.4, SUVmean range 7.1 - 64.4) included the bladder and kidneys. Moderate uptake (SUVmax range 2.1 - 6.3, SUVmean range 1.1 - 4.5) was found in the choroid plexus, salivary glands, thyroid, liver, spleen, pancreas, small bowel and skeleton. Compared with (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FPPRGD2 showed higher tumor-to-background ratio in brain lesions (13.4 ± 8.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.001), but no significant difference in body lesions (3.2 ± 1.9 vs. 4.4 ± 4.2, P = 0.10). There was no significant correlation between the uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) for (18)F FPPRGD2 and those for (18)F-FDG. The biodistribution of (18)F-FPPRGD2 in cancer patients is similar to that of other RGD dimer peptides and it is suitable for clinical use. The lack of significant correlation between (18)F-FPPRGD2 and (18)F-FDG uptake confirms that the information provided by each PET tracer is different.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2015; 42(12). DOI:10.1007/s00259-015-3096-4 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combined administration of F-NaF and F-FDG in a single PET/CT scan has the potential to improve patient convenience and cancer detection. Here we report the use of this approach for patients with sarcomas. This is a retrospective review of 21 patients (12 men, 9 women; age, 19-66 years) with biopsy-proven sarcomas who had separate F-NaF PET/CT, F-FDG PET/CT, and combined F-NaF/F-FDG PET/CT scans for evaluation of malignancy. Two board-certified nuclear medicine physicians and 1 board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist were randomly assigned to review the scans. Results were analyzed for sensitivity and specificity, using linear regression and receiver operating characteristics. A total of 13 patients had metastatic disease on F-NaF PET/CT, F-FDG PET/CT, and combined F-NaF/F-FDG PET/CT. Skeletal disease was more extensive on the F-NaF PET/CT scan than on the F-FDG PET/CT in 3 patients, whereas in 1 patient, F-FDG PET/CT showed skeletal disease and the F-NaF PET/CT was negative. Extraskeletal lesions were detected on both F-FDG and combined F-NaF/F-FDG PET/CT in 20 patients, with 1 discordant finding in the lung. The combined F-NaF/F-FDG PET/CT scan allows for accurate evaluation of sarcoma patients. Further evaluation of this proposed imaging modality is warranted to identify the most suitable clinical scenarios, including initial treatment strategy and evaluation of response to therapy.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 06/2015; 40(9). DOI:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000845 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To prospectively evaluate fluorine 18 ((18)F) 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) (FPPRGD2) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant protocol. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. (18)F FPPRGD2 uptake was measured semiquantitatively in the form of maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and uptake volumes before and after treatment with bevacizumab. Vital signs and laboratory results were collected before, during, and after the examinations. A nonparametric version of multivariate analysis of variance was used to assess safety outcome measures simultaneously across time points. A paired two-sample t test was performed to compare SUVmax. Results A total of 17 participants (eight men, nine women; age range, 25-65 years) were enrolled prospectively. (18)F FPPRGD2 PET/computed tomography (CT), (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed within 3 weeks, prior to the start of bevacizumab therapy. In eight of the 17 patients (47%), (18)F FPPRGD2 PET/CT was repeated 1 week after the start of bevacizumab therapy; six patients (35%) underwent (18)F FPPRGD2 PET/CT a third time 6 weeks after starting bevacizumab therapy. There were no changes in vital signs, electrocardiographic findings, or laboratory values that qualified as adverse events. One patient (6%) had recurrent GBM identified only on (18)F FPPRGD2 PET images, and subsequent MR images enabled confirmation of recurrence. Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had recurrent GBM identified on (18)F FPPRGD2 PET and brain MR images, while (18)F FDG PET enabled identification of recurrence in 13 (76%) patients. Two patients (12%) had no recurrent GBM. Conclusion (18)F FPPRGD2 is a safe PET radiopharmaceutical that has increased uptake in GBM lesions. Larger cohorts are required to confirm these preliminary findings. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015141550 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Fusion dual-tracer SPECT imaging enables physiological rather than morphological voxel-based partitioning and dosimetry for (90)Y hepatic radioembolization (RE). We evaluated its prognostic value in a large heterogeneous cohort of patients with extensive hepatic malignancy. Methods: A total of 122 patients with primary or secondary liver malignancy (18 different cell types) underwent SPECT imaging after intraarterial injection of (99m)Tc macroaggregated albumin (TcMAA) as a simulation of subsequent (90)Y microsphere distribution, followed by administration of an excess of intravenous (99m)Tc-labelled sulphur colloid (TcSC) as a biomarker for functional liver, and a second SPECT scan. TcMAA distribution was used to estimate (90)Y radiation absorbed dose in tumour (D T) and in functional liver. Laboratory and clinical follow-up were recorded for 12 weeks after RE, and radiographic responses according to (m)RECIST were evaluated at 3 and 6 months. Dose-response relationships were determined for efficacy and toxicity. Results: Patients were treated with a median of 1.73 GBq activity of resin microspheres (98 patients) or glass microspheres (24 patients), in a whole-liver approach (97 patients) or a lobar approach (25 patients). The objective response rate was 41% at 3 months and 48% at 6 months. Response was correlated with D T (P < 0.01). Median overall survival was 10.1 months (95% confidence interval 7.4 - 12.8 months). Responders lived for 36.0 months compared to 8.7 months for nonresponders (P < 0.01). Stratified for tumour cell type, D T was independently associated with survival (P < 0.01). Absorbed dose in functional liver was correlated with toxicity grade change (P < 0.05) and RE-induced liver disease (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fusion dual-tracer SPECT imaging offers a physiology-based functional imaging tool to predict efficacy and toxicity of RE. This technique can be refined to define dosing thresholds for specific tumour types and treatments, but appears generally predictive even in a heterogeneous cohort.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2015; 42(8). DOI:10.1007/s00259-015-3048-z · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we evaluated the biodistribution of the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG administration compared to separate (18)F-NaF and (18)F-FDG. We also estimated the interaction of (18)F-NaF and (18)F-FDG in the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG administration by semiquantitative analysis. We retrospectively analyzed data of 49 patients (male 39, female 10; mean ± SD age: 59.3 ± 15.2 years) who had separate (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (18)F-NaF PET/CT, as well as the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG PET/CT sequentially. The most common primary diagnosis was prostate cancer (n = 28), followed by sarcoma (n = 9) and breast cancer (n = 6). The mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) were recorded for 18 organs in all patients, while maximum SUV (SUVmax) and SUVmean were recorded for all the identified malignant lesions. We also estimated the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG uptake by sum of (18)F-FDG uptake and adjusted (18)F-NaF uptake based on the ratio of (18)F-NaF injected dose in (18)F-/(18)F-FDG PET/CT. Lastly, we compared the results in order to explore the interaction of (18)F-FDG and (18)F-NaF uptake in the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG scan. The (18)F-/(18)F-FDG uptake in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, parotid grand, myocardium and bowel mostly reflect the (18)F-FDG uptake, while the uptake in the other analyzed structures is influenced by both the (18)F-FDG and the (18)F-NaF uptake. The (18)F-/(18)F-FDG uptake in extra skeletal lesions shows no significant difference when compared to the uptake from the separate (18)F-FDG scan. The (18)F-/(18)F-FDG uptake in skeletal lesions reflected mostly the (18)F-NaF uptake. Tumor to background (T/B) ratio of (18)F-/(18)F-FDG in extra skeletal lesions showed no significant difference when compared with that from (18)F-FDG alone (P = 0.73). For skeletal lesions, T/B ratio of (18)F-/(18)F-FDG was lower than that from (18)F-NaF alone (P <0.001); however, this difference did not result in missed skeletal lesions on the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG scan. The understanding of the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals and the lesions uptake of the (18)F-/(18)F-FDG scan, as well as the variations compared to the uptake on the separate (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (18)F-NaF PET/CT are valuable for more in depth evaluation of the combined scanning technique. Copyright © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2015; 56(5). DOI:10.2967/jnumed.115.153767 · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent introduction of hybrid PET/MRI scanners in clinical practice has shown promising initial results for several clinical scenarios. However, the first generation of combined PET/MRI lacks time-of-flight (TOF) technology. Here we report the results of the first patients to be scanned on a completely novel fully integrated PET/MRI scanner with TOF. We analyzed data from patients who underwent a clinically indicated F FDG PET/CT, followed by PET/MRI. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured from F FDG PET/MRI and F FDG PET/CT for lesions, cerebellum, salivary glands, lungs, aortic arch, liver, spleen, skeletal muscle, and fat. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed the MR data for image quality. Thirty-six patients (19 men, 17 women, mean [±standard deviation] age of 61 ± 14 years [range: 27-86 years]) with a total of 69 discrete lesions met the inclusion criteria. PET/CT images were acquired at a mean (±standard deviation) of 74 ± 14 minutes (range: 49-100 minutes) after injection of 10 ± 1 mCi (range: 8-12 mCi) of F FDG. PET/MRI scans started at 161 ± 29 minutes (range: 117 - 286 minutes) after the F FDG injection. All lesions identified on PET from PET/CT were also seen on PET from PET/MRI. The mean SUVmax values were higher from PET/MRI than PET/CT for all lesions. No degradation of MR image quality was observed. The data obtained so far using this investigational PET/MR system have shown that the TOF PET system is capable of excellent performance during simultaneous PET/MR with routine pulse sequences. MR imaging was not compromised. Comparison of the PET images from PET/CT and PET/MRI show no loss of image quality for the latter. These results support further investigation of this novel fully integrated TOF PET/MRI instrument.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 01/2015; 40(1):1-8. DOI:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000611 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of F Sodium Fluoride (F-NaF) uptake in the normal skeleton, benign and malignant bone lesions, and extraskeletal tissues, using semiquantitative SUV measurements. We retrospectively analyzed data from 129 patients who had F-NaF PET/CT at our institution for an oncological diagnosis between 2007 and 2014. There were 99 men and 30 women, 19 to 90 years old (mean [SD], 61.5 [15.5]). The range, average, and SD of SUV were measured for normal bone and extraskeletal tissues uptake for the entire patient population. A separate statistical analysis was performed to compare group A, which corresponds to the population of patient with no F-NaF-avid metastatic lesions, and group B, which corresponds to the population of patient with F-NaF-avid metastatic lesions. We also measured SUVmax and SUVmean for bony metastases and degenerative changes RESULTS: The PET/CT images were acquired at 30 to 169 minutes (mean [SD], 76.5 [22.8]) after injection of 3.9 to 13.6 mCi (mean [SD], 7.3 [2.4]) of F-NaF. The range and mean (SD) of SUVmax for F-NaF-avid metastasis were 4.5 to 103.3 and 25.9 (16.6) and for F-NaF-avid degenerative changes were 3.3 to 52.1 and 16.5 (7.9), respectively. Various skeletal sites have different normal SUVs. Skeletal metastases have different SUVs when compared with benign findings such as degenerative changes.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 12/2014; 40(4). DOI:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000633 · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2014; 90(1):S624. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.05.1858 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Sodium fluoride PET (18F-NaF) has recently reemerged as a valuable method for detection of osseous metastasis, with recent work highlighting the potential of coadministered 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG PET/CT in a single combined imaging examination. We further examined the potential of such combined examinations by comparing dual tracer 18F-NaF18/F-FDG PET/CT with CT alone for detection of osseous metastasis. Patients and methods: Seventy-five participants with biopsy-proven malignancy were consecutively enrolled from a single center and underwent combined 18F-NaF/18F-FDG PET/CT and diagnostic CT scans. PET/CT as well as CT only images were reviewed in blinded fashion and compared with the results of clinical, imaging, or histological follow-up as a truth standard. Results: Sensitivity of the combined 18F-NaF/18F-FDG PET/CT was higher than that of CT alone (97.4% vs 66.7%). CT and 18F-NaF/18F-FDG PET/CT were concordant in 73% of studies. Of 20 discordant cases, 18F-NaF/18F-FDG PET/CT was correct in 19 (95%). Three cases were interpreted concordantly but incorrectly, and all 3 were false positives. A single case of osseous metastasis was detected by CT alone, but not by 18F-NaF/18F-FDG PET/CT. Conclusions: Combined 18F-NaF/18F-FDG PET/CT outperforms CT alone and is highly sensitive and specific for detection of osseous metastases. The concordantly interpreted false-positive cases demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing degenerative from malignant disease, whereas the single case of metastasis seen on CT but not PET highlights the need for careful review of CT images in multimodality studies.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 08/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000560 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and materials: In an institutional review board-approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V4DCT) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V4DCT defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; % predicted) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V4DCT was also compared with SPECT ventilation (VSPECT) to (1) test whether V4DCT in VSPECT defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V4DCT and VSPECT defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V4DCT defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V4DCT(HU) defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV1/FVC (R=-0.65, P<.01). V4DCT in VSPECT defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V4DCT(HU) 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V4DCT(HU)0.39 ± 0.11). Furthermore, ventral-to-dorsal gradients of V4DCT were strong (V4DCT(HU) R(2) = 0.69, P=.08), which was similar to VSPECT (R(2) = 0.96, P<.01). Conclusions: An 18-patient study demonstrated significant correlations between 4D-CT ventilation and PFT measurements as well as SPECT ventilation, providing evidence toward the validation of 4D-CT ventilation imaging.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 08/2014; 90(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.06.006 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To present data from the first prospective pilot phase trial of breast cancer participants imaged with fluorine 18 ((18)F)-2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid ( RGD arginine-glycine-aspartic acid ) peptide (PEG3-E[c{ RGD arginine-glycine-aspartic acid yk}]2) ( FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ), a radiopharmaceutical agent used in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging. Materials and methods: The local institutional review board approved the HIPAA-compliant protocol. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Eight women (age range, 44-67 years; mean age, 54.3 years ± 8.8 [standard deviation]) with newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer were recruited between November 2010 and February 2011. (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) PET/computed tomographic (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( FDG fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ) PET/CT examinations were performed within 3 weeks of each other. Dynamic (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) PET and two whole-body static (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) PET/CT scans were obtained. During this time, vital signs and electrocardiograms were recorded at regular intervals. Blood samples were obtained before the injection of (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) and at 24 hours and 1 week after injection to evaluate for toxicity. A nonparametric version of multivariate analysis of variance was used to assess the safety outcome measures simultaneously across time points. A paired two-sample t test was performed to compare the maximum standardized uptake values ( SUVmax maximum standardized uptake value ). Results: (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) was well tolerated, without noticeable changes in vital signs, on electrocardiograms, or in laboratory values. A total of 30 lesions were evaluated at (18)F- FDG fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) PET/CT. The primary breast lesions had (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) uptake with SUVmax maximum standardized uptake value of 2.4-9.4 (mean, 5.6 ± 2.8) 60 minutes after injection, compared with (18)F- FDG fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with SUVmax maximum standardized uptake value of 2.8-18.6 (mean, 10.4 ± 7.2). Metastatic lesions also showed (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) uptake, with SUVmax maximum standardized uptake value of 2.4-9.7 (mean, 5.0 ± 2.3) at 60 minutes, compared with (18)F- FDG fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with SUVmax maximum standardized uptake value of 2.2-14.6 (mean, 6.6 ± 4.2). Conclusion: Data from this pilot phase study suggest that (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) is a safe PET radiopharmaceutical agent. Evaluation of (18)F- FPPRGD2 2-fluoropropionyl labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) in participants with breast cancer demonstrated significant uptake in the primary lesion and in the metastases. Larger cohorts are required to confirm these preliminary findings.
    Radiology 07/2014; 273(2):140028. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14140028 · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Erik S Mittra · Guido Davidzon
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    ABSTRACT: History A 15-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of 30-lb (13.6 kg) weight loss, chest and abdominal pain, nausea, bilious emesis, cough, and shortness of breath. Initial blood count (performed at an outside hospital) showed elevated white blood cell and platelet counts but low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. On examination, she had adenopathy in the left axillary and supraclavicular regions, fullness in the left chest, and abdominal guarding. Ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the left anterior chest wall mass was nondiagnostic, and lumbar puncture and bone marrow biopsies were negative. At that time, the patient underwent several imaging studies-including chest radiography; bone scanning; contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis; and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT-all performed within 1 week of each other. Pertinent serum laboratory values at the time of these tests were as follows: calcium level, 17 mg/dL (4.25 mmol/L) (normal range, 8.5-10.5 mg/dL [2.1-2.6 mmol/L]); ionized calcium level, 2.3 mmol/L (normal range, 1.1-1.3 mmol/L); lipase level, 2423 U/L (normal level, <300 U/L); amylase level, 1435 U/L (normal level, <140 U/L); lactate dehydrogenase level, 253 U/L (normal level, <240 U/L), albumin level, 2.6 g/dL (26 g/L) (normal level, 3.5-5.0 g/dL [35-50 g/L]), and creatinine level, 1.7 mg/dL (150.3 μmol/L) (normal level, <1.2 mg/dL [<106.1 μmol/L]). A follow-up PET/CT scan was performed approximately 2 months later after initial therapy.
    Radiology 07/2014; 272(1):296-300. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14120419 · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • M Negahdar · T Yamamoto · D Shultz · L Gable · X Shan · E Mittra · M Diehn · B Loo · P Maxim
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We propose a novel lung functional imaging method to determine the spatial distribution of xenon (Xe) gas in a single inhalation as a measure of regional ventilation. We compare Xe-CT ventilation to single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation, which is the current clinical reference. Regional lung ventilation information may be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of pulmonary diseases such as COPD, radiotherapy planning, and assessing the progression of toxicity after radiation therapy.
    Medical Physics 06/2014; 41(6):450-450. DOI:10.1118/1.4889248 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Article: Case 207.
    Erik S Mittra · Guido Davidzon
    Radiology 03/2014; 270(3):929-30. DOI:10.1148/radiol.13112741 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare but serious complication in transplant patients. Although fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET and computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) has been used for the evaluation and management of patients with PTLD, its utility has yet to be documented. We were therefore prompted to review our experience with F-FDG PET/CT in PTLD. We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who had undergone F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of PTLD from January 2004 to June 2012 at our institution. F-FDG PET/CT scans were compared with other imaging modalities performed concurrently. A chart review of pertinent clinical information was also conducted. A total of 30 patients were identified (14 female and 16 male; 1.7-76.7 years of age, average: 23.8 years). Twenty-seven participants had biopsy-proven PTLD and another three had been treated for PTLD because of high clinical suspicion of disease and positive F-FDG PET/CT findings in the absence of histological diagnosis. Eighty-three percent of these PTLD patients had extranodal involvement. In 57% of the cases, F-FDG PET/CT detected occult lesions not identified on other imaging modalities or suggested PTLD in equivocal lesions. The more aggressive PTLD histological subtypes demonstrated higher SUVmax compared with the less aggressive subtypes. F-FDG PET/CT is beneficial in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with PTLD. F-FDG PET/CT has the ability to detect occult lesions not identified on other imaging modalities, particularly extranodal lesions. In addition, F-FDG PET/CT may predict the PTLD subtype, as the lesions with higher pathologic grade presented with significantly higher SUVmax compared with the less aggressive forms.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 11/2013; 35(3). DOI:10.1097/MNM.0000000000000050 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (PLS) combined with intraoperative gamma probe (GP) localization is standard procedure for localizing the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in melanoma and breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a novel intraoperative handheld gamma camera (IHGC) to image SLNs during surgery. The IHGC is a small-field-of-view camera optimized for real-time imaging of lymphatic drainage patterns. Unlike conventional cameras, the IHGC can acquire useful images in a few seconds in a free-running fashion and be moved manually around the patient to find a suitable view of the node. Thirty-nine melanoma and eleven breast cancer patients underwent a modified SLN biopsy protocol in which nodes localized with the GP were imaged with the IHGC. The IHGC was also used to localize additional nodes that could not be found with the GP. The removal of 104 radioactive SLNs was confirmed ex vivo by GP counting. In vivo, the relative node detection sensitivity was 88.5 (82.3, 94.6)% for the IHGC (used in conjunction with the GP) and 94.2 (89.7, 98.7)% for the GP alone, a difference not found to be statistically significant (McNemar test, p = 0.24). Small radioactive SLNs can be visualized intraoperatively using the IHGC with exposure time of 20 s or less, with no significant difference in node detection sensitivity compared to a GP. The IHGC is a useful complement to the GP, especially for SLNs that are difficult to locate with the GP alone.
    Physica Medica 11/2013; 30(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejmp.2013.10.005 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R(2)=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R(2)=0.67) and BV/TV (R(2)=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R(2)=0.92 for BV/TV and R(2)=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.
    Acta Astronautica 11/2013; 92(1):79-88. DOI:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.08.032 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Planning hepatic (90)Y radioembolization activity requires balancing toxicity with efficacy. We developed a dual-tracer SPECT fusion imaging protocol that merges data on radioactivity distribution with physiologic liver mapping. Twenty-five patients with colorectal carcinoma and bilobar liver metastases received whole-liver radioembolization with resin microspheres prescribed as per convention (mean administered activity, 1.69 GBq). As part of standard treatment planning, all patients underwent SPECT imaging after intraarterial injection of 37 MBq of (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) to simulate subsequent (90)Y distribution. Immediately afterward, patients received 185 MBq of labeled sulfur colloid ((99m)Tc-SC) intravenously as a biomarker for normal hepatic reticuloendothelial function and SPECT was repeated. The SPECT images were coregistered and fused. A region-based method was used to predict the (90)Y radiation absorbed dose to functional liver tissue (DFL) by calculation of (99m)Tc-MAA activity in regions with (99m)Tc-SC uptake. Similarly, the absorbed dose to tumor (DT) was predicted by calculation of (99m)Tc-MAA activity in voxels without (99m)Tc-SC uptake. Laboratory data and radiographic response were measured for 3 mo, and the survival of patients was recorded. SPECT-based DT and DFL were correlated with parameters of toxicity and efficacy. Toxicity, as measured by increase in serum liver enzymes, correlated significantly with SPECT-based calculation of DFL at all time points (P < 0.05) (mean DFL, 27.9 Gy). Broad biochemical toxicity (>50% increase in all liver enzymes) occurred at a DFL of 24.5 Gy and above. In addition, in uni- and multivariate analysis, SPECT-based calculation of DT (mean DT, 44.2 Gy) correlated with radiographic response (P < 0.001), decrease in serum carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.05), and overall survival (P < 0.01). The cutoff value of DT for prediction of 1-y survival was 55 Gy (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve = 0.86; P < 0.01). Patients who received a DT of more than 55 Gy had a median survival of 32.8 mo, compared with 7.2 mo in patients who received less (P < 0.05). Dual-tracer (99m)Tc-MAA-(99m)Tc-SC fusion SPECT offers a physiology-based imaging tool with significant prognostic power that may lead to improved personalized activity planning.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2013; 54(12). DOI:10.2967/jnumed.113.123257 · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ficlatuzumab is a therapeutic agent targeting the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET pathway. We summarize preclinical work using this agent in a mouse brain orthotopic model of glioblastoma. Sequential experiments were done using 8- to 9-week old nude mice injected with 3x10^5 U87 MG (glioblastoma) cells into the brain. Evaluation of ficlatuzumab dose response for this brain tumor model and comparison of its response to ficlatuzumab and to temozolamide were performed. Subsequently, various small animal imaging modalities, including bioluminescence imaging (BLI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were used with a U87 MG-Luc 2 stable cell line to evaluate the ability to non-invasively assess tumor growth and response to therapy. ANOVA was performed to evaluate for significant differences in the response. There was a survival benefit with ficlatuzumab alone or in combination with temozolamide. BLI was more sensitive than PET in detecting tumor cells. Fluoro-L-thymidine (FLT) PET provided a better signal-to-background ratio than fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Additionally, both BLI and FLT PET showed significant changes over time in the control group as well as with response to therapy. MRI does not disclose any time-dependent change. Also, the MRI results showed a temporal delay in comparison to the BLI and FLT PET findings, showing similar results one drug cycle later. Targeting the (HGF)/c-MET pathway with the ficlatuzumab appears promising for the treatment of glioblastoma. Various clinically applicable imaging modalities including FLT, PET, and MRI provide reliable ways of assessing tumor growth and response to therapy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2013; 19(20). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1015 · 8.72 Impact Factor
  • T Yamamoto · S Kabus · C Lorenz · E Mittra · M Goris · J Hong · M Chung · C Barquero · N Eclov · M Diehn · B Loo · P Keall
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: A novel lung ventilation imaging technique based on 4D‐CT can be used for functional avoidance to spare high‐functional lung regions, and early prediction or assessment of pulmonary toxicity in radiotherapy. However, there has been minimal validation showing inconsistent results in human subjects. The purpose of this study was to compare 4D‐CT ventilation images with SPECT ventilation images as clinical reference. Methods: In an IRB‐approved clinical trial, 4D‐CT ventilation and SPECT ventilation images were acquired in the supine position for 12 thoracic cancer patients. 4D‐CT ventilation was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D‐CT images, followed by analysis of the resultant displacement vector field to quantify regional volume change (Jacobian), a surrogate for ventilation. SPECT ventilation scans were performed by inhalation of 99mTc‐DTPA aerosols. We evaluated the physiologic accuracy of 4D‐CT ventilation by: (1) comparing 4D‐CT ventilation values in SPECT ventilation defect regions with those in non‐defect regions; (2) quantifying Dice similarity coefficients (DSCs) for the spatial overlap of low‐functional lung regions determined by 4D‐CT ventilation and SPECT ventilation; (3) comparing a ventral‐to‐dorsal gradient of 4D‐CT ventilation with that of SPECT ventilation. Results: Five patients showed severe depositions of SPECT DTPA aerosols in central airways, and hence were excluded from the analysis. The 4D‐CT ventilation value in SPECT ventilation defect regions was found to be significantly lower than that in non‐defect regions (0.14±0.06 vs. 0.19±0.07, p=0.01). The DSC for the spatial overlap of low‐functional lung regions was weak (0.29±0.11). 4D‐CT ventilation demonstrated a ventral‐to‐dorsal gravitational gradient, which was consistent with SPECT ventilation. Conclusion: A 12‐patient study demonstrated reasonable correlations between 4D‐CT ventilation and SPECT ventilation as clinical reference, indicating the potential for 4D‐CT ventilation imaging to achieve high physiologic accuracy. However, poor DSCs suggest the need for further studies to improve 4D‐CT ventilation imaging and/or a validation study design. National Lung Cancer Partnership Young Investigator Research Grant; NIH/NCI 2 R01 CA 093626
    Medical Physics 06/2013; 40(6):478. DOI:10.1118/1.4815540 · 2.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

908 Citations
256.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2015
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Radiology
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Radiology
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States