[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorinated solvents are classified as probable or possible carcinogens. It is unknown whether exposure to these agents increases the risk of malignant or benign brain tumours. Our objective was to evaluate associations of brain tumour risk with occupational exposure to six chlorinated solvents (ie, dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene).
489 glioma cases, 197 meningioma cases and 799 controls were enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study conducted at three USA hospitals in Arizona, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Information about occupational history was obtained through a detailed inperson interview that included job-specific modules of questions such that the interview was tailored to each individual's particular work history. An industrial hygienist assessed potential solvent exposure based on this information and an exhaustive review of the relevant industrial hygiene literature. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95% CI for each solvent for ever/never, duration, cumulative, average weekly and highest exposure.
Overall, we found no consistent evidence of an increased risk of glioma or meningioma related to occupational exposure to the six chlorinated solvents evaluated. There was some suggestion of an association between carbon tetrachloride and glioma in analyses restricted to exposed subjects, with average weekly exposure above the median associated with increased risk compared with below the median exposure (OR = 7.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 45.2).
We found no consistent evidence for increased brain tumour risk related to chlorinated solvents.
Occupational and environmental medicine 08/2012; 69(11):793-801. DOI:10.1136/oemed-2012-100742 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between quantitative estimates of exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders.
We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 12 315 workers in eight non-metal mining facilities, which included 198 lung cancer deaths and 562 incidence density-sampled control subjects. For each case subject, we selected up to four control subjects, individually matched on mining facility, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth year (within 5 years), from all workers who were alive before the day the case subject died. We estimated diesel exhaust exposure, represented by respirable elemental carbon (REC), by job and year, for each subject, based on an extensive retrospective exposure assessment at each mining facility. We conducted both categorical and continuous regression analyses adjusted for cigarette smoking and other potential confounding variables (eg, history of employment in high-risk occupations for lung cancer and a history of respiratory disease) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death (case subjects)/reference date (control subjects). All statistical tests were two-sided.
We observed statistically significant increasing trends in lung cancer risk with increasing cumulative REC and average REC intensity. Cumulative REC, lagged 15 years, yielded a statistically significant positive gradient in lung cancer risk overall (P (trend) = .001); among heavily exposed workers (ie, above the median of the top quartile [REC ≥ 1005 μg/m(3)-y]), risk was approximately three times greater (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.33 to 7.69) than that among workers in the lowest quartile of exposure. Among never smokers, odd ratios were 1.0, 1.47 (95% CI = 0.29 to 7.50), and 7.30 (95% CI = 1.46 to 36.57) for workers with 15-year lagged cumulative REC tertiles of less than 8, 8 to less than 304, and 304 μg/m(3)-y or more, respectively. We also observed an interaction between smoking and 15-year lagged cumulative REC (P (interaction) = .086) such that the effect of each of these exposures was attenuated in the presence of high levels of the other.
Our findings provide further evidence that diesel exhaust exposure may cause lung cancer in humans and may represent a potential public health burden.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/2012; 104(11):855-68. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djs034 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to examine relationships between occupation, industry and bladder cancer risk.
Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by personal interview from 1158 patients newly diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in 2001-2004, and from 1402 population controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and employment in other high-risk occupations.
Male precision metalworkers and metalworking/plasticworking machine operators had significantly elevated risks and significant trends in risk with duration of employment (precision metalworkers: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, p(trend) = 0.0065; metalworking/plasticworking machine operators: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.6, p(trend) = 0.047). Other occupations/industries for which risk increased significantly with duration of employment included: for men, textile machine operators, mechanics/repairers, automobile mechanics, plumbers, computer systems analysts, information clerks, and landscape industry workers; for women, service occupations, health services, cleaning and building services, management-related occupations, electronic components manufacturing and transportation equipment manufacturing. Men reporting use of metalworking fluids (MWF) had a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5).
Our findings support the hypothesis that some component(s) of MWF may be carcinogenic to the bladder. Our results also corroborate many other previously reported associations between bladder cancer risk and various occupations. More detailed analyses using information from the study's job-specific questionnaires may help to identify MWF components that may be carcinogenic, and other bladder carcinogens associated with a variety of occupations.
Occupational and environmental medicine 04/2011; 68(4):239-49. DOI:10.1136/oem.2009.052571 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucuronide conjugates of 4-aminobiphenyl and its N-hydroxy metabolite can be rapidly hydrolyzed in acidic urine to undergo further metabolic activation and form DNA adducts in the urothelium. We conducted a large multicenter case-control study in Spain to explore the etiology of bladder cancer and evaluated the association between urine pH and bladder cancer risk, alone and in combination with cigarette smoking. In total, 712 incident urothelial cell carcinoma cases and 611 hospital controls directly measured their urine pH with dipsticks twice a day (first void in the morning and early in the evening) during four consecutive days 2 weeks after hospital discharge. We found that a consistently acidic urine pH ≤6.0 was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-1.9] compared with all other subjects. Furthermore, risk estimates for smoking intensity and risk of bladder cancer among current smokers tended to be higher for those with a consistently acidic urine (OR = 8.8, 11.5 and 23.8) compared with those without (OR = 4.3, 7.7 and 5.8, respectively, for 1-19, 20-29 and 30+ cigarettes per day; P(interaction) for 30+ cigarettes per day = 0.024). These results suggest that urine pH, which is determined primarily by diet and body surface area, may be an important modifier of smoking and risk of bladder cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer has been linked with long-term exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water.
In this study we investigated the combined influence of DBP exposure and polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GSTT1, GSTZ1) and cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) genes in the metabolic pathways of selected by-products on bladder cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.
Average exposures to trihalomethanes (THMs; a surrogate for DBPs) from 15 years of age were estimated for each subject based on residential history and information on municipal water sources among 680 cases and 714 controls. We estimated effects of THMs and GSTT1, GSTZ1, and CYP2E1 polymorphisms on bladder cancer using adjusted logistic regression models with and without interaction terms.
THM exposure was positively associated with bladder cancer: adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.2 (0.8-1.8), 1.8 (1.1-2.9), and 1.8 (0.9-3.5) for THM quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, relative to quartile 1. Associations between THMs and bladder cancer were stronger among subjects who were GSTT1 +/+ or +/- versus GSTT1 null (P(interaction) = 0.021), GSTZ1 rs1046428 CT/TT versus CC (P(interaction) = 0.018), or CYP2E1 rs2031920 CC versus CT/TT (P(interaction) = 0.035). Among the 195 cases and 192 controls with high-risk forms of GSTT1 and GSTZ1, the ORs for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 of THMs were 1.5 (0.7-3.5), 3.4 (1.4-8.2), and 5.9 (1.8-19.0), respectively.
Polymorphisms in key metabolizing enzymes modified DBP-associated bladder cancer risk. The consistency of these findings with experimental observations of GSTT1, GSTZ1, and CYP2E1 activity strengthens the hypothesis that DBPs cause bladder cancer and suggests possible mechanisms as well as the classes of compounds likely to be implicated.
Environmental Health Perspectives 11/2010; 118(11):1545-50. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1002206 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for bladder cancer. The effects of smoking duration, intensity (cigarettes per day), and total exposure (pack-years); smoking cessation; exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; and changes in the composition of tobacco and cigarette design over time on risk of bladder cancer are unclear.
We examined bladder cancer risk in relation to smoking practices based on interview data from a large, population-based case-control study conducted in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont from 2001 to 2004 (N = 1170 urothelial carcinoma case patients and 1413 control subjects). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression. To examine changes in smoking-induced bladder cancer risk over time, we compared odds ratios from New Hampshire residents in this study (305 case patients and 335 control subjects) with those from two case-control studies conducted in New Hampshire in 1994-1998 and in 1998-2001 (843 case patients and 1183 control subjects).
Regular and current cigarette smokers had higher risks of bladder cancer than never-smokers (for regular smokers, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.6; for current smokers, OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 4.0 to 6.6). In New Hampshire, there was a statistically significant increasing trend in smoking-related bladder cancer risk over three consecutive periods (1994-1998, 1998-2001, and 2002-2004) among former smokers (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.0; OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.9; and OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7 to 4.0, respectively) and current smokers (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.0 to 4.2; OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.8 to 6.3; OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 3.5 to 8.9, respectively) (P for homogeneity of trends over time periods = .04). We also observed that within categories of intensity, odds ratios increased approximately linearly with increasing pack-years smoked, but the slope of the increasing trend declined with increasing intensity.
Smoking-related risks of bladder cancer appear to have increased in New Hampshire since the mid-1990s. Based on our modeling of pack-years and intensity, smoking fewer cigarettes over a long time appears more harmful than smoking more cigarettes over a shorter time, for equal total pack-years of cigarettes smoked.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 11/2009; 101(22):1553-61. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djp361 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental studies suggest that increased urination frequency may reduce bladder cancer risk if carcinogens are present in the urine. Only 2 small studies of the effect of increased urination frequency on bladder cancer risk in humans have been conducted with conflicting results. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of urination frequency on risk of bladder cancer in a large, multicenter case-control study. We analyzed data based on interviews conducted with 884 patients with newly diagnosed, bladder cancer and 996 controls from 1998 to 2001 in Spain. We observed a consistent, inverse trend in risk with increasing nighttime voiding frequency in both men (p = 0.0003) and women (p = 0.07); voiding at least 2 times per night was associated with a significant, 40-50% risk reduction. The protective effect of nocturia was apparent among study participants with low, moderate and high water consumption. The risk associated with cigarette smoking was reduced by nocturia. Compared with nonsmokers who did not urinate at night, current smokers who did not urinate at night had an OR of 7.0 (95% CI = 4.7-10.2), whereas those who voided at least twice per night had an OR of 3.3 (95% CI = 1.9-5.8) (p value for trend = 0.0005). Our findings suggest a strong protective effect of nocturia on bladder cancer risk, providing evidence in humans that bladder cancer risk is related to the contact time of the urothelium with carcinogens in urine. Increased urination frequency, coupled with possible dilution of the urine from increased water intake, may diminish the effect of urinary carcinogens on bladder cancer risk.
International Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 123(7):1644-8. DOI:10.1002/ijc.23572 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors examined incident glioma and meningioma risk associated with occupational exposure to insecticides and herbicides in a hospital-based, case-control study of brain cancer. Cases were 462 glioma and 195 meningioma patients diagnosed between 1994 and 1998 in three US hospitals. Controls were 765 patients admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions. Occupational histories were collected during personal interviews. Exposure to pesticides was estimated by use of a questionnaire, combined with pesticide measurement data abstracted from published sources. Using logistic regression models, the authors found no association between insecticide and herbicide exposures and risk for glioma and meningioma. There was no association between glioma and exposure to insecticides or herbicides, in men or women. Women who reported ever using herbicides had a significantly increased risk for meningioma compared with women who never used herbicides (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 4.3), and there were significant trends of increasing risk with increasing years of herbicide exposure (p = 0.01) and increasing cumulative exposure (p = 0.01). There was no association between meningioma and herbicide or insecticide exposure among men. These findings highlight the need to go beyond job title to elucidate potential carcinogenic exposures within different occupations.
American journal of epidemiology 05/2008; 167(8):976-85. DOI:10.1093/aje/kwm401 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between occupation and bladder cancer in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Spain.
1219 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 1271 controls selected from 18 hospitals in Spain between June 1998 and September 2000 provided detailed information on life-time occupational history, smoking habits, medical history, and other factors. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each occupation and industry, adjusting for age, hospital region, smoking duration, and employment in a high-risk occupation for bladder cancer.
Statistically significant increased risks were observed among men employed as machine operators in the printing industry (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.6 to 17.7), among men employed in the transportation equipment industry (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) and among those who had worked for >/=10 years in the electrical/gas/sanitary services (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 10.4) and in hotels and other lodgings (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 7.3). Men who worked as miscellaneous mechanics and repairers (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6) and as supervisors in production occupations (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.6) also had excess risks for bladder cancer. Male farmers and those who worked in crop and livestock production had decreased risks for bladder cancer. We found no significant associations between occupation or industry and bladder cancer risk among women.
We did not observe excess bladder cancer risk for many of the occupations identified as being a priori at high risk. Examination of more detailed job exposure information should help clarify these associations.
Occupational and environmental medicine 05/2008; 65(5):347-53. DOI:10.1136/oem.2007.035816 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between agricultural pesticides and colorectal cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. A total of 56,813 pesticide applicators with no prior history of colorectal cancer were included in this analysis. Detailed pesticide exposure and other information were obtained from self-administered questionnaires completed at the time of enrollment (1993-1997). Cancer incidence was determined through population-based cancer registries from enrollment through December 31, 2002. A total of 305 incident colorectal cancers (212 colon, 93 rectum) were diagnosed during the study period, 1993-2002. Although most of the 50 pesticides studied were not associated with colorectal cancer risk, chlorpyrifos use showed significant exposure response trend (p for trend = 0.008) for rectal cancer, rising to a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.4) increased risk in the highest exposure category. Aldicarb was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon cancer (p for trend = 0.001), based on a small number of exposed cases, with the highest exposure category resulting in a 4.1-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval: 1.3-12.8). In contrast, dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed a significant inverse association with colon cancer but the association was not monotonic. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously since the literature suggesting that pesticides are related to colorectal cancer is limited. Nonetheless the possibility of an association between exposure to certain pesticides and incidence of colorectal cancer among pesticide applicators deserves further evaluation.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2007; 121(2):339-46. DOI:10.1002/ijc.22635 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dicamba is an herbicide commonly applied to crops in the United States and abroad. We evaluated cancer incidence among pesticide applicators exposed to dicamba in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa.
Detailed pesticide exposure information was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed from 1993 to 1997. Cancer incidence was followed through 31 December 2002 by linkage to state cancer registries. We used Poisson regression to estimate rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cancer subtypes by tertiles of dicamba exposure. Two dicamba exposure metrics were used: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days (lifetime days x intensity score).
A total of 41,969 applicators were included in the analysis, and 22,036 (52.5%) reported ever using dicamba. Exposure was not associated with overall cancer incidence nor were there strong associations with any specific type of cancer. When the reference group comprised low-exposed applicators, we observed a positive trend in risk between lifetime exposure days and lung cancer (p = 0.02), but none of the individual point estimates was significantly elevated. We also observed significant trends of increasing risk for colon cancer for both lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime days, although these results are largely due to elevated risk at the highest exposure level. There was no apparent risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Although associations between exposure and lung and colon cancer were observed, we did not find clear evidence for an association between dicamba exposure and cancer risk.
Environmental Health Perspectives 11/2006; 114(10):1521-6. DOI:10.1289/ehp.9204 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity has been linked with increased risk for cancers of the colon, kidney, breast, endometrium and gallbladder. For other cancer sites, the relationship with obesity is less well quantified, and the effect of weight change on cancer risk is unclear.
We examined the health records of 362,552 Swedish men who underwent at least one physical examination from 1971 to 1992, and were followed until death or the end of 1999. Incident cancer cases were identified by linkage to the Swedish cancer registry. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks of cancer for both body-mass index (BMI) at baseline exam and, in a subgroup of 107,815 men, change in BMI after six years of follow-up, adjusting for age and smoking status.
Compared to men of normal weight, obese men had a significantly increased risk of all cancers combined (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.2). The risks were most pronounced for esophageal adenocarcinoma (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.3-5.6), renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.4-2.4), malignant melanoma (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7), and cancers of the colon (RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.5-2.0), rectum (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7), and liver (RR = 3.6; 95% CI = 2.6-5.0). Risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was elevated for underweight men whose BMI was less than 18.5 (RR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.1-8.3). An excess risk for cancers of the pancreas and connective tissue was observed only among nonsmokers. Compared to men whose weight remained stable, men with more than a 15% increase in BMI after six years of follow-up had an elevated risk of pancreas and renal cell cancers.
Obesity and weight gain increase the risk for several forms of cancer in men, and underscore the need for further study into carcinogenic mechanisms and preventive interventions.
Cancer Causes and Control 10/2006; 17(7):901-9. DOI:10.1007/s10552-006-0023-9 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of dose, type of tobacco, cessation, inhalation, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on bladder cancer risk among 1,219 patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer and 1,271 controls recruited from 18 hospitals in Spain. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between bladder cancer risk and various characteristics of cigarette smoking. Current smokers (men: OR, 7.4; 95% CI, 5.3-10.4; women: OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.6-16.4) and former smokers (men: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8-5.3; women: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.5-7.2) had significantly increased risks of bladder cancer compared with nonsmokers. We observed a significant positive trend in risk with increasing duration and amount smoked. After adjustment for duration, risk was only 40% higher in smokers of black tobacco than that in smokers of blond tobacco (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.98-2.0). Compared with risk in current smokers, a significant inverse trend in risk with increasing time since quitting smoking blond tobacco was observed (> or =20 years cessation: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9). No trend in risk with cessation of smoking black tobacco was apparent. Compared with men who inhaled into the mouth, risk increased for men who inhaled into the throat (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6) and chest (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). Cumulative occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke seemed to confer increased risk among female nonsmokers but not among male nonsmokers. After eliminating the effect of cigarette smoking on bladder cancer risk in our study population, the male-to-female incidence ratio decreased from 8.2 to 1.7, suggesting that nearly the entire male excess of bladder cancer observed in Spain is explained by cigarette smoking rather than occupational/environmental exposures to other bladder carcinogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metolachlor is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. We evaluated the incidence of cancer among pesticide applicators exposed to metolachlor in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. A total of 50,193 pesticide applicators were included. Detailed information on pesticide exposure and lifestyle factors was obtained from self-administered enrollment questionnaires completed between 1993 and 1997; average length of follow-up was 7.33 years. Two metolachlor exposure metrics were used : (i) lifetime days personally mixed or applied metolachlor and (ii) intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days x an intensity level). Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for cancer subtypes by tertiles of metolachlor exposure. No clear risk for any cancer subtype was found for exposure to metolachlor. A significantly decreased RR was found for prostate cancer in the highest category of lifetime days exposure (RR = 0.59; 95%CI, 0.39-0.89) and in the second highest category of intensity-weighted lifetime days exposure (RR = 0.66; 95%CI, 0.45-0.97); however, the test for trend was not significant for either exposure metric. A nonsignificantly increased risk was found for lung cancer with lifetime days exposure in the highest category (RR = 2.37; 95%CI, 0.97-5.82, p-trend = 0.03) but not with intensity-weighted lifetime days. Given the widespread use of metolachlor and the frequent detection of metolachlor in both surface and ground water, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including lung cancer and the less common cancers.
International Journal of Cancer 06/2006; 118(12):3118-23. DOI:10.1002/ijc.21758 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pendimethalin, a widely used herbicide, has been classified as a group C possible human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the incidence of cancer in relation to reported pendimethelin use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina.
Information on pesticide use came from two questionnaires (enrollment and take-home). The present analysis includes 9089 pendimethalin-exposed and 15,285 nonpendimethalin-exposed pesticide applicators with complete information on pendimethalin use and covariates from a take-home questionnaire. We conducted Poisson regression analyses to evaluate the association of pendimethalin exposure with cancer incidence (mean follow-up = 7.5 years) using two exposure metrics: tertiles of lifetime days of exposure and tertiles of intensity-weighted lifetime days of exposure.
Overall cancer incidence did not increase with increasing lifetime pendimethalin use, and there was no clear evidence of an association between pendimethalin use and risks for specific cancers. The risk for rectal cancer rose with increasing lifetime pendimethalin exposure when using nonexposed as the reference (rate ratio = 4.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.5-12.7 for the highest exposed subjects; P for trend = 0.007), but the association was attenuated when using the low exposed as the referent group (P for trend = 0.08). Similar patterns for rectal cancer were observed when using intensity-weighted exposure-days. The number of rectal cancer cases among the pendimethalin-exposed was small (n = 19). There was some evidence for an elevated risk for lung cancer, but the excess occurred only in the highest exposure category for lifetime pendimethalin exposure. The trends for lung cancer risk were inconsistent for different exposure metrics.
We did not find a clear association of lifetime pendimethalin exposure either with overall cancer incidence or with specific cancer sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many reported associations between common genetic polymorphisms and complex diseases have not been confirmed in subsequent studies. An exception could be the association between NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and bladder-cancer risk. However, current evidence is based on meta-analyses of relatively small studies (range 23-374 cases) with some evidence of publication bias and study heterogeneity. Associations between polymorphisms in other NAT and GST genes and bladder-cancer risk have been inconsistent.
We investigated polymorphisms in NAT2, GSTM1, NAT1, GSTT1, GSTM3, and GSTP1 in 1150 patients with transitional-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 1149 controls in Spain; all the participants were white. We also carried out meta-analyses of NAT2, GSTM1, and bladder cancer that included more than twice as many cases as in previous reports.
In our study, the odds ratios for bladder cancer for individuals with deletion of one or two copies of the GSTM1 gene were 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.7) and 1.9 (1.4-2.7) respectively (p for trend <0.0001). Compared with NAT2 rapid or intermediate acetylators, NAT2 slow acetylators had an increased overall risk of bladder cancer (1.4 [1.2-1.7]) that was stronger for cigarette smokers than for never smokers (p for interaction 0.008). No significant associations were found with the other polymorphisms. Meta-analyses showed that the overall association for NAT2 was robust (p<0.0001), and case-only meta-analyses provided support for an interaction between NAT2 and smoking (p for interaction 0.009). The overall association for GSTM1 was also robust (p<0.0001) and was not modified by smoking status (p=0.86).
The GSTM1 null genotype increases the overall risk of bladder cancer, and the NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype increases risk particularly among cigarette smokers. These findings provide compelling evidence for the role of common polymorphisms in the aetiology of cancer.
Although the relative risks are modest, these polymorphisms could account for up to 31% of bladder cancers because of their high prevalence.
The Lancet 08/2005; 366(9486):649-59. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67137-1 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to certain pesticides has been linked with both acute and chronic adverse health outcomes such as neurotoxicity and risk for certain cancers. Univariate analyses of pesticide exposures may not capture the complexity of these exposures since use of various pesticides often occurs simultaneously, and because specific uses have changed over time. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort study of 89,658 licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, we employed factor analysis to order to characterize underlying patterns of self-reported exposures to 50 different pesticides. Factor analysis is a statistical method used to explain the relationships between several correlated variables by reducing them to a smaller number of conceptually meaningful, composite variables, known as factors. Three factors emerged for farmer applicators (N=45,074): (1) Iowa agriculture and herbicide use, (2) North Carolina agriculture and use of insecticides, fumigants and fungicides, and (3) older age and use of chlorinated pesticides. The patterns observed for spouses of farmers (N=17,488) were similar to those observed for the farmers themselves, whereas five factors emerged for commercial pesticide applicators (N=4,384): (1) herbicide use, (2) older age and use of chlorinated pesticides, (3) use of fungicides and residential pest treatments, (4) use of animal insecticides, and (5) use of fumigants. Pesticide exposures did not correlate with lifestyle characteristics such as race, smoking status or education. This heterogeneity in exposure patterns may be used to guide etiologic studies of health effects of farmers and other groups exposed to pesticides.
Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 06/2005; 15(3):225-33. DOI:10.1038/sj.jea.7500396 · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses.
This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment, each pesticide applicator completed a 21-page enrollment questionnaire. Mortality assessment from enrollment (1994-1997) through 2000 provided an average follow-up of about 5.3 years, 447,154 person-years, and 2055 deaths.
Compared with the general population in the two states, the cohort experienced a very low mortality rate. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, COPD, total cancer, and cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and lung were 0.6 or lower for both farmers and spouses. These deficits varied little by farm size, type of crops or livestock on the farm, years of handling pesticides, holding a non-farm job, or length of follow up. SMRs among ever smokers were not as low as among never smokers, but were still less than 1.0 for all smoking-related causes of death. No statistically significant excesses occurred, but slightly elevated SMRs, or those near 1.0, were noted for diseases that have been associated with farming in previous studies.
Several factors may contribute to the low mortality observed in this population, including the healthy worker effect typically seen in cohorts of working populations (which may decline in future years), a short follow-up interval, and a healthier lifestyle manifested through lower cigarette use and an occupation that has traditionally required high levels of physical activity.
Annals of Epidemiology 05/2005; 15(4):279-85. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2004.08.008 · 2.00 Impact Factor