[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of allergic granulomatosis and necrotizing vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration. The etiology of EGPA is unknown. Dendritic cells (DCs) are not only critical for the induction of primary immune responses; they may also be important for the induction of immunological tolerance and the regulation of the type of T-cell-mediated immune response. To investigate whether DC maturation is associated with EGPA disease status, we examined the relationship between the maturation of DCs and the differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells in EGPA patients. We exposed the CD14+ blood monocytes of 19 patients with EGPA in remission or relapse to stimulation with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 d and lipopolysaccharide for 24 h to obtain mature CD83+ DCs and immature CD206+ DCs. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined four patients for the presence of CD83+ and CD206+ DCs in the lung at the onset of EGPA .ResultsThe percentage of CD83+ cells among DCs differentiated from CD14+ monocytes was lower for EGPA patients in relapse than in remission. The percentage of CD83+ DCs was inversely correlated with the percentage of CD206+ DCs and was significantly correlated with the numbers of naturally occurring CD4+ regulatory Treg (nTreg; FOXP3+CD4+) cells and inducible Treg (iTreg; CD4+CD25+ T cells producing IL-10 or TGF-ß) cells but not the number of eosinophils. The percentage of CD206+ DCs was significantly inversely correlated with the percentages of nTreg and iTreg cells but not the number of eosinophils. Immunohistochemistry revealed both CD206+ DCs and CD83+ DCs in alveoli and interstitial spaces at the onset of EGPA.Conclusion
The maturation of DCs from monocytes was related to disease activity in patients with EGPA. Increased CD83+ DCs in EGPA patients may induce the differentiation of iTreg and nTreg cells, thereby suppressing inflammation and disease activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An open-label, non-randomized, single-arm study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of high-dose leukocytapheresis (pulse LCAP) for refractory asthma.
Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Anaphylaxis after the ingestion of foods contaminated with mites has recently been recognized. Case series and case reports thus far have shown that mite-contaminated wheat flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis. However, we have found 8 cases of oral mite anaphylaxis which were caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki-mix, a savory Japanese style pancake mix, in our hospital. Methods: In addition to our 8 cases, the databases of MEDLINE and ICHUSHI were systematically searched for patients with oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan. Results: Thirty-six patients including our 8 cases with oral mite anaphylaxis were identified. Thirty-four out of 36 cases (94%) ingested okonomiyaki or takoyaki, prepared at home using okonomiyaki-mix or takoyaki-mix which was previously opened and stored for months at ambient temperature. Microscopic examination of culprit mixes of 16 cases including our 1 case revealed contamination of mites such as Dermatophagoides farina (Der f) (5 cases), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tyr p) (4 cases), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) (3 cases). The specific IgE to each mite is generally upregulated in these patients. Especially, the titers of specific IgE to Der p and Der f were more than class 2 in all cases. Conclusions: Mite-contaminated flavored flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The characteristics of inpatients with severe asthma exacerbation remain unclear. It is considered that the characteristics of inpatients with severe asthma vary depending on age. However, these are rarely investigated. The objective of this study is to investigate the differences in characteristics among different age groups. We considered that it is necessary to understand the characteristics of each age group so that we can establish strategies in preventing severe asthma exacerbation. Methods: All asthma inpatients who were hospitalized between 2004 and 2011 with SpO2 <90% (in room air), were breathless at rest, and showed increased respiratory rate and pulse rate were examined. We compared the characteristics among the young age group, middle age group, and advanced age group. Results: The total number of patients was 204. In the young age group, the percentages of patients with irregular visits and non visits to a medical institution were high. This group showed high percentages of smokers and pet owners. The percentage of continuous ICS users in this group was 25.9%. The middle age group had high rates of aspirin-intolerant asthma. The percentage of continuous ICS users in this group was 60.2%. In the advanced age group, the percentages of patients with hypertension/heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and COPD were high. This group showed good treatment adherence. The percentage of continuous ICS users in this group was 77.4%. Conclusions: The characteristics of inpatients with severe asthma vary depending on age. We need to establish countermeasures for asthma exacerbation according to the characteristics of patients depending on age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), a rare disease characterized by the presence of allergic granulomatosis and necrotizing vasculitis, is often effectively treated with corticosteroids. However, relapse rates are high and, for unknown reasons, some EGPA patients suffer frequent relapses after entry into initial remission. Regulatory T (Treg) cells and B cells are implicated in the development and progression of EGPA. Here, we explored the influence of Treg cells and a co-stimulatory factor present on B cells on the development and course of EGPA. METHODS: We studied 45 EGPA patients (19 of whom experienced frequent relapses and 26 of whom seldom relapsed) and 67 (control) patients with general asthma. We determined the counts or percentages of whole-blood cells exhibiting the following characteristics: FOXP3(+) cells among CD4(+) Treg cells; CTLA-4(+) cells among CD4(+)/CD25(+) Treg cells; and CD27(+), CD80(+), CD86(+), or CD95(+) cells among CD19(+) B cells. We also measured serum IgG concentrations. RESULTS: Compared with patients with asthma or seldom-relapsing EGPA, frequently relapsing EGPA patients with active disease exhibited decreased counts of Treg cells and increased percentages of B cells that scored as CD80(+), CD27(+), or CD95(+). Patients with frequently relapsing EGPA had increased percentages of CD27(+) and CD95(+) B cells, and fewer CD19(+) B cells, than did patients in the other two groups. Lower CD19(+) B cell counts were associated with reduced Treg cell counts and a lower serum IgG concentration. CONCLUSION: In patients with frequently relapsing EGPA, decreases in Treg cell numbers and increased percentages of activated B cells may induce apoptosis of B cells.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 04/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Penicillium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and are usually considered non-pathogenic to humans. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. Penicillium digitatum is a plant pathogen that commonly causes a postharvest fungal disease of citrus called green mould; it very rarely causes systemic mycosis in humans. Here, we report a case of fatal pneumonia due to P. digitatum infection, as confirmed by repeated examination of cultured sputum. CASE PRESENTATION: A cavity was found in the left upper lung on routine chest X-ray in a 78-year-old undernourished male who had been diagnosed at age 66 with bronchial asthma and pulmonary emphysema. No increased sputum production was present. The presence of antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to Aspergillus flavus and P. digitatum was confirmed in the patient's serum and also later pleural fluid by using Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion testing with A. flavus and P. digitatum antigens. The patient was treated over a period of months with itraconazole, micafungin, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and antibacterials. However, the cavity enlarged, the pleural effusion increased, and the patient began producing purulent sputum. He died from progressive renal failure. From sputum culture only one fungus was isolated repeatedly on potato-dextrose agar in large quantities. This fungus was confirmed to be P. digitatum by molecular identification. Partial sequences of the beta-tubulin gene were determined by using the primers Bt2a and Bt2b for PCR amplification and sequencing and underwent a BLAST search at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, these results confirmed that the isolated fungus was P. digitatum. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary infection with P. digitatum. Our patient had pulmonary emphysema and was elderly, and undernourished. These factors might have facilitated the infection. In his case, antimycotics were ineffective in treating the lung involvement. Although human infection with P. digitatum is considered rare, it appears that this organism can be very virulent and resistant to antimycotics.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 03/2013; 13(1):16. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Onset of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) in middle age is uncommon, and adults with renal or gastrointestinal involvement present with more severe disease than do similar pediatric patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 69-year-old male with HSP who, after treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and continuous intravenous prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), died as a result of severe gastrointestinal involvement with non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). Vascular narrowing associated with the NOMI improved after catheter injection of PGE1 and prednisolone, but the patient died of bleeding from an exposed small vessel. At autopsy there was no active vasculitis in the jejunal submucosa. CONCLUSION: Treatment with PGE1 and prednisolone might improve small-vessel vasculitis associated with NOMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: monocytes of relapsed EGPA patients and lower expression of both TLR2 and TLR4 on their mDCs than on the cells from EGPA patients in remission or non-EGPA patients. The per-centages of monocytes expressing TLR4 were positively cor-related with the percentages of regulatory T cells in periph-eral blood. In addition, the percentages of monocytes and the percentages of mDCs that produced IL-27 and IL-23p19 in response to LPS stimulation were positively correlated with the percentages of Tr1 cells and Th17 cells in periph-eral blood. A positive correlation was also found between the percentages of mDCs that produced IL-27 and the per-centages of Tr1 cells. Conclusion: Increased dominancy of IL-23p19 and IL-27 production by the APCs of EGPA patients may be linked to differentiation of Th17 cells and Tr1 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Treatment guidelines recommend the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as first-line therapy for all stages of persistent asthma. However, it is unknown whether ICS dose reduction in adult asthmatics is compatible with maintaining asthma control. Moreover, there are no predictors of efficacy in maintaining asthma control upon ICS reduction. Methods: We recruited 90 adult patients with moderate or severe asthma but no clinical symptoms of asthma for at least 6 months. All patients reduced their ICS doses by half but continued taking other asthma-related medications. As a primary outcome, we measured asthma exacerbations during the 12 months following ICS reduction. We also further monitored patients from the above study who had maintained total asthma control for 12 months after ICS reduction and who had continued on their reduced doses of ICS or had further reduced, or stopped, their ICS. Results: Forty of ninety patients (44.4%) experienced exacerbations after ICS reduction (time to first exacerbation: 6.4 ± 3.6 months). Multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed a rank order of predictors of success in ICS reduction while retaining asthma control: acetylcholine (ACh) PC(20) (p < 0.01); length of time with no clinical symptoms before ICS reduction (p < 0.01); FeNO (p = 0.028); and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1); % predicted) (p = 0.03). Finally thirty-nine of 50 patients maintained total asthma control for at least 2 years after the initial ICS reduction. Conclusions: In asthma patients with normalized AChPC(20) of 20mg/mL or 10mg/mL and no clinical symptoms for at least 12 or 24 months it may be possible to successfully reduce ICS without increasing exacerbations for long time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment on clinical symptoms and regulatory T (Treg) cell frequency in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA).
Twenty-two EGPA patients with severe mononeuritis multiplex or cardiac dysfunction received IVIG therapy combined with conventional therapy (corticosteroid, immunosuppressants, or both). As a control, 24 EGPA patients without severe vasculitic symptoms were treated with conventional therapy. Before, during, and after treatment, we determined percentages of Treg cells and other relevant cells in patients' peripheral blood.
The frequency of CD25+ among CD4+ T cells was lower at onset in the study group than in controls but increased significantly after IVIG treatment, relative to controls. The frequency of CD25+ among CD4+ T cells correlated with the frequency of FOXP3+ among CD4+ T cells and interleukin 10 produced by CD25+CD4+ T cells.
The increase in Treg cells seen with the combination of IVIG and conventional therapy may promote remission in EGPA.
The Journal of Rheumatology 04/2012; 39(5):1019-25. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method that is used to measure respiratory mechanics, including respiratory resistance and reactance at multiple frequencies. The advantage of FOT over spirometry is that FOT does not require forced expiratory maneuvers. Moreover, a new FOT machine called MostGraph (Chest Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), has been developed in Japan, and can be used clinically to diagnose and monitor asthma. The purpose of this study is to show the standard of FOT measured with MostGraph in adult Japanese asthmatics.
From our outpatient clinic, we recruited 151 stable asthmatics who were being treated with inhaled corticosteroids at the time of the study. For each subject, we measured the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) by using a chemiluminescent nitric oxide analyzer (Sievers280, GE, Boulder, Co); we determined the levels of forced expiratory volume in 1s (%FEV1) and maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (%MMF) by using spirometory; and we measured resistance at 5 Hz(R5), resistance at 20 Hz(R20), R5-R20, reactance at 5 Hz(X5), frequency of resonance (Fres), and low-frequency reactance area (ALX), by using a MostGraph FOT machine.
Each of the FOT parameters measured by using the MostGraph machine was significantly correlated with %FEV1 and %MMF (p<0.001), with Fres showing the strongest association. Three of the FOT parameters, X5, Fres, and ALX, were significantly associated with the subject's age (p=0.01, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively), and all FOT parameters were significantly associated with the subject's body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001 to p=0.018). The results of multiple regression analyses between FOT parameters and FEV1, age, BMI, and FeNO, showed that Fres was significantly associated with FEV1(p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.001). From the results of the simple linear regression between Fres and FEV1, we estimated that Fres values of 17.5 Hz corresponded to %FEV1 values of 60%; Fres values of 11.3 Hz corresponded to %FEV1 values of 80%; and Fres values of 4.94 Hz corresponded to %FEV1 values of 100%.
FOT parameters measured by using a MostGraph machine can be used successfully to assess the level of airflow limitation in adult stable asthmatics.