Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero

Hospital Infantil Teleton de Oncología, Ciudad Queretaro, Querétaro, Mexico

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Publications (80)163.39 Total impact

  • Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Raquel Valencia-Cedillo
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    ABSTRACT: Health care workers are experiencing increasing numbers of occupational illnesses. Safety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories (APL) are crucial to prevent unnecessary exposures to both chemical and biological agents. The main goal of this study was to determine if pathologists perceptions and actual practice mirror regulatory guidelines. Current available recommendations for APL were reviewed and used to construct an online survey distributed to pathologists. The survey was completed by 121 participants. Eighty-seven (72 %) of respondents reported receiving inadequate safety training. Most pathologists (82 %) were not well-informed about biosafety practices. Sixty-three (52 %) participants felt that the risks of chemical and infectious disease exposures in the APL were low. Most respondents reported having a needle stick or cut (71 %). Eighty-six (71 %) of participants reported musculo skeletal problems. This study indicated that there is a need for improving training in anatomical pathology safety practices in Mexican laboratories as daily practices do not reflected current guidelines.
    Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 03/2015; 53(2):206-13.
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    ABSTRACT: A new 3-tier pattern-based system to classify endocervical adenocarcinoma was recently presented. In short, pattern A tumors were characterized by well-demarcated glands frequently forming clusters or groups with relative lobular architecture. Pattern B tumors demonstrated localized destructive invasion defined as desmoplastic stroma surrounding glands with irregular and/or ill-defined borders or incomplete glands and associated tumor cells (individual or small clusters) within the stroma. Tumors with pattern C showed diffusely infiltrative glands with associated extensive desmoplastic response. In total, 352 cases (all FIGO stages) from 12 institutions were identified. Mean patient age was 45 years (range, 20 to 83 y). Forty-nine (13.9%) cases demonstrated lymph nodes (LNs) with metastatic endocervical carcinoma. Using this new system, 73 patients (20.7%) were identified with pattern A tumors (all stage I); none had LN metastases and/or recurrences. Ninety patients (25.6%) were identified with pattern B tumors (all stage I); only 4 (4.4%) had LN metastases; 1 had vaginal recurrence. The 189 (53.7%) remaining patients had pattern C tumors; 45 (23.8%) of them had LN metastases. This new classification system demonstrated 20.7% of patients (pattern A) with negative LNs, and patients with pattern A tumors can be spared of lymphadenectomy. Patients with pattern B tumors rarely presented with metastatic LNs, and sentinel LN examination could potentially identify these patients. Aggressive treatment is justified in patients with pattern C tumors.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 02/2015; 39(5). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000402 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical adenocarcinomas (ADC) have been viewed as more aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We analyzed an international cohort of early stage cervical cancer to determine the impact of histologic type. Retrospective analysis of patients with SCC (148 patients) and ADC (130 patients) stages IA1-IB2 who underwent surgery at our three institutions (two from Detroit, one from Mexico) from 2000-2010 was performed for: age, stage, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), invasion depth, lymph node status (LN), recurrence and survival. Pathologic review proceeded inclusion. In the Latino population, ADC's tended to be higher grade (p=0.01), while SCC's were larger with deeper invasion (p<0.001). LVI and LN were not significantly different. Recurrence rate (RR) was 8% (8/101) in ADC and 11.8% (9/76) in SCC's. 5 year survival (OS) was equivalent (98.2% and 95.2% for ADC and SCC respectively, p=0.369). In the Detroit cohort, we noted no difference in size, grade, depth of invasion, LVI, LN. RR was 8/72 (13.7%) for SCC and 4/29 (13.7%) but not statistically different between the tumor types (p=0.5). 5 year survival was 91% and 92% for ADC and SCC, respectively. In this population 33% of the patients with SCC and 34% of the patients with ADC received adjuvant chemo-radiation (p=0.4). Histologic type demonstrated no significant outcome difference for any type of adjuvant therapy.Conclusion Comparing early stage disease of cervical ADC and SCC suggests equivalent recurrence and survival. therefore, the paradigm of more aggressive management of early stage cervical ADC warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Gynecologic Oncology 02/2015; 137(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.02.005 · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero
    Cirugia y cirujanos 01/2015; 83(1):1-2. DOI:10.1016/j.circir.2014.10.001 · 0.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of penile carcinomas are squamous cell carcinomas originating in the squamous mucosa covering the glans, coronal sulcus, or inner surface of the foreskin, the 3 latter sites comprising the penile anatomical compartments. There is a variegated spectrum of subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinomas according to recent classification schemes. Currently, because of etiological and prognostic considerations, 2 morphologically and molecularly distinctive groups of subtypes of penile SCCs based on the presence of HPV were delineated. The predominant cell composition of tumors associated with HPV is the basaloid cell, which is the hallmark and best tissue marker for the virus. Tumors negative for the virus, however, are preferentially of lower grade and keratinizing maturing neoplasms with the exception of sarcomatoid carcinoma. HPV is detected in research studies by PCR or in situ hybridization (ISH) technologies, but p16 immunohistochemical stain is an adequate and less-expensive surrogate that is useful in the routine practice of pathology. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the variable morphological phenotypic expression of penile tumors separating non-HPV- and HPV-related neoplasms and to add morphological information that will justify subclassifying squamous cell carcinomas in a number of special subtypes. A brief discussion of the differential diagnosis in each category is also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 12/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1053/j.semdp.2014.12.018 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologists' contribution in the determination of prognosis in invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma is crucial. The TNM staging system is based on the identification of pathological data. There are multiple pathologically based factors believed to be important in relation to the rates of regional inguinal lymph node and specific cancer death. Among them are tumor site, size, histological subtypes, thickness or anatomical level of invasion, tumor front, and vascular or perineural invasion. The identification of these factors determines the prognostic profile of patients with penile cancer. These factors are used for the construction of pathological risk groups, prognostic index, or nomograms and are helpful in the prediction of nodal metastasis or patients' outcome. This review will describe in detail the influential pathological prognostic factors present in each tumor category emphasizing the impact of especial histological subtypes in tumor spread and final outcome. There are few studies comprehensibly addressing the relation of tumor morphology and prognosis according to histological types. We are summarizing findings of prognostic factors in 3 different series for the most common types and individual series in more recently described tumor entities. We had found a broad correlation of special subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinomas that made regional nodal status and final outcome predictable according to histological features of the tumor. These findings permitted grouping special subtypes of squamous cell carcinomas into prognosis risk groups of low, intermediate, and high. In the first category of excellent prognoses are the usual grade I, verrucous, papillary NOS, pseudohyperplastic and cuniculatum carcinomas. In the second group, there are the grade II usual, mixed and warty carcinomas. The third category of tumors, with the worst prognosis is composed of high grade usual, basaloid, warty-basaloid, papillary basaloid, and sarcomatoid carcinomas. We found that subtyping of penile squamous cell carcinoma is important to determine risk for nodal metastasis and patients' survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 12/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1053/j.semdp.2014.12.017 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Consultations on Urological Diseases are international consensus meetings, supported by the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, which have occurred since 1981. Each consultation has the goal of convening experts to review data and provide evidence-based recommendations to improve practice. In 2012, the selected subject was bladder cancer, a disease which remains a major public health problem with little improvement in many years. The proceedings of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer, which included a 'Pathology of Bladder Cancer Work Group,' have recently been published; herein, we provide a summary of developments and consensus relevant to the practicing pathologist. Although the published proceedings have tackled a comprehensive set of issues regarding the pathology of bladder cancer, this update summarizes the recommendations regarding selected issues for the practicing pathologist. These include guidelines for classification and grading of urothelial neoplasia, with particular emphasis on the approach to inverted lesions, the handling of incipient papillary lesions frequently seen during surveillance of bladder cancer patients, descriptions of newer variants, and terminology for urine cytology reporting.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 21 November 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.158.
  • Cancer Research 10/2014; 74(19 Supplement):277-277. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-277 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This work describes the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the HPV type distribution in a large series of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) grades 2/3 and vaginal cancer worldwide. Methods: We analysed 189 VAIN 2/3 and 408 invasive vaginal cancer cases collected from 31 countries from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using the SPF-10/DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/LiPA 25 system (version 1). A subset of 146 vag-inal cancers was tested for p16 INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV transfor-mation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 74% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70–78%) of invasive cancers and in 96% (95% CI: 92–98%) of VAIN 2/3. Among cancers, the highest detection rates were observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, and in younger ages. Concerning the type-specific distribution, HPV16 was the most frequently type detected in both precancerous and cancerous lesions (59%). p16 INK4a overexpression was found in 87% of HPV DNA positive vaginal cancer cases. Conclusions: HPV was identified in a large proportion of invasive vaginal cancers and in almost all VAIN 2/3. HPV16 was the most common type detected. A large impact in the reduction of the burden of vaginal neoplastic lesions is expected among vaccinated cohorts.
    European Journal of Cancer 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.07.018 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge about human papillomaviruses (HPV) types involved in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in the anal cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI: 85.1-91.0%) and in 95.3% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI: 84.2-99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16(INK4a) overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2014; DOI:10.1002/ijc.28963 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-566. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)62049-7 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer. However, monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nucleic acid is also present in up to 10% of these tumors worldwide. EBV prevalence is increased with male sex, non-antral localization and surgically disrupted anatomy. To further examine associations between EBV and gastric cancer, we organized an international consortium of 11 studies with tumor EBV status assessed by in situ hybridization. We pooled individual-level data on 2,648 gastric cancer patients, including 184 (7%) with EBV-positive cancers; all studies had information on cigarette use (64% smokers) and 9 had data on alcohol (57% drinkers). We compared patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors to evaluate smoking and alcohol interactions with EBV status. To account for within-population clustering, multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate interaction odds ratios (OR) adjusted for distributions of sex (72% male), age (mean 59 years), tumor histology (56% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (61% noncardia) and year of diagnosis (1983-2012). In unadjusted analyses, the OR of EBV positivity with smoking was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.2). The OR was attenuated to 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01-2.3) by adjustment for the possible confounders. There was no significant interaction of EBV status with alcohol drinking (crude OR, 1.4; adjusted OR, 1.0). Our data indicate the smoking association with gastric cancer is stronger for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors. Conversely, the null association with alcohol does not vary by EBV status. Distinct epidemiologic characteristics of EBV-positive cancer further implicate the virus as a co-factor in gastric carcinogenesis.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2014; 134(4). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28402 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Narciso Hernández-Toriz, Gladell P Paner
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    ABSTRACT: Although well recognized in the literature, the contemporary clinicopathologic data regarding choriocarcinoma (CC) as a pure or the predominant component of a testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) are limited. Herein, we present a series of pure CC and predominant CC in mixed GCT of the testis obtained from a single oncology institution. A comprehensive histologic review of 1010 orchiectomies from 1999 to 2011 yielded 6 (0.6%) pure CC and 9 (0.9%) mixed GCT cases with a predominant CC component. Patients' ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (median 29 y). All patients had markedly elevated serum β-hCG levels (median 199,000 IU/mL) at presentation. All tumors were unilateral and involved the right (9/15) and left (6/15) testis. The mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range, 1.5 to 8 cm). Histology was similar for pure CCs and the CC component of mixed GCTs. CC commonly showed expansile hemorrhagic nodular cysts surrounded by variable layers of neoplastic trophoblastic cells (mononucleated trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts). The syncytiotrophoblasts usually covered columns of mononucleated trophoblasts and occasionally formed plexiform aggregates and pseudovillous protrusions. Immunohistochemical stains suggested a mixture of cytotrophoblasts (p63, HPL) and intermediate trophoblasts (p63, HPL weak +/-) in the columns of mononucleated cells. In the 9 mixed GCTs, CC comprised 50% to 95% (7/9 were ≥80% CC) of the tumor; 7 were combined with 1, and 2 were combined with 2 other GCT components. The non-CC components included teratoma (5/9), seminoma (2/9), yolk sac tumor (2/9), and embryonal carcinoma (2/9). Lymphovascular invasion, spermatic cord invasion, and tunica vaginalis invasion were present in 15/15, 5/15, and 1/12 cases, respectively. In mixed GCTs, these locally aggressive features were attributed to the CC component, except in 1 tumor in which it was also exhibited by the embryonal carcinoma component. Lymphovascular invasion was multifocal to widespread in 73% of tumors. The stages of the 15 tumors were: pT2 (10), pT3 (5); NX (1), N1 (4), N2 (5), N3 (5); and M1a (2) and M1b (13). Distant organ metastasis mostly involved the lungs (11) and liver (10). Follow-up information was available in 14 patients, all of whom received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All 6 pure CC patients were dead of disease (range, 6 to 14 mo, median 9.5 mo). Follow-up of 8 patients with predominant CC (range, 10 to 72 mo, median 27 mo) showed that 5 died of the disease, and 1 was alive with disease and 2 were alive with no evidence of disease at 60 and 72 months of follow-up, respectively; these latter 2 patients were the only ones with M1a disease on presentation. This series confirms the proclivity for high-stage presentation including presence of distant metastasis, hematogenous spread, and poor outcome of testicular CC. Mixed GCT with a predominant CC component has similar tendency for high-stage presentation, marked elevation of serum β-hCG levels, and aggressive behavior compared with pure CC. This study also showed that distant metastasis by CC when only involving the lungs (M1a) may not be uniformly fatal with chemotherapy. The mononucleated trophoblastic columns in testicular CC appear to be a mixture of cytotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts, similar to that described in gestational CC.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 10/2013; DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3182a2926e · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of metastatic ovarian tumors and to identify their clinicopathologic features. A total of 150 patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic ovarian carcinoma who were treated between 1995 and 2011 at the Mexican Oncology Hospital were identified by retrospective review. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed. Metastatic ovarian carcinoma accounted for 15.7% of all ovarian malignancies. The primary sites of nongynecologic tumors were the colon (30%), stomach (16%), appendix (13%), breast (13%), pancreas (12%), biliary tract (15%), and liver (4%). Gynecologic primary sites were the uterine cervix (4%) and the uterine body (23%). Primary malignancies were detected first in 66 patients (44%) and simultaneously with ovarian metastasis in 53 patients (35.3%). An ovarian mass was the first manifestation of disease in 20.6% of the cases. The patients ranged in age from 26 to 72 years (mean, 51). Krukenberg tumors were found in 35 patients (23%). The cut surfaces of the ovaries were solid in 68 patients, solid-cystic in 38, and multicystic in 44. Metastatic ovarian carcinomas are an important group of ovarian neoplasms, constituting 15.7% of all ovarian malignancies. Most of them arise from the gastrointestinal tract.
    Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology / the International Academy of Cytology [and] American Society of Cytology 10/2013; 35(5):241-8. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of endocervical adenocarcinoma is largely based on tumor size and depth of invasion (DOI); however, DOI is difficult to measure accurately. The surgical treatment includes resection of regional lymph nodes, even though most lymph nodes are negative and lymphadenectomies can cause significant morbidity. We have investigated alternative parameters to better identify patients at risk of node metastases. Cases of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma from 12 institutions were reviewed, and clinical/pathologic features assessed: patients' age, tumor size, DOI, differentiation, lymph-vascular invasion, lymph node metastases, recurrences, and stage. Cases were classified according to a new pattern-based system into Pattern A (well-demarcated glands), B (early destructive stromal invasion arising from well-demarcated glands), and C (diffuse destructive invasion). In total, 352 cases (FIGO Stages I-IV) were identified. Patients' age ranged from 20 to 83 years (mean 45), DOI ranged from 0.2 to 27 mm (mean 6.73), and lymph-vascular invasion was present in 141 cases. Forty-nine (13.9%) demonstrated lymph node metastases. Using this new system, 73 patients (20.7%) with Pattern A tumors (all Stage I) were identified. None had lymph node metastases and/or recurrences. Ninety patients (25.6%) had Pattern B tumors, of which 4 (4.4%) had positive nodes; whereas 189 (53.7%) had Pattern C tumors, of which 45 (23.8%) had metastatic nodes. The proposed classification system can spare 20.7% of patients (Pattern A) of unnecessary lymphadenectomy. Patients with Pattern B rarely present with positive nodes. An aggressive approach is justified in patients with Pattern C. This classification system is simple, easy to apply, and clinically significant.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 09/2013; 32(6). DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e31829952c6 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2013; 73(8 Supplement):168-168. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-168 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Nine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe and North America reviewed 198 endometrial biopsy/curettage specimens originally diagnosed as low-grade lesions. All observers were asked to classify the cases by using the categories described in each scheme: six for WHO, four for EIN, and three for EWG. The results were evaluated by kappa statistics for more than two observations. The analysis was repeated using only two major categories (benign versus atypical/carcinoma). Both the WHO and EIN classifications showed poor interobserver agreement (κ = 0.337 and κ = 0.419, respectively), whereas the EWG classification showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.530). Full agreement between pathologists occurred in only 28% for the WHO classification, 39% for the EIN classification, and 59% for the EWG classification. With only two diagnostic categories, kappa values increased in all classifications, but only the EWG classification reached a substantial level of agreement (κ = 0.621); similarly, full agreement among all pathologists increased to 70% for the WHO classification, 69% for the EIN classification, and 72% for the EWG classification. A two-tier classification of endometrial endometrioid proliferative lesions improves reproducibility, and should be considered for the diagnosis of endometrial biopsy/curettage specimens.
    Histopathology 08/2013; 64(2). DOI:10.1111/his.12249 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is characterized by multiple chromosomal changes, especially losses. The most common losses include chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21. The Fuhrman grading system lacks prognostic relevance for ChRCC, and recently, a new grading system for ChRCC was proposed by Paner. The objective of this study was to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of ChRCCs and relate these findings to the Paner grading system (PGS). A large cohort of ChRCC was reviewed and graded according to the PGS. All the cases were reevaluated and separated into groups according to their PGS. The final study set was 37 patients. ChRCCs were divided into PG 1-3, sarcomatoid, and aggressive groups. "Aggressive ChRCCs" were designated cases with known metastatic activity, local recurrence, aggressive growth to the adjacent organs, or invasive growth into the renal sinus (with/without angioinvasion). Sarcomatoid tumors were divided into their epithelial and sarcomatoid component (further molecular genetic analyses were performed separately). Array comparative genome hybridization and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was applied to 42 samples from the 37 cases. Multiple losses, as well as gains, were detected in different chromosomes. Regardless of the PGS groups, the most frequently detected losses involved chromosomes 1 (27/37), 2 (26/37), 6 (23/37), 10 (26/37), 13 (19/37), and 17 (24/37). Loss of chromosome 21 was found in 12/37 cases. The most frequently detected gains were found on chromosomes 4 (22/37), 7 (24/37), 15 (20/37), 19 (22/37), and 20 (21/37). Cluster analysis showed that there is no relation between PGS and particular pattern of chromosomal changes (losses or gains) in ChRCCs. Conclusions are as follows: (1) ChRCCs showed a significantly broader spectrum of chromosomal aberrations than previously recognized. While previously published chromosomal losses were found in our cohort, gains of multiple chromosomes were also identified in a high percentage. The most frequently detected gains involved chromosomes 4, 7, 15, 19, and 20. (2) There is no relation between chromosomal numerical changes and Paner grading system.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 08/2013; 463(4). DOI:10.1007/s00428-013-1457-6 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) contribution in vulvar intraepithelial lesions (VIN) and invasive vulvar cancer (IVC) is not clearly established. This study provides novel data on HPV markers in a large series of VIN and IVC lesions. Histologically confirmed VIN and IVC from 39 countries were assembled at the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). HPV-DNA detection was done by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers and genotyping by reverse hybridisation line probe assay (LiPA25) (version 1). IVC cases were tested for p16(INK4a) by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). An IVC was considered HPV driven if both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) overexpression were observed simultaneously. Data analyses included algorithms allocating multiple infections to calculate type-specific contribution and logistic regression models to estimate adjusted prevalence (AP) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of 2296 cases, 587 were VIN and 1709 IVC. HPV-DNA was detected in 86.7% and 28.6% of the cases respectively. Amongst IVC cases, 25.1% were both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) positive. IVC cases were largely keratinising squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC) (N=1234). Overall prevalence of HPV related IVC cases was highest in younger women for any histological subtype. SCC with warty or basaloid features (SCC_WB) (N=326) were more likely to be HPV and p16(INK4a) positive (AP=69.5%, CI=63.6-74.8) versus KSCC (AP=11.5%, CI=9.7-13.5). HPV 16 was the commonest type (72.5%) followed by HPV 33 (6.5%) and HPV 18 (4.6%). Enrichment from VIN to IVC was significantly high for HPV 45 (8.5-fold). Combined data from HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) testing are likely to represent a closer estimate of the real fraction of IVC induced by HPV. Our results indicate that HPV contribution in invasive vulvar cancer has probably been overestimated. HPV 16 remains the major player worldwide.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2013.06.033 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Gynecologic Oncology 07/2013; 130(1):e38-e39. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.04.150 · 3.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

463 Citations
163.39 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Hospital Infantil Teleton de Oncología
      Ciudad Queretaro, Querétaro, Mexico
  • 2013–2014
    • Centro Médico ABC
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
    • Grupo Star Médica
      Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
  • 2000–2014
    • Mexican Institute of Social Security
      • Departamento de Patología
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2008
    • Chang Gung University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2006
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States