Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero

Grupo Star Médica, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico

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Publications (66)100.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This work describes the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the HPV type distribution in a large series of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) grades 2/3 and vaginal cancer worldwide. Methods: We analysed 189 VAIN 2/3 and 408 invasive vaginal cancer cases collected from 31 countries from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using the SPF-10/DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/LiPA 25 system (version 1). A subset of 146 vag-inal cancers was tested for p16 INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV transfor-mation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 74% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70–78%) of invasive cancers and in 96% (95% CI: 92–98%) of VAIN 2/3. Among cancers, the highest detection rates were observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, and in younger ages. Concerning the type-specific distribution, HPV16 was the most frequently type detected in both precancerous and cancerous lesions (59%). p16 INK4a overexpression was found in 87% of HPV DNA positive vaginal cancer cases. Conclusions: HPV was identified in a large proportion of invasive vaginal cancers and in almost all VAIN 2/3. HPV16 was the most common type detected. A large impact in the reduction of the burden of vaginal neoplastic lesions is expected among vaccinated cohorts.
    European Journal of Cancer 08/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge about human papillomaviruses (HPV) types involved in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in the anal cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI: 85.1-91.0%) and in 95.3% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI: 84.2-99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16(INK4a) overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Narciso Hernández-Toriz, Gladell P Paner
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    ABSTRACT: Although well recognized in the literature, the contemporary clinicopathologic data regarding choriocarcinoma (CC) as a pure or the predominant component of a testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) are limited. Herein, we present a series of pure CC and predominant CC in mixed GCT of the testis obtained from a single oncology institution. A comprehensive histologic review of 1010 orchiectomies from 1999 to 2011 yielded 6 (0.6%) pure CC and 9 (0.9%) mixed GCT cases with a predominant CC component. Patients' ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (median 29 y). All patients had markedly elevated serum β-hCG levels (median 199,000 IU/mL) at presentation. All tumors were unilateral and involved the right (9/15) and left (6/15) testis. The mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range, 1.5 to 8 cm). Histology was similar for pure CCs and the CC component of mixed GCTs. CC commonly showed expansile hemorrhagic nodular cysts surrounded by variable layers of neoplastic trophoblastic cells (mononucleated trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts). The syncytiotrophoblasts usually covered columns of mononucleated trophoblasts and occasionally formed plexiform aggregates and pseudovillous protrusions. Immunohistochemical stains suggested a mixture of cytotrophoblasts (p63, HPL) and intermediate trophoblasts (p63, HPL weak +/-) in the columns of mononucleated cells. In the 9 mixed GCTs, CC comprised 50% to 95% (7/9 were ≥80% CC) of the tumor; 7 were combined with 1, and 2 were combined with 2 other GCT components. The non-CC components included teratoma (5/9), seminoma (2/9), yolk sac tumor (2/9), and embryonal carcinoma (2/9). Lymphovascular invasion, spermatic cord invasion, and tunica vaginalis invasion were present in 15/15, 5/15, and 1/12 cases, respectively. In mixed GCTs, these locally aggressive features were attributed to the CC component, except in 1 tumor in which it was also exhibited by the embryonal carcinoma component. Lymphovascular invasion was multifocal to widespread in 73% of tumors. The stages of the 15 tumors were: pT2 (10), pT3 (5); NX (1), N1 (4), N2 (5), N3 (5); and M1a (2) and M1b (13). Distant organ metastasis mostly involved the lungs (11) and liver (10). Follow-up information was available in 14 patients, all of whom received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All 6 pure CC patients were dead of disease (range, 6 to 14 mo, median 9.5 mo). Follow-up of 8 patients with predominant CC (range, 10 to 72 mo, median 27 mo) showed that 5 died of the disease, and 1 was alive with disease and 2 were alive with no evidence of disease at 60 and 72 months of follow-up, respectively; these latter 2 patients were the only ones with M1a disease on presentation. This series confirms the proclivity for high-stage presentation including presence of distant metastasis, hematogenous spread, and poor outcome of testicular CC. Mixed GCT with a predominant CC component has similar tendency for high-stage presentation, marked elevation of serum β-hCG levels, and aggressive behavior compared with pure CC. This study also showed that distant metastasis by CC when only involving the lungs (M1a) may not be uniformly fatal with chemotherapy. The mononucleated trophoblastic columns in testicular CC appear to be a mixture of cytotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts, similar to that described in gestational CC.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 10/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of metastatic ovarian tumors and to identify their clinicopathologic features. A total of 150 patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic ovarian carcinoma who were treated between 1995 and 2011 at the Mexican Oncology Hospital were identified by retrospective review. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed. Metastatic ovarian carcinoma accounted for 15.7% of all ovarian malignancies. The primary sites of nongynecologic tumors were the colon (30%), stomach (16%), appendix (13%), breast (13%), pancreas (12%), biliary tract (15%), and liver (4%). Gynecologic primary sites were the uterine cervix (4%) and the uterine body (23%). Primary malignancies were detected first in 66 patients (44%) and simultaneously with ovarian metastasis in 53 patients (35.3%). An ovarian mass was the first manifestation of disease in 20.6% of the cases. The patients ranged in age from 26 to 72 years (mean, 51). Krukenberg tumors were found in 35 patients (23%). The cut surfaces of the ovaries were solid in 68 patients, solid-cystic in 38, and multicystic in 44. Metastatic ovarian carcinomas are an important group of ovarian neoplasms, constituting 15.7% of all ovarian malignancies. Most of them arise from the gastrointestinal tract.
    Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology / the International Academy of Cytology [and] American Society of Cytology 10/2013; 35(5):241-8. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of endocervical adenocarcinoma is largely based on tumor size and depth of invasion (DOI); however, DOI is difficult to measure accurately. The surgical treatment includes resection of regional lymph nodes, even though most lymph nodes are negative and lymphadenectomies can cause significant morbidity. We have investigated alternative parameters to better identify patients at risk of node metastases. Cases of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma from 12 institutions were reviewed, and clinical/pathologic features assessed: patients' age, tumor size, DOI, differentiation, lymph-vascular invasion, lymph node metastases, recurrences, and stage. Cases were classified according to a new pattern-based system into Pattern A (well-demarcated glands), B (early destructive stromal invasion arising from well-demarcated glands), and C (diffuse destructive invasion). In total, 352 cases (FIGO Stages I-IV) were identified. Patients' age ranged from 20 to 83 years (mean 45), DOI ranged from 0.2 to 27 mm (mean 6.73), and lymph-vascular invasion was present in 141 cases. Forty-nine (13.9%) demonstrated lymph node metastases. Using this new system, 73 patients (20.7%) with Pattern A tumors (all Stage I) were identified. None had lymph node metastases and/or recurrences. Ninety patients (25.6%) had Pattern B tumors, of which 4 (4.4%) had positive nodes; whereas 189 (53.7%) had Pattern C tumors, of which 45 (23.8%) had metastatic nodes. The proposed classification system can spare 20.7% of patients (Pattern A) of unnecessary lymphadenectomy. Patients with Pattern B rarely present with positive nodes. An aggressive approach is justified in patients with Pattern C. This classification system is simple, easy to apply, and clinically significant.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 09/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Nine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe and North America reviewed 198 endometrial biopsy/curettage specimens originally diagnosed as low-grade lesions. All observers were asked to classify the cases by using the categories described in each scheme: six for WHO, four for EIN, and three for EWG. The results were evaluated by kappa statistics for more than two observations. The analysis was repeated using only two major categories (benign versus atypical/carcinoma). Both the WHO and EIN classifications showed poor interobserver agreement (κ = 0.337 and κ = 0.419, respectively), whereas the EWG classification showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.530). Full agreement between pathologists occurred in only 28% for the WHO classification, 39% for the EIN classification, and 59% for the EWG classification. With only two diagnostic categories, kappa values increased in all classifications, but only the EWG classification reached a substantial level of agreement (κ = 0.621); similarly, full agreement among all pathologists increased to 70% for the WHO classification, 69% for the EIN classification, and 72% for the EWG classification. A two-tier classification of endometrial endometrioid proliferative lesions improves reproducibility, and should be considered for the diagnosis of endometrial biopsy/curettage specimens.
    Histopathology 08/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is characterized by multiple chromosomal changes, especially losses. The most common losses include chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21. The Fuhrman grading system lacks prognostic relevance for ChRCC, and recently, a new grading system for ChRCC was proposed by Paner. The objective of this study was to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of ChRCCs and relate these findings to the Paner grading system (PGS). A large cohort of ChRCC was reviewed and graded according to the PGS. All the cases were reevaluated and separated into groups according to their PGS. The final study set was 37 patients. ChRCCs were divided into PG 1-3, sarcomatoid, and aggressive groups. "Aggressive ChRCCs" were designated cases with known metastatic activity, local recurrence, aggressive growth to the adjacent organs, or invasive growth into the renal sinus (with/without angioinvasion). Sarcomatoid tumors were divided into their epithelial and sarcomatoid component (further molecular genetic analyses were performed separately). Array comparative genome hybridization and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was applied to 42 samples from the 37 cases. Multiple losses, as well as gains, were detected in different chromosomes. Regardless of the PGS groups, the most frequently detected losses involved chromosomes 1 (27/37), 2 (26/37), 6 (23/37), 10 (26/37), 13 (19/37), and 17 (24/37). Loss of chromosome 21 was found in 12/37 cases. The most frequently detected gains were found on chromosomes 4 (22/37), 7 (24/37), 15 (20/37), 19 (22/37), and 20 (21/37). Cluster analysis showed that there is no relation between PGS and particular pattern of chromosomal changes (losses or gains) in ChRCCs. Conclusions are as follows: (1) ChRCCs showed a significantly broader spectrum of chromosomal aberrations than previously recognized. While previously published chromosomal losses were found in our cohort, gains of multiple chromosomes were also identified in a high percentage. The most frequently detected gains involved chromosomes 4, 7, 15, 19, and 20. (2) There is no relation between chromosomal numerical changes and Paner grading system.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 08/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer. However, monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nucleic acid is also present in up to 10% of these tumors worldwide. EBV prevalence is increased with male sex, non-antral localization and surgically disrupted anatomy. To further examine associations between EBV and gastric cancer, we organized an international consortium of 11 studies with tumor EBV status assessed by in situ hybridization. We pooled individual-level data on 2,648 gastric cancer patients, including 184 (7%) with EBV-positive cancers; all studies had information on cigarette use (64% smokers) and 9 had data on alcohol (57% drinkers). We compared patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors to evaluate smoking and alcohol interactions with EBV status. To account for within-population clustering, multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate interaction odds ratios (OR) adjusted for distributions of sex (72% male), age (mean 59 years), tumor histology (56% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (61% noncardia) and year of diagnosis (1983-2012). In unadjusted analyses, the OR of EBV positivity with smoking was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.2). The OR was attenuated to 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01-2.3) by adjustment for the possible confounders. There was no significant interaction of EBV status with alcohol drinking (crude OR, 1.4; adjusted OR, 1.0). Our data indicate the smoking association with gastric cancer is stronger for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors. Conversely, the null association with alcohol does not vary by EBV status. Distinct epidemiologic characteristics of EBV-positive cancer further implicate the virus as a co-factor in gastric carcinogenesis.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) contribution in vulvar intraepithelial lesions (VIN) and invasive vulvar cancer (IVC) is not clearly established. This study provides novel data on HPV markers in a large series of VIN and IVC lesions. Histologically confirmed VIN and IVC from 39 countries were assembled at the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). HPV-DNA detection was done by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers and genotyping by reverse hybridisation line probe assay (LiPA25) (version 1). IVC cases were tested for p16(INK4a) by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). An IVC was considered HPV driven if both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) overexpression were observed simultaneously. Data analyses included algorithms allocating multiple infections to calculate type-specific contribution and logistic regression models to estimate adjusted prevalence (AP) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of 2296 cases, 587 were VIN and 1709 IVC. HPV-DNA was detected in 86.7% and 28.6% of the cases respectively. Amongst IVC cases, 25.1% were both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) positive. IVC cases were largely keratinising squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC) (N=1234). Overall prevalence of HPV related IVC cases was highest in younger women for any histological subtype. SCC with warty or basaloid features (SCC_WB) (N=326) were more likely to be HPV and p16(INK4a) positive (AP=69.5%, CI=63.6-74.8) versus KSCC (AP=11.5%, CI=9.7-13.5). HPV 16 was the commonest type (72.5%) followed by HPV 33 (6.5%) and HPV 18 (4.6%). Enrichment from VIN to IVC was significantly high for HPV 45 (8.5-fold). Combined data from HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) testing are likely to represent a closer estimate of the real fraction of IVC induced by HPV. Our results indicate that HPV contribution in invasive vulvar cancer has probably been overestimated. HPV 16 remains the major player worldwide.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may be associated with breast cancer progression. However, the role of HCMV infection in breast cancer remains controversial. We aimed to assess whether HCMV genes (UL122 and UL83) could be detected in breast carcinomas and reinvestigated their possible association with breast cancer progression. DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. We investigated 20 fibroadenomas and 27 primary breast carcinomas (stages II, III, and IV). FINDINGS: Two carcinomas were positive for HCMV, one was positive for two TaqMan viral detection probes, and one was positive for a sole TaqMan viral detection probe (UL83), whereas the remainder of the samples was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Samples studied showed no association between HCMV infection and breast cancer progression.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 04/2013; 8(1):12.
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    ABSTRACT: Renal carcinoid tumor is a rare neoplasm. In this article, we review this neoplasm with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. The majority of patients present in the fourth to seventh decades, but there is no gender predilection. Clinically, patients with renal carcinoid tumor frequently present with abdominal, back or flank pain. This tumor is occassionally associated with horseshoe kidney and/or mature cystic teratoma located in the kidney. Macroscopically, these tumors are well demarcated with a lobulated appearance and yellow or tan-brown color cut surface. Microscopically, these tumors are composed of monomorphic round to polygonal cells with granular amphophilic to eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumor cells are arranged in trabecular, ribbon-like, gyriform, insular, glandular and solid patterns. The nuclei are round to oval and with evenly distributed nuclear chromatin, frequently with a "salt and pepper"-pattern. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells demonstrate immuno-labeling for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells contain abundant dense core neurosecretory granules. In previous genetic studies, abnormalities of chromosomes 3 or 13 have been reported. The clinical behavior of renal carcinoid tumors is variable, but is more indolent than most renal cell carcinomas. Further investigations are warranted in order to elucidate the critical genetic abnormalities responsible for the pathogenesis of this rare entity in renal neoplastic pathology.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2013; 28(1):15-21. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.
    Annals of diagnostic pathology 11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) present all along the length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, from the esophagus to the anus, and they also present in the pancreas. AIMS: To classify NETs according to the WHO 2010 criteria and to evaluate their anatomic distribution and clinicopathologic characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was carried out in the hospital pathology archives of all the cases diagnosed with carcinoid tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the GI tract and pancreas studied over a period of 11 years (1999-2010). The cases were reclassified according to the WHO 2010 criteria. The clinical case records of each patient were reviewed. RESULTS: The study group was made up of 127 cases (68 men; 59 women). Age ranged from 24 to 85 years with a median of 52 years. A total of 113 (89.00%) tumors occurred in the GI tract and 14 (11.00%) in the pancreas. Tumor size varied from 0.4cm to 9cm (median: 2.5cm). GI tumor histologic grades were: 54.00% grade 1; 31.00% grade 2; and 15.00% grade 3. Pancreatic tumor histologic grades were: 43.00% grade 1; 36.00% grade 2; and 21.00% grade 3. Ki-67 overexpression was correlated with tumor grade (22.00% grade 3 vs 2.50% grade 1). CONCLUSIONS: Histologic grade of the gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) is one of the most important prognostic factors. The term carcinoid should be eliminated because it does not reflect the biological behavior of these tumors.
    Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico 11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the association between the BIK/NBK gene expression and estrogen receptor alpha expression. We determined the association of BIK/NBK gene expression by real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and estrogen receptor alpha expression by immunohistochemistry in samples of breast cancer tissue. We found a statistically significant correlation of BIK/NBK gene expression with the estrogen receptor alpha expression (ρ = 0.751, p = 0.004). For verify differences of BIK/NBK gene expression among ERα+ and ERα- breast cancer tissues, Mann-Whitney U test was performed, obtaining significant differences. BIK/NBK gene expression may have important clinical implications and provide predictive, prognostic or therapeutic marker in breast cancer patients according to the estrogen receptor alpha expression.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 07/2012; 14(8):586-91. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are 3 distinct variants of penile squamous cell carcinoma frequently associated with human papillomavirus (HPV): basaloid, warty-basaloid, and warty carcinomas. Considering the high incidence rates of penile cancer in some countries, a large international study was designed to evaluate the presence of HPV, its genotype distribution, and its association with histologic types of penile cancer. In this international review of >900 cases, we found a group of highly distinct papillary neoplasms composed of basophilic cells resembling urothelial tumors but frequently associated with HPV. Macroscopically, tumors were exophytic or exoendophytic. Microscopically, there was a papillomatous pattern of growth with a central fibrovascular core and small basophilic cells lining the papillae. Positivity for HPV was present in 11 of 12 tumors (92%). Single genotypes found were HPV-16 in 9 tumors and HPV-51 in 1 tumor. Multiple genotypes (HPV-16 and HPV-45) were present in another case. Overexpression of p16 was observed in all cases. Uroplakin-III was negative in all cases. The differential diagnosis was with basaloid, warty-basaloid, warty, and papillary squamous cell carcinoma and with urothelial carcinomas. Local excision (4 cases), circumcision (3 cases), or partial penectomy (5 cases) were preferred treatment choices. Tumor thickness ranged from 1 to 15 mm (average, 7 mm). Two patients with tumors invading 11 and 15 mm into the corpus spongiosum developed inguinal nodal metastasis. Of 11 patients followed up (median 48 mo), 7 were alive with no evidence of metastatic disease, 3 died from causes other than penile cancer, and another died postoperatively. This morphologically distinct tumor probably represents a papillary variant of basaloid carcinomas (papillary-basaloid carcinomas). Unlike typical basaloid carcinomas, the overall prognosis was excellent. However, deeply invasive tumors were associated with regional nodal metastasis indicating a potential for tumor-related death.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 02/2012; 36(6):869-75. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors have previously reported that cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1) gene gain and its expression correlated significantly with survival in laryngeal carcinoma patients. The authors hypothesised that inactivation of the CRBP1 gene through CpG methylation is associated with patient status and gene expression. In this work, the authors determine the expression and methylation status of the CRBP1 gene and its correlation with clinical variables of laryngeal carcinoma patients. The CRBP1 gene methylation promoter was assessed by methylation specific PCR analysis in tissue samples from larynx cancer specimens and its expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on paraffin embedded tissue using tissue microarray. The results were then compared with the clinical pathological variables and outcome measures. The study included 46 samples from patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx without any previous oncological treatments. Lack of CRBP1 expression was seen in 17 of the 46 laryngeal carcinoma samples, while the remaining 29 samples showed increased expression. Significant associations were found between CRBP1 expression and methylation and patient status. There was a tendency for association in all clinical stages of the disease. CRBP1 gene expression and its unmethylated promoter correlated significantly with survival (p<0.05). An early event of larynx cancer could be CRBP1 expression related to unmethylation of the promoter region. These features could also be associated with good response and survival. The authors hypothesised that increased expression and unmethylated promoter of the CRBP1 gene could be considered as markers for larynx cancer.
    Journal of clinical pathology 11/2011; 65(1):46-50. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 35-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and weight loss. Pelvic computed tomography showed a 15 cm mass in the left ovary. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis (100 sections), the lesion showed the typical morphological features of dysgerminoma (20%) admixed with a major (80%) fibrosarcoma component. Tumors did not have well-demarcated boundaries with a close intermingling of both cell types. Despite surgery and combination chemotherapy, the disease progressed rapidly and the patient died of disease 18 months after diagnosis. Review of the literature showed that soft tissue sarcomas of several types may occasionally be associated with gonadal and extragonadal mixed germ-cell tumors or with spermatocytic seminoma of the testis. However, no previously published report of an ovarian fibrosarcoma associated with a pure dysgerminoma was found in the literature.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 09/2011; 30(5):466-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) generally affects adolescents and young adults. The patients experience symptoms related to hypertension and hypokalemia due to renin-secretion by the tumor. Grossly, the tumor is well circumscribed with fibrous capsule and the cut surface shows yellow or gray-tan color with frequent hemorrhage. Histologically, the tumor is composed of monotonous polygonal cells with entrapped normal tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells exhibit a positive reactivity for renin, vimentin and CD34. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells contain rhomboid-shaped renin protogranules. Genetically, losses of chromosomes 9 and 11 were frequently observed. Clinically, the majority of tumors showed a benign course, but rare tumors with vascular invasion or metastasis were reported. JGCT is a curable cause of hypertensive disease if it is discovered early and surgically removed, but may cause a fatal outcome usually by a cerebrovascular attack or may cause fetal demise in pregnancy. Additionally, pathologists and urologists need to recognize that this neoplasm in most cases pursues a benign course, but aggressive forms may develop in some cases.
    Diagnostic Pathology 08/2011; 6:80. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal sarcomas represent 1-2% of malignant kidney tumors in adults; 50% of renal sarcomas are composed of leiomyosarcomas. These tumors generally arise from the renal capsule, smooth muscle tissue of the renal pelvis and intrarenal vessels. They are indistinguishable from other renal masses prior to surgery and are associated with an adverse prognosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old female with a clinical course characterized by asthenia, weakness, generalized attack to her health status and pain in the left renal fossa. Computed axial tomography was performed where a left retroperitoneal tumor was diagnosed. Left radical nephrectomy was performed. The histopathology report demonstrated leiomyosarcoma originating from the renal sinus vessels. The patient was successfully treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Renal leiomyosarcomas usually have an aggressive biological behavior with poor prognosis, accounting for surgical treatment with wide resection associated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy as the only therapeutic option.
    Cirugia y cirujanos 05/2011; 79(3):260-3, 282-5. · 0.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) originate from gastrointestinal cells and pancreas; most are benign or well-differentiated. GEP-NET treatment objectives are tumor resection and reduction of tumor growth and dissemination, as well as symptom amelioration. We undertook this study to identify prognostic factors among patients with GEP-NETs. A total of 48 patients with histopathological diagnosis of GEP-NET were examined. Dependent variables were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates. Independent variables were age, gender, primary tumor size, resectability, metastatic disease, and histological degree. In 48 patients (60.4% female, 39.6% male, median age 54 years), overall survival rate was 43.7%, and DFS was 33 months. The most common location was gastric. Factors related with the poorest prognosis were histological degree types 2 and 3, tumors >2 cm, metastatic disease, and primary tumor irresectability. For DFS, the only adverse factor was histological degree. Patients with recurrence of GEP-NET had a poorer prognosis. Complete resection of the lesion with negative margins is the most determining prognostic factor for overrall survival in patients with GEP-NET.
    Cirugia y cirujanos 01/2011; 79(6):498-504. · 0.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

320 Citations
100.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Grupo Star Médica
      Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2000–2013
    • Mexican Institute of Social Security
      • Departamento de Patología
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
    • Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
      Ralalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
  • 2012
    • Hospital Infantil Teleton de Oncología
      Ciudad Queretaro, Querétaro, Mexico
  • 2006–2008
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2001
    • Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad Hospital de Pediatria Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico