[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of road traffic injury calculated using an exposure measure based on people's mobility, person-hours travelled (person-hours), with the risk obtained using population census, vehicle fleet and vehicle-kilometres travelled. METHODS: The rate of road traffic injury on a working day in Catalonia in 2006 was calculated using the number of people injured from the Register of Accidents and Victims of the National Traffic Authority and as denominator: person-hours travelled, from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey of Catalonia; population census and vehicle fleet, from the National Statistics Institute; and vehicle-kilometres, from the Ministry of Public Works. RESULTS: Compared with person-hours travelled: population census may underestimate the risk in groups with low mobility; vehicle-kilometres may underestimate the risk in regions with high level of non-motorised mobility and high use of public transport; vehicle fleet may underestimate the risk for collective forms of transport such as buses and for motorcyclists who make many trips but of short duration. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of exposure involving people's mobility should be used in the estimation of road traffic injury risk, instead of vehicle's mobility, population census or vehicle fleet.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To analyze gender inequalities in socioeconomic factors affecting the amount of time spent travelling for work-related and home-related reasons among working individuals aged between 30 and 44 years old during a weekday in Catalonia (Spain). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were obtained from employed individuals aged between 30 and 44 years of age who reported travelling on the day prior to the interview in the Catalan Mobility Survey 2006 (N = 23,424). Multivariate logistic regression models were adjusted to determine the factors associated with longer time spent travelling according to the reason for travelling (work- or home-related journeys). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are presented. RESULTS: A higher proportion of men travelled and spent more time travelling for work-related reasons, while a higher proportion of women travelled and spend more time travelling for home-related reasons. A higher educational level was associated with greater time spent travelling for work-related reasons in both men and women but was related to an increase in travelling time for home-related reasons only in men. In women, a larger household was associated with greater travel time for home-related reasons and with less travel time for work-related reasons. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the different mobility patterns in men and women, related to their distinct positions in the occupational, family and domestic spheres. Gender inequalities in mobility within the working population are largely determined by the greater responsibility of women in the domestic and family sphere. This finding should be taken into account in the design of future transport policies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Among traumatic injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI) and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are of major importance because of their epidemiological and economic impact on society. The overall objective of this study was to estimate the economic cost associated with people with SCI and TBI in Spain in 2007. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was performed, considering the perspective of society, using a 1-year time horizon. Medical costs, adaptation costs, material costs, administrative costs, and costs of police, firefighters and roadside assistance, productivity losses due to institutionalization and sick leave, as well as an estimate of productivity losses of carers, and productivity losses due to death were included. Results: The economic cost associated with people with SCI is between EUR 92,087,080.97 and 212,496,196.41 (USD 131 million and 302 million) according to the injury mechanism, and between EUR 1,079,223,688.66 and 3,833,752,692.78 (USD 1,536 million and 5,458 million) for people with TBI. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions known to prevent SCI and TBI, and to evaluate their effectiveness and efficiency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of hospital discharges for traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Spain by injury circumstances (traffic crashes and others), injury severity, gender and age group and to describe its trends over the period 2000-2009.
It is a study of trends that includes hospital discharges with a primary diagnosis of TSCI or TBI. Crude and age-standardised rates were calculated per million inhabitants. Changes in rates between 2000 and 2009 were assessed through calculation of the relative risk adjusted for age, using Poisson regression.
Between 2000 and 2009 in Spain, 10,274 patients were admitted for traumatic TSCI, and 206,503 for TBI. The annual incidence rate for TSCI was 23.5 per million, that for TBI was 472.6 per million. The overall incidence rate for TSCI fell significantly between 2000 and 2009 by 24.2% (traffic-related 40.9%, other 12.9%), as did that for TBI (23.8% overall, 60.2% traffic-related, with no change for other circumstances). Among people aged 65 years and over, no change was observed for TSCI, incidence of TBI fell significantly when due to traffic crashes, but there was a dramatic increase of 87% in men and 89.3% in women when due to other circumstances.
Over the last decade the incidence of these types of injury has fallen significantly when the injury resulted from traffic crashes, and to a lesser extent when from other circumstances. However TBI incidence among people aged 65 and over injured in non-traffic-related circumstances has risen dramatically.
Accident; analysis and prevention 05/2012; 46:37-44. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the number of women and men, in Catalonia, among those not achieving physical activity recommendations, making short motorized trips which could have been made on foot, and to estimate the annual economic benefit due to reducing mortality as a result of replacing one short, daily, motorized journey with walking. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Mobility data came from individuals >17 years who reported, in the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey, having travelled on the referred working day (N = 80 552). The health economic assessment tool for walking (HEAT) from the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe was used to calculate the economic benefit. RESULTS: Of those not meeting recommendations, 15.6% of men (95% CI 15.2-16.1) and 13.9% of women (95% CI 13.5-14.4) would go on to meet them if they were to replace at least one short motorized trip per day by walking. If applied to the entire population of Catalonia, this change would increase up to 326 557 men (95% CI 313 373-339 740) and up to 252 509 women (95% CI 240 855-264 163) who would achieve recommendations through walking rather than driving. According to HEAT estimations, this would suppose a saving of €124 216 000 (95% CI 120 182 000-128 250 000) in men and €84 927 000 (95% CI 81 774 000-88 079 000) in women, derived from the reduction in mortality gained from walking accumulated over one year. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the potential of trips on foot as a source of physical activity. It also points out that both benefits for the health of the population and a huge economic benefit could have been gained through active transportation interventions.
The European Journal of Public Health 03/2012; · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of criminalizing some traffic behaviours, after the reform of the Spanish penal code in 2007, on the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain.
This study followed an interrupted times-series design in which the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain before and after the criminalization of offences were compared. The data on road traffic injuries in 2000-2009 were obtained from the road traffic collision database of the General Traffic Directorate. The dependent variables were stratified by sex, age, injury severity, type of road user, road type and time of collision. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted with adjustments for time trend, seasonality, previous interventions and national fuel consumption.
The overall number of male drivers involved in injury collisions dropped (relative risk, RR: 0.93; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89-0.97) after the reform of the penal code, but among women no change was observed (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.03). In addition, 13 891 men (P < 0.01) were prevented from being injured. Larger reductions were observed among young male drivers and among male motorcycle or moped riders than among the drivers of other vehicles.
The findings suggest that criminalizing certain traffic behaviours can improve road safety by reducing both the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and the number of people injured in such collisions.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 06/2011; 89(6):422-31. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the effectiveness of the penalty points system (PPS) introduced in Spain in July 2006 in reducing traffic injuries.
We performed an evaluation study with an interrupted time-series design. We stratified dependent variables-numbers of drivers involved in injury collisions and people injured in traffic collisions in Spain from 2000 to 2007 (police data)--by age, injury severity, type of road user, road type, and time of collision, and analyzed variables separately by gender. The explanatory variable (the PPS) compared the postintervention period (July 2006 to December 2007) with the preintervention period (January 2000 to June 2006). We used quasi-Poisson regression, controlling for time trend and seasonality.
Among men, we observed a significant risk reduction in the postintervention period for seriously injured drivers (relative risk [RR] = 0.89) and seriously injured people (RR = 0.89). The RRs among women were 0.91 (P = .095) and 0.88 (P < .05), respectively. Risk reduction was greater among male drivers, moped riders, and on urban roads.
The PPS was associated with reduced numbers of drivers involved in injury collisions and people injured by traffic collisions in Spain.
American Journal of Public Health 11/2010; 100(11):2220-7. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of speed cameras in reducing the numbers of crashes and people injured on the arterial roads of Barcelona, and to assess their long-term effectiveness on the beltway.
Time series analyses were performed separately for the arterial roads and the beltway. The stretches of arterial roads encompassing 500 m before and after the location of a speed camera were considered the enforced stretches, the remaining stretches of arterial roads being considered the comparison group. The outcome measures were the numbers of crashes and of people injured. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted, controlling for time trend, seasonality and implementation of other road safety measures.
Both on the enforced and non-enforced arterial road stretches, the risks of crashes and people injured were similar in the two periods. On the beltway, reductions of 30% (95% CI 38% to 20%) and 26% (95% CI 36% to 14%) were observed, respectively.
Speed cameras do not reduce the numbers of crashes or people injured on the arterial roads of Barcelona. However, they are effective in the short and in the long-term on the beltway. Speed enforcement through fixed speed cameras is thus effective in medium-high-speed roads, although effectiveness could not be generalised to roads with lower speed limits and traffic lights.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper aims at assessing the effectiveness of the package of road safety measures implemented after road safety was included in the political agenda in the year 2004 on the number of road traffic-injured people in Spain.
An evaluation study was performed using an interrupted time-series design. The study population was people injured in road traffic crashes in Spain between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2006. The road traffic crashes database of the General Directorate for Traffic was used. The dependent variable was the monthly number of people injured, stratified by sex, age, severity and type of road user. The explanatory variable (intervention) compared the post-intervention period (2004-6) with the pre-intervention period (2000-3). Quasi-Poisson regression models were adjusted, controlling for time trend and for seasonality.
Results show a reduction in the risk of being injured for both men (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.95) and women (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.85 to 0.94). Risk reductions were observed across all age groups and all road users, except for pedestrians.
The present study suggests that prioritising road safety reduces the number of people injured in road traffic collisions.
Journal of epidemiology and community health 12/2009; 65(3):218-25. · 3.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence of recent use of alcohol, medication, and illegal drugs among patients who attended emergency departments (EDs) as a result of suffering an injury due to any external mechanism and to identify factors associated with alcohol and drug use.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight university hospitals in Spain. Participants were adult patients admitted to a trauma ED. Oral fluid was used to test for psychoactive substances analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Socio-demographic data and information on circumstances of the injury were collected through interviews.
The analysis included 1579 patients admitted to the EDs (56.4% men). Among young people (< 40 years), 21.4% of men and 8.5% of women were positive for any illegal substance, primarily cannabinoids or cocaine; 24.7% of men and 14.8% of women were positive for alcohol. Among patients > or = 40 years, 7.4% of men and 1.6% of women were positive for any illegal substance, and 16.3% and 11.0% respectively for alcohol. Prevalence of substance detected varied across mechanism of injury, gender and age group. Night-time injury was associated with substance use.
A high proportion of injured patients who were treated in an EDs tested positive for psychoactive drugs. Routine testing at trauma departments would maximize the identification of patients who may benefit from referral to specialized addiction treatment centers, or brief interventions.
Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2009; 105(3):194-201. · 3.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence of recent psychoactive substance use and associated factors among road traffic casualties admitted to emergency departments.
A cross-sectional study was carried out, including adults injured in road traffic crashes admitted to the emergency department (ED) of eight hospitals in Catalonia (Spain), during three cross-sections, each of 4 days duration (2005-2006). Information sources were an interview, an oral fluid specimen and the patient's clinical record. Dependent variables were presence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, opiates or benzodiazepines. Independent variables were socioeconomic characteristics and circumstances of the injuries and admission. Prevalence and exact 95% confidence intervals were estimated for men and women. Bivariate analyses and multivariate binomial regression modelling were carried out to study factors associated with substance use in male drivers and pedestrians.
The prevalence of substance use was higher in men (n = 226) than in women (n = 161) for any substance (34.4% and 16.2%), any illegal substance (19.3% and 7.6%), alcohol (18.5% and 9.2%) and cannabis (17.0% and 3.8%), respectively. In male drivers and pedestrians, alcohol use was associated with being in the 25-30-year age group, being injured at night and the weekend, and arriving at the ED by ambulance; cannabis use was only associated with being in the 18-30-year age group.
A high prevalence of recent psychoactive substance use, especially alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, was observed in all age groups. The results indicate the need to screen for substance use and to give simple advice to casualties at EDs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective is to describe injuries of road traffic deaths in Barcelona and identify injury profiles by road user type, through a cross-sectional study including road traffic deaths for the period 1997-2004. The data source was the Institut de Medicina Legal de Catalunya. Diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification, and classified using the Barell Matrix. Of the 719 deaths studied, 45% were pedestrians, 32% two wheel motor vehicle users, and 23% car occupants. The injury profile of the road traffic deaths in Barcelona is internal injuries and fractures to the torso and to the head/neck. This profile is repeated in all the road user groups, although pedestrians present higher frequencies of fractures and contusions to extremities and contusions to the head/neck, and fewer internal torso injuries than car occupants or two wheel motor vehicle users.