ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:The alarming increase in obesity worldwide is of concern, owing to the associations of obesity with metabolic syndrome (MetS), which has been associated with a proinflammatory state characterized by elevated plasma concentrations of several markers of inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess levels of inflammatory markers and their association with MetS among adolescents.Subjects/Methods:A random sample of adolescents (n=362, 143 boys and 219 girls, 12-17 years) was interviewed, anthropometrically measured and provided a fasting blood sample. Circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured. The association between inflammatory markers and sex, age, body mass index (BMI) status, MetS, physical activity and blood pressure was also calculated.Results:Adiponectin levels are inversely associated and leptin levels are directly associated with MetS and BMI, but directly with gender (females show higher levels than boys), and PAI-1 levels are directly associated with MetS, among adolescents.Conclusions:Leptin, adiponectin and PAI-1 may be used as biomarkers to predict MetS among adolescents.
European journal of clinical nutrition 08/2012; 66(10):1141-5. · 3.07 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.
The British journal of nutrition 06/2012; 107 Suppl 2:S23-52. · 3.45 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2012; 33(7):531-6. · 2.43 Impact Factor
exercise induces oxidative
stress. The cellular antioxidant
defence systems have demonstrated
great adaptation to chronic
AimTo establish the influence
of the antioxidant diet supplementation
on the erythrocyte and
lymphocyte antioxidant enzyme
activities in athletes at basal and
MethodsFifteen amateur trained male
athletes were randomly distributed
in two groups: control and antioxidant
supplemented (90 days’ diet
supplementation with 500 mg/day
vitamin E and 30 mg/day β–carotene, and the last 15 days also
with 1 g/day vitamin C). The study
was double blind. Maximal and
submaximal exercise tests were
performed after three months of
diet supplementation. The study
was developed during the training
and competition season.
ResultsThe sportsmen of the supplemented
group presented significantly
higher plasmatic final levels
of vitamin C, vitamin E and β–carotene. Erythrocyte glutathione
reductase activity significantly
decreased in the placebo group but
was maintained in the supplemented
group after the three
months studied. The erythrocyte
superoxide dismutase activity increased
after the training/competition
period in the placebo group.
Lymphocyte catalase and glutathione
increased significantly in the supplemented
group after the supplementation
period but were maintained
in the placebo group. No
effects of the antioxidant supplementation
were observed in the
erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme
response to the exercise tests. The
antioxidant supplementation induced
a better adaptation of lymphocyte
catalase after submaximal
showed higher sensibility to antioxidant
the response of antioxidant
enzymes to training and to
acute exercise. In erythrocytes the
training adaptations were more
important than the antioxidant
European Journal of Nutrition 04/2012; 45(4):187-195. · 2.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate the chronic effects of training and competition during a 4-month season on immune response in professional volleyball players. Players took part in an incremental maximal cycling test at the beginning and at the end of the season. As control group, subjects with regular recreational activity were selected. Blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately after the exercise test, and after 30 min recovery. Volleyball players have similar basal levels of erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and total protein and urate than controls and higher levels of creatinine and activities of AST, ALT, and GGT. Maximal incremental exercise test significantly increased erythrocyte counts, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin levels in volleyball players. T- and B-lymphocytes significantly increased after exercise test and were maintained high during recovery. Cortisol levels were significantly increased immediately after exercise and during recovery with respect to basal values. Basal and post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly higher at the final of season than at the beginning. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and complement fractions (C3, C4) were unaffected by the volleyball season. The IgG and IgM levels were significantly higher after exercise and recovery than basal levels. Maximal exercise test induced an acute phase/inflammatory response characterized by increased circulating lymphocytes, antibody response, and cortisol levels. Competition season increases cortisol concentration indicative of accumulated stress intensity.
Journal of physiology and biochemistry 03/2010; 66(1):1-6. · 1.71 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in adolescents in the Balearic Islands, in the western Mediterranean Sea.
A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008). A random sample (n=362, 143 boys and 219 girls) of the adolescent population (12-17 years) was interviewed, anthropometrically measured, and provided a fasting blood sample. The MetS prevalence was determined by the ATP III criteria adapted for youths. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of MD components: high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legume, cereals and roots, fruit, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low meat and milk consumption. The overall MetS prevalence was 5.8% (boys 10.5%, girls 2.7%). MetS criteria were met by 10.0% of overweight, 45.5% of obese and in 1.8% of normal weight adolescents. Half of the adolescents (49.7%) had at least one MetS component. None of the adolescents had all five risk factors. High triglyceride level (90.5%), hypertension (85.7%), low HDL cholesterol level (78.9%) and central obesity (71.4%) were common among adolescents with MetS whereas hyperglycaemia (0.6%) was infrequent. Higher adherence to MD was associated with significantly lower odds ratio of having MetS, but half of the adolescents showed high adherence to MD.
MetS prevalence was significant among adolescents in the Balearic Islands, especially among obese boys. A high adherence to MD in adolescents was associated with a low prevalence of the MetS criteria.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2010; 21(6):446-54. · 3.52 Impact Factor
Botanica Marina 01/2010; 53(4):367-375. · 1.49 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the nutritional status of the Andean population of Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, using anthropometric measurements.
A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n = 1236) of individuals from these regions. Children aged 2-9 years, adolescents (10-17 years) and adults (>or=18 years; pregnant and lactating women excluded) were considered. Height-for-age, weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) were calculated in children and adolescents and compared with World Health Organization/National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards using Z-scores or percentiles, in order to assess the prevalence of stunting, wasting/thinness and excess weight. In adults, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were used to identify obesity and central adiposity.
Stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-2 standard deviations) and obesity (BMI >or= 95th percentile) were found to be major nutritional problems in children and adolescents. Stunting was prevalent in 10.7% of children and 12.4% of adolescents; 8.2% of children and 3.5% of adolescents were obese. Adults were short (mean: 155.8 cm) and values of overweight (32.3%), obesity (18.3%) and central adiposity (mean WC: 86.5 cm) were high. Older adults and those with higher economic development showed higher prevalence of obesity and central adiposity.
The present population may be at the early stages of nutritional transition as symptoms of undernutrition and overnutrition coexist at the population level. These results suggest that rates of growth retardation may be decreasing owing to improved nutritional conditions; however, this could be accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of other diet-related chronic diseases.
Public Health Nutrition 06/2008; 11(6):606-15. · 2.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns in a representative sample from Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n 1236) of individuals from these regions. For the present study, only children aged 2-9 years (n 360), adolescents aged 10-18 years (n 223) and adults aged 18 years or over (n 465) were considered. Breast-fed children, pregnant women and lactating women were excluded. Dietary data collection methods comprised one 24 h recall and a semi-quantitative FFQ. We used principal component (PC) analyses to identify prevailing dietary patterns. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the determinants of the identified dietary patterns. Two dominant PC were identified: PC1 reflected a 'Western-like' diet with an emphasis on not-autochthon foods. This pattern tended to be present in urban areas of the Quebrada region and was associated with a younger age, a higher level of development, and a worse diet quality. PC2 reflected an 'Andean-like' diet including a variety of autochthon crops. This was preferred by individuals living in rural areas from Puna with a high level of development during the post-harvest season, and was associated with a greater diet quality. These results suggest that the nutrition transition phenomenon is a reality in certain sectors of this population and might be one of the leading causes of the observed double burden of malnutrition.
British Journal Of Nutrition 03/2008; 99(2):390-7. · 3.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess whether the recently developed Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was useful to evaluate the diet quality of a young Mediterranean population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in southern Spain (Granada-Andalucia) from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information (24 h recall and FFQ) and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the population (n 288, 44.1 % females and 55.9 % males) aged 6-18 years (mean 12.88 (sd 2.78) years). DQI-I was designed according to the method of Kim et al. modified by Tur et al. for Mediterranean populations. It focused on four main characteristics of a high-quality diet (variety, adequacy, moderation and overall balance). This young population from southern Spain obtained 56.31 % of the total DQI-I score, indicating a poor-quality diet. A higher score was associated with a longer breakfast and greater physical activity. The DQI-I may require further modification for application in Mediterranean populations, differentiating between olive oil and saturated fats, among other changes. Further research is needed to develop a new diet quality index adapted to the Mediterranean diet.
British Journal Of Nutrition 01/2008; 98(6):1267-73. · 3.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The antioxidant enzyme response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to different degree of pollution was investigated. Antioxidant enzyme activities - catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) - and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured in gills and digestive glands of mussels. Mussels from the same origin were transplanted along the Balearic coastal waters in eight stations characterized by a different degree of contamination and human impacts. Antioxidant enzyme activities showed an adaptive response to increase the activities in the more polluted areas. CAT, GR and SOD in gills and CAT and GR in digestive gland presented significant differences between polluted and non-polluted stations. No significant differences were observed in MDA concentration indicating that the antioxidant response is capable to avoid the lipid peroxidation. The use of biomarkers such as CAT and GR in gills and digestive glands of the mussel M. galloprovincialis is a good tool to categorize differences between polluted and non-polluted areas.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 12/2007; 146(4):531-9. · 2.62 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the effects of a scuba diving session on the lymphocyte antioxidant system, NO synthesis, the capability to produce reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant response in neutrophils. For that purpose seven male divers performed an immersion at a depth of 40 m for 25 min. The same parameters were measured after an hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment at resting conditions in a hyperbaric chamber. Lymphocyte H2O2 production rose after diving and after HBO treatment. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activities increased after diving in lymphocytes, while after HBO exposure only increased GPx activity. Lymphocyte HO-1 mRNA expression increased after diving and after HBO exposure, while iNOS levels and nitrite levels significantly increased after diving. The hyperoxia associated to scuba diving leads to a condition of oxidative stress with increased lymphocyte H2O2 production, HO-1 expression, NO synthesis and antioxidant enzyme adaptations in order to avoid oxidative damage.
Free Radical Research 04/2007; 41(3):274-81. · 2.88 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We have investigated the influence of vitamin C diet supplementation on the antioxidant response and nitrite levels in lymphocytes and erythrocytes during diving apnea.
Seven male professional apnea divers participated in a double blind crossover study. Divers were randomly assigned to either vitamin C supplemented or placebo groups. The subjects did not take any other supplements than the ones provided for this study.
One group was supplemented with vitamin C capsules (1 g per day) for 7 days while the other group took a placebo composed of lactose. The usual dietary habits of participants were assessed using a self-reported 7-days 24-h recall before the day of the study. Blood samples were taken under basal conditions, immediately after diving apnea for 4 h and after 1 h of recovery.
Catalase activity increased in erythrocytes (23%) and superoxide dismutase increased in lymphocytes (35%) during the recovery only in the placebo group. Lymphocyte ascorbate levels increased in the supplemented group after diving (85%) and maintained high at recovery. Plasma nitrite levels increased about twofold in both groups during the recovery. Erythrocyte nitrite levels increased after diving (50%) and about twofold during the recovery in the supplemented group. Nitrite levels and iNOS levels in lymphocytes were higher in the placebo group than in the supplemented during the recovery. Erythrocyte carbonyl derivates were unchanged in all situations.
Vitamin C supplementation influenced the antioxidant response and NO handling in erythrocytes and lymphocytes to the oxidative stress induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2006; 60(7):838-46. · 2.46 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe the nutritional status and dietary practices of patients affected by porphyria variegata, paying special attention to the consumption of nutrients that may help or hinder the condition, and to assess the compliance with prevalent nutritional recommendations.
Cross-sectional study. 24 individuals affected by porphyria variegata (16 females and 8 males; mean age 46.8 (SD 19.5) years) from the Balearic Islands (Spain) recruited through the Balearic Porphyria Association. Dietary questionnaires (7-day dietary record and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), socio-demographic, lifestyle and health status interviews and anthropometric measurements were carried out.
According to current recommendations for the Spanish population and to specific recommendations for porphyria patients, the daily intake of saturated fat (13.2% of total energy), sugars (16.9% of total E), cholesterol (387 mg) and alcoholic beverages (1.1 servings per day) were too high whereas the consumption of total carbohydrates (43.5% of total E), vitamin E (69.5% of RDI), beta-carotene (63.1% of RDI) and vitamin D (42.4% of RDI) was lower than recommended.
Dietary pattern observed among porphyria variegata patients was in line with current dietary trends in the Balearic Islands. Nutritional recommendations to these individuals for the management of porphyria are poorly met. It is necessary to translate these recommendations into food-based dietary guidelines based on prevailing dietary patterns.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 02/2006; 50(5):442-9. · 2.26 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the differential response of plasma, lymphocyte and neutrophil vitamin E levels to high-intensity physical activity and to vitamin C and E supplementation.
In all, 14 male trained amateur runners (32-36 y old) were randomly divided in two groups (supplemented and placebo), and participated in a half marathon race. The subjects did not take any other supplements than the ones provided for this study.
Vitamin C (152 mg/day) and E (50 mg/day) supplementation was administrated to athletes for a month, using a new almond-based isotonic and energetic beverage (supplemented group). The usual dietary habits of participants were assessed using a self-reported 7-day 24-h recall before the day of the study. To avoid the beverage influence, nonenriched vitamin C and E almond-based isotonic and energetic beverage was given to the placebo group. After 1 month, subjects participated in a half marathon race (21 km run). Vitamin E concentration was determined in plasma, neutrophils and lymphocytes before and immediately after the race, and 3 h after finishing the race.
Daily energy intake and caloric profile of supplemented and placebo group were not different except for vitamin C and E supplementation. Vitamin supplementation and exercise had no effect on vitamins E levels in plasma. The exercise significantly (P<0.05) increased the lymphocyte vitamin E concentration both in the placebo (+119%) and supplemented groups (+128%), and neutrophil vitamin E content in the supplemented group (+88%). These levels remained significantly (P<0.05) high after the short recovery. After exercise, vitamin E levels in lymphocytes and neutrophils of supplemented subjects were practically twice the levels before exercise, whereas neutrophil vitamin E content of the placebo group was close to those in plasma.
After endurance exercise, lymphocytes increased their vitamin E content in the supplemented and placebo subjects whereas this trend in neutrophils was just observed in the supplemented group. The determination of vitamin E content in lymphocytes and neutrophils after exercise is a useful tool to assess the functional status of vitamin E.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2005; 59(6):781-8. · 2.46 Impact Factor
To evaluate the
intake of antioxidant nutrients, as
important components of the diet
of the Balearic population, a typical
Mediterranean type diet, as well as
socio–demographic, lifestyle and
dietary factors that could be associated
to their consumption.
Cross sectional survey: dietary information
(replicated 24–h recall)
and socio–demographic and
lifestyle data were collected from a
representative sample of the
Balearic Islands population
(n = 1200, 498 males and 702 females)
aged 16–65 years (response
rate 77.22 %). A Dietary Antioxidant
Quality Score (DAQS) was
computed considering the risk of
inadequate intakes (< 2/3="" rdi)="" for="" selenium,="" zinc,="">–carotene, vitamins
C and E. This score (ranged
from 0, very poor dietary antioxidant
quality, to 5, high quality diet)
was divided into quartiles. Those
pertaining to the lower quartile
were defined as low antioxidant
consumers and compared to those
in the upper quartile in terms of
their socio–demographic, lifestyle
and dietary characteristics.
Inadequate intakes (< 2/3="" rdi)="" were="" estimated="" in="" nearly="" half="" of="" the="" sample="" for="" zinc,="">–carotene and vitamin
E. Of the study population,
12.4% were identified as low antioxidant
consumers according to
DAQS. Pertaining to lower socioeconomic
and educational level
and being born in a non–Mediterranean
Spanish region were the
most important determinants for
being a low antioxidant consumer.
A diet high in saturated fat but low
in total fat, fruit, vegetables and fibre
also determined a low intake of
findings suggest a possible departure
from the traditional Balearic
diet among certain groups of the
Balearic Islands population, and
this trend may be responsible for
the observed low intake of antioxidant
European Journal of Nutrition 05/2005; 44(4):204-213. · 2.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Free radical production increases during exercise and oxidative damage occurs in several tissues. We examined the effects of three different exercise tests on the pattern of change of erythrocyte enzyme antioxidant activities. The tests were a short maximal exercise test, a submaximal prolonged exercise test and a cycling stage during competition. The participants were amateur and professional cyclists with different training statuses and different basal erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. The maximal test produced no changes in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities of amateur sportsmen. The submaximal test, performed at 80% of maximal oxygen uptake, decreased erythrocyte catalase (12%), glutathione peroxidase determined with H2O2 (14%) and glutathione reductase (16%); superoxide dismutase activity increased by about 25%. The cycling stage performed by professional cyclists increased erythrocyte catalase (29%) and glutathione reductase (10%) activities. The in vivo changes in glutathione reductase activity were confirmed by in vitro measurements: hydrogen peroxide decreased and the presence of catalase increased the activity of this enzyme. In conclusion, we suggest that the different erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme responses to diverse exercise tests can be explained by the effects of hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion on the antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes.
Journal of Sports Sciences 02/2005; 23(1):5-13. · 1.93 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes a disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Few data are available as to the cumulative effects of exercise on the antioxidant defenses of the neutrophil. We studied the effects of 90 days' supplementation with placebo or an antioxidant cocktail of vitamin E (500 mg/day) and beta-carotene (30 mg/day) and the last 15 days also with vitamin C (1 g/day) on sportsmen's basal neutrophil antioxidant defenses. We analyzed the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in neutrophils purified from antecubital vein blood of sportsmen before and after diet supplementation. Plasma vitamin E, beta-carotene and vitamin C concentrations in the antioxidant-supplemented group were approximately 1.6, 10, and 1.2 times higher respectively than those of the placebo group. The antioxidant-supplemented group presented a significantly higher glutathione versus glutathione disulfide ratio in neutrophils (about 20%) than the placebo one. Antioxidant supplementation enhances the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in neutrophils.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 04/2002; 443(5-6):791-7. · 4.46 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We determined the participation of the cellular compartment in the changes of plasma amino acid concentrations during maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Following an overnight fast, male athletes were submitted to a maximal exercise test until fatigue (for 25 min approximately) to determine maximal oxygen uptake. The amino acid concentrations in total blood, plasma, and blood cells were determined before and after the maximal exercise test. Most essential amino acids were decreased significantly in the total blood concentration as a result of the maximal exercise test. However, the concentrations of most nonessential amino acids tended to be significantly increased. Amino acid concentration was increased most in plasma. Concentrations of blood cell alanine and proline were significantly increased by 26% and 15%, respectively, after the maximal exercise test. No significant differences in blood cell concentrations of other amino acids induced by the exercise test were found, although the amount of tryptophan in blood cells was increased after exhaustive exercise.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 03/2000; 11(2):81-6. · 3.89 Impact Factor
BioFactors 02/2000; 11(1-2):27-30. · 4.93 Impact Factor