[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AT-rich interactive domain 1A gene (ARID1A) loss is a frequent event in endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinomas. Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside the uterus, and 50% of women with endometriosis are infertile. ARID1A protein levels were significantly lower in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis. However, an understanding of the physiological effects of ARID1A loss remains quite poor, and the function of Arid1a in the female reproductive tract has remained elusive. In order to understand the role of Arid1a in the uterus, we have generated mice with conditional ablation of Arid1a in the PGR positive cells (Pgrcre/+Arid1af/f; Arid1ad/d). Ovarian function and uterine development of Arid1ad/d mice were normal. However, Arid1ad/d mice were sterile due to defective embryo implantation and decidualization. The epithelial proliferation was significantly increased in Arid1ad/d mice compared to control mice. Enhanced epithelial estrogen activity and reduced epithelial PGR expression, which impedes maturation of the receptive uterus, was observed in Arid1ad/d mice at the peri-implantation period. The microarray analysis revealed that ARID1A represses the genes related to cell cycle and DNA replication. We showed that ARID1A positively regulates Klf15 expression with PGR to inhibit epithelial proliferation at peri-implantation. Our results suggest that Arid1a has a critical role in modulating epithelial proliferation which is a critical requisite for fertility. This finding provides a new signaling pathway for steroid hormone regulation in female reproductive biology and furthers our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie dysregulation of hormonal signaling in human reproductive disorders such as endometriosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibition of p53 activity by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been reported, but the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) selectively mediates HDAC3 dissociation from p53, which induces HDAC3 cleavage and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Casein kinase 2 alpha phosphorylates PDCD5 at Ser-119 to enhance its stability and importin 13-mediated nuclear translocation of PDCD5. Genetic deletion of PDCD5 abrogates etoposide (ET)-induced p53 stabilization and HDAC3 cleavage, indicating an essential role of PDCD5 in p53 activation. Restoration of PDCD5(WT) in PDCD5(-/-) MEFs restores ET-induced HDAC3 cleavage. Reduction of both PDCD5 and p53, but not reduction of either protein alone, significantly enhances in vivo tumorigenicity of AGS gastric cancer cells and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Our results define a mechanism for p53 activation via PDCD5-dependent HDAC3 decay under genotoxic stress conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic disease increasing rapidly worldwide, is well established as an important risk factor for various types of cancer. Although many factors impact the development of T2DM and cancer including sex, age, ethnicity, obesity, diet, physical activity levels, and environmental exposure, many epidemiological and experimental studies are gradually contributing to knowledge regarding the interrelationship between DM and cancer. The insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and chronic inflammation associated with diabetes mellitus are all associated strongly with cancer. The changes in bioavailable ovarian steroid hormone that occur in diabetes mellitus (the increasing levels of estrogen and androgen and the decreasing level of progesterone) are also considered potentially carcinogenic conditions for the breast, endometrium, and ovaries in women. In addition, the interaction among insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and ovarian steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, could act synergistically during cancer development. Here, we review the cancer-related mechanisms in T2DM, the epidemiological evidence linking T2DM and cancers in women, and the role of antidiabetic medication in these cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease affecting 1 in 10 women of reproductive age and is a major cause of pelvic pain and impaired fertility. Endometrial stromal cells of women with endometriosis exhibit a reduced response to in vitro decidualization. NOTCH1 is critical for decidualization of both mouse and human uterine stromal cells. Objective: To determine whether decidualization failure in women with endometriosis is a consequence of impaired Notch signaling. Design/Setting: We investigated expression levels of Notch signaling components in the endometrium of women and baboons with or without endometriosis. We identified NOTCH1 regulated genes during decidualization of Human Uterine Fibroblast (HuF) cells by microarray and quantified their expression levels in in vitro decidualized endometrial stromal cells isolated from women with or without endometriosis. Results: 1) Notch signaling receptors NOTCH1 and NOTCH4, ligands JAGGED2 and DLL4, as well as direct target genes HES5 and HEY1 were decreased in the eutopic endometrium of women and baboons with endometriosis. 2) Notch signaling was decreased in stromal cells isolated from women with endometriosis, which was associated with impaired in vitro decidualization. 3) Genes that were down-regulated by NOTCH1 silencing in decidualized HuF cells were also decreased in decidualized endometrial stromal cells of women with endometriosis. 4) FOXO1 acts as a downstream target of Notch signaling and endometriosis is associated with decreased expression of NOTCH1-regulated, FOXO-responsive genes during decidualization. Conclusions: Decreased Notch signaling is associated with endometriosis and contributes to impaired decidualization through the down-regulation of FOXO1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although advances in vascular interventions can reduce the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, neointimal hyperplasia remains a clinically significant obstacle limiting the success of current interventions. Identification of signaling pathways involved in migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is an important approach for the development of modalities to combat this disease. Herein we investigate the role of an immediate early response gene, mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6), in the development of neointimal hyperplasia using vascular smooth muscle specific Mig-6 knockout mice. We induced endoluminal injury to one side of femoral artery by balloon dilatation in both Mig-6 knockout and control mice. Four weeks following injury, the artery of Mig-6 knockout mice demonstrated a 5.3-fold increase in the neointima/media ratio compared with control mice (P = 0.04). In addition, Mig-6 knockout vascular SMCs displayed an increase in both cell migration and proliferation compared with wild-type SMCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Mig-6 plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. This finding provides new insight into the development of more effective ways to treat and prevent neointimal hyperplasia, particularly in-stent restenosis after percutaneous vascular intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) is a negative feedback inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We previously found that Mig-6 plays a critical role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and in bile acid synthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of EGFR inhibition to identify a potential new treatment target for hypercholesterolemia. We used a mouse model with conditional ablation of the Mig-6 gene in the liver (Albcre/+Mig-6f/f; Mig-6d/d) to effectively investigate the role of Mig-6 in the regulation of liver function. Mig-6d/d mice were treated with either the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib or statin for 6 weeks after administration of a high-fat or standard diet. We then compared lipid profiles and other parameters among each group of mice. After a high-fat diet, Mig-6d/d mice showed elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose, characteristics resembling hypercholesterolemia in diabetic patients. We observed decreases in serum levels of lipids and glucose in high-fat-diet-fed Mig-6d/d mice after 6 weeks of treatment with gefitinib or statin. Furthermore gefitinib-treated mice showed significantly greater decreases in serum levels of total, HDL and LDL cholesterol compared with statin-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that EGFR inhibition is effective for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-diet-fed Mig-6d/d mice, and our findings provide new insights into the development of possible treatment targets for hypercholesterolemia via modulation of EGFR inhibition.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114782. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114782 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTEN mutations are the most common genetic alterations in endometrial cancer. Loss of PTEN and subsequent AKT activation stimulate ERα-dependent pathways that play an important role in endometrial tumorigenesis. The major pathologic phenomenon of endometrial cancer is the loss of ovarian steroid hormone control over uterine epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism of PTEN/AKT signaling in endometrial cancer remains poorly understood. The progesterone signaling mediator MIG-6 suppresses estrogen signaling and it has been implicated previously as a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer. In this study, we show that MIG-6 also acts as a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancers associated with PTEN deficiency. Transgenic mice where Mig-6 was overexpressed in PR-expressing cells exhibited a relative reduction in uterine tumorigenesis caused by Pten deficiency. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated in uterine tumors and administration of an ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed cancer progression in PRcre/+Ptenf/f mice. In clinical specimens of endometrial cancer, MIG-6 expression correlated inversely with ERK1/2 phosphorylation during progression. Taken together, our findings suggest that Mig-6 regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation and that it is crucial for progression of PTEN-mutant endometrial cancers, providing a mechanistic rationale for the evaluation of ERK1/2 inhibitors as a therapeutic treatment in human endometrial cancer.
Cancer Research 11/2014; 74(24). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0794 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptors (PRs) are phosphorylated on multiple sites, and a variety of roles for phosphorylation have been suggested by cell-based studies. Previous studies using PR null mice have shown that PR plays an important role in female fertility, regulation of uterine growth, the uterine decidualization response, and proliferation as well as ductal side branching and alveologenesis in the mammary gland. To study the role of PR phosphorylation in vivo, a mouse was engineered with homozygous replacement of PR with a PR serine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 191. No overt phenotypes were observed in the mammary glands or uteri of PR S191A treated with progesterone (P4). In contrast, although PR S191A mice were fertile, litters were 19 smaller than wild type and the estrous cycle was lengthened slightly. Moreover, P4-dependent gene regulation in primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) was altered in a gene-selective manner. MECs derived from wild-type and PR S191A mice were grown in a three-dimensional culture. Both formed acinar structures that were morphologically similar, and proliferation was stimulated equally by P4. However, P4 induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and calcitonin was selectively reduced in S191A cultures. These differences were confirmed in freshly isolated MECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the binding of S191A PR to some of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand enhancers and a calcitonin enhancer was substantially reduced. Thus, the elimination of a single phosphorylation site is sufficient to modulate PR activity in vivo. PR contains many phosphorylation sites, and the coordinate regulation of multiple sites is a potential mechanism for selective modulation of PR function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the biological reactions triggered by stem cell transplantation related to phenotypic alteration, host-to-cell response, chromosomal stability, transcriptional alteration, and stem cell-like cell re-expansion. B6CBAF1 mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were injected subcutaneously into homologous or heterologous (B6D2F1) recipients, and heterologous injections were performed with or without co-injection of B6D2F1 fetal fibroblasts. All homologous injections resulted in teratoma formation, whereas a sharp decrease in formation was detected after heterologous injection (100 vs. 14%; p<0.05). The co-injection of somatic cells in heterologous injections enhanced teratoma formation significantly (14 vs. 75%; p<0.05). Next, ESC-like cell colonies with the same genotype as parental ESCs were formed by culturing teratoma-dissociated cells. Compared with parental ESCs, teratoma-derived ESC-like cells exhibited significantly increased aneuploidy, regardless of homologous or heterologous injections. Repopulation of the parental ESCs was the main factor that induced chromosomal instability, whereas the co-injection of somatic cells did not restore chromosomal normality. Different genes were expressed in the parental ESCs and teratoma-derived ESC-like cells; the difference was larger with parental vs. heterologous than parental vs. homologous co-injections. The co-injection of somatic cells decreased this difference further. In conclusion, the host-to-cell interactions triggered by ESC transplantation could be modulated by co-injection with somatic cells. A mouse model using homologous or heterologous transplantation of stem cells could help monitor cell adaptability and gene expression after injection.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e105975. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105975 · 3.23 Impact Factor