Jae-Wook Jeong

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

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Publications (52)224.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PTEN mutations are the most common genetic alterations in endometrial cancer. Loss of PTEN and subsequent AKT activation stimulate ERα-dependent pathways that play an important role in endometrial tumorigenesis. The major pathologic phenomenon of endometrial cancer is the loss of ovarian steroid hormone control over uterine epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism of PTEN/AKT signaling in endometrial cancer remains poorly understood. The progesterone signaling mediator MIG-6 suppresses estrogen signaling and it has been implicated previously as a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer. In this study, we show that MIG-6 also acts as a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancers associated with PTEN deficiency. Transgenic mice where Mig-6 was overexpressed in PR-expressing cells exhibited a relative reduction in uterine tumorigenesis caused by Pten deficiency. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated in uterine tumors and administration of an ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed cancer progression in PRcre/+Ptenf/f mice. In clinical specimens of endometrial cancer, MIG-6 expression correlated inversely with ERK1/2 phosphorylation during progression. Taken together, our findings suggest that Mig-6 regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation and that it is crucial for progression of PTEN-mutant endometrial cancers, providing a mechanistic rationale for the evaluation of ERK1/2 inhibitors as a therapeutic treatment in human endometrial cancer.
    Cancer research. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptors (PRs) are phosphorylated on multiple sites, and a variety of roles for phosphorylation have been suggested by cell-based studies. Previous studies using PR null mice have shown that PR plays an important role in female fertility, regulation of uterine growth, the uterine decidualization response, and proliferation as well as ductal side branching and alveologenesis in the mammary gland. To study the role of PR phosphorylation in vivo, a mouse was engineered with homozygous replacement of PR with a PR serine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 191. No overt phenotypes were observed in the mammary glands or uteri of PR S191A treated with progesterone (P4). In contrast, although PR S191A mice were fertile, litters were 19 smaller than wild type and the estrous cycle was lengthened slightly. Moreover, P4-dependent gene regulation in primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) was altered in a gene-selective manner. MECs derived from wild-type and PR S191A mice were grown in a three-dimensional culture. Both formed acinar structures that were morphologically similar, and proliferation was stimulated equally by P4. However, P4 induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and calcitonin was selectively reduced in S191A cultures. These differences were confirmed in freshly isolated MECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the binding of S191A PR to some of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand enhancers and a calcitonin enhancer was substantially reduced. Thus, the elimination of a single phosphorylation site is sufficient to modulate PR activity in vivo. PR contains many phosphorylation sites, and the coordinate regulation of multiple sites is a potential mechanism for selective modulation of PR function.
    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment of a receptive uterus is the prime requirement for embryo implantation. In mice, the E2-induced cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential in switching the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) from a non-receptive to a receptive state. Here we define the LIF mediated switch using array analysis and informatics to identify LIF-induced changes in gene expression and annotated signaling pathways specific to the LE. We compare gene expression profiles at 0, 1, 3 and 6 h, following LIF treatment. During the first hour, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway is activated and the expression of 54 genes declines, primarily affecting LE cytoskeletal and chromatin organization, and also includes a transient reduction in the Progesterone, TGFbetaR1 and ACVR1 receptors. Simultaneously 256 genes increase expression, of which 42 are transcription factors including Sox, Kfl, Hes, Hey, and Hox families. Within 3 h, the expression of 3987 genes belonging to more than 25 Biological Process pathways was altered. We confirmed the mRNA and protein distribution of key genes from 10 pathways, including the Igf-1, Vegf, Toll-like receptors, actin cytoskeleton, ephrin, integrins, TGFbeta, Wnt and Notch pathways. These data identify novel LIF-activated pathways in the LE and define the molecular basis between the "refractory" and "receptive" uterine phases. More broadly, these findings highlight the staggering capacity of a single cytokine to induce a dynamic and complex network of changes in a simple epithelium essential to mammalian reproduction and provide a basis for identifying new routes to regulating female reproduction.
    Biology of Reproduction 07/2014; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infertility and adverse gynecological outcomes such as preeclampsia and miscarriage represent significant female reproductive health concerns. The spatiotemporal expression of growth factors indicates that they play an important role in pregnancy. The goal of this study is to define the role of the ERBB family of growth factor receptors in endometrial function. Using conditional ablation in mice and siRNA in primary human endometrial stromal cells, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) to be critical for endometrial function during early pregnancy. While ablation of Her2 or Erbb3 led to only a modest reduction in litter size, mice lacking Egfr expression are severely subfertile. Pregnancy demise occurred shortly after blastocyst implantation due to defects in decidualization including decreased proliferation, cell survival, differentiation and target gene expression. To place Egfr in a genetic regulatory hierarchy, transcriptome analyses was used to compare the gene signatures from mice with conditional ablation of Egfr, wingless-related MMTV integration site 4 (Wnt4) or boneless morphogenic protein 2 (Bmp2); revealing that not only are Bmp2 and Wnt4 key downstream effectors of Egfr, but they also regulate distinct physiological functions. In primary human endometrial stromal cells, marker gene expression, a novel high content image-based approach and phosphokinase array analysis were used to demonstrate that EGFR is a critical regulator of human decidualization. Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR signaling intermediaries WNK1 and AKT1S1, members identified in the kinase array and previously unreported to play a role in the endometrium, also attenuate decidualization. These results demonstrate that EGFR plays an integral role in establishing the cellular context necessary for successful pregnancy via the activation of intricate signaling and transcriptional networks, thereby providing valuable insight into potential therapeutic targets.
    PLoS Genetics 06/2014; 10(6):e1004451. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that AKT activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-FOXO1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-GSK3β did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PR(cre/+) Pten(f/+) heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Pten(f/+) mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Pten(f/+) and PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, levels of FOXO1 and progesterone receptor increased in lesions of mice receiving MK-2206. These results demonstrate that heightened AKT activity plays an active role in the establishment of ectopic endometrial tissues.
    Endocrinology 02/2014; · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As pleiotropic coregulators, members of the p160/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family control a broad spectrum of transcriptional responses that underpin a diverse array of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Because of their potent coregulator properties, strict controls on SRC expression levels are required to maintain normal tissue functionality. Accordingly, an unwarranted increase in the cellular levels of SRC members has been causally linked to the initiation and/or progression of a number of clinical disorders. Although knockout mouse models have underscored the critical non-redundant roles for each SRC member in vivo, there are surprisingly few mouse models that have been engineered to overexpress SRCs. This deficiency is significant since SRC involvement in many of these disorders is based on unscheduled increases in the levels (rather than the absence) of SRC expression. To address this deficiency, we used recent mouse technology that allows for the targeted expression of human SRC-2 in cells which express the progesterone receptor. Through cre-loxP recombination driven by the endogenous progesterone receptor promoter, a marked elevation in expression levels of human SRC-2 was achieved in endometrial cells that are positive for the progesterone receptor. As a result of this increase in coregulator expression, female mice are severely subfertile due to a dysfunctional uterus, which exhibits a hypersensitivity to estrogen exposure. Our findings strongly support the proposal from clinical observations that increased levels of SRC-2 are causal for a number of endometrial disorders which compromise fertility. Future studies will use this mouse model to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underpin the endometrial defect. We believe such mechanistic insight may provide new molecular descriptors for diagnosis, prognosis, and/or therapy in the clinical management of female infertility.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98664. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrial cells outside of the uterine cavity, is a major cause of infertility and pelvic pain, afflicting more than 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and lipopolysaccharide promotes the proliferation and invasion of endometriotic stromal cells. Cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) has high affinity for lipopolysaccharide and plays a critical role in defense against endotoxin shock. However, the function of CRISPLD2 has not been studied in endometriosis and uterine biology. Herein, we examined the expression of CRISPLD2 in endometrium from patients with and without endometriosis using immunohistochemistry. The expression of CRISPLD2 was higher in the secretory phase in human menstrual cycle compared to proliferative phase. The expression of CRISPLD2 was significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with endometriosis in the early secretory phase compared to women without endometriosis. The increase of CRISPLD2 expression at the early secretory and dysregulation of its expression in endometriosis suggest progesterone (P4) regulation of CRISPLD2. To investigate whether CRISPLD2 is regulated by P4, we examined the expression of the CRISPLD2 in the uteri of wild-type and progesterone receptor knock out (PRKO) mice. The expression of CRISPLD2 was significantly increased after P4 treatment in the wild-type mice. However, CRISPLD2 expression was significantly decreased in the (PRKO) mice treated with P4. During early pregnancy, the expression of CRISPLD2 was increased in decidua of implantation and post-implantation stages. CRISPLD2 levels were also increased in cultured human endometrial stromal cells during in vitro decidualization. These results suggest that the CRISPLD2 is a target of the progesterone receptor and may play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e100481. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the biological reactions triggered by stem cell transplantation related to phenotypic alteration, host-to-cell response, chromosomal stability, transcriptional alteration, and stem cell-like cell re-expansion. B6CBAF1 mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were injected subcutaneously into homologous or heterologous (B6D2F1) recipients, and heterologous injections were performed with or without co-injection of B6D2F1 fetal fibroblasts. All homologous injections resulted in teratoma formation, whereas a sharp decrease in formation was detected after heterologous injection (100 vs. 14%; p<0.05). The co-injection of somatic cells in heterologous injections enhanced teratoma formation significantly (14 vs. 75%; p<0.05). Next, ESC-like cell colonies with the same genotype as parental ESCs were formed by culturing teratoma-dissociated cells. Compared with parental ESCs, teratoma-derived ESC-like cells exhibited significantly increased aneuploidy, regardless of homologous or heterologous injections. Repopulation of the parental ESCs was the main factor that induced chromosomal instability, whereas the co-injection of somatic cells did not restore chromosomal normality. Different genes were expressed in the parental ESCs and teratoma-derived ESC-like cells; the difference was larger with parental vs. heterologous than parental vs. homologous co-injections. The co-injection of somatic cells decreased this difference further. In conclusion, the host-to-cell interactions triggered by ESC transplantation could be modulated by co-injection with somatic cells. A mouse model using homologous or heterologous transplantation of stem cells could help monitor cell adaptability and gene expression after injection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e105975. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecological cancer, is closely associated with endometrial hyperplasia, unopposed estrogen exposure, and genetic alterations. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor genes completely lost or mutated in >50% of primary endometrioid endometrial cancers. Estrogen-dependent endometrioid carcinoma is the most common type of endometrial cancer. Progesterone is a hormone that antagonizes the growth-promoting properties of estrogen in the uterus. Progestin is used as a conservative endocrine treatment of early endometrial cancer in order to preserve fertility as well as a palliative measure for advanced-stage patients. Progesterone therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing endometrial cancer as well as controlling growth of the endometrium. However, the effectiveness of progestin for women with endometrial cancer is less clear.
    Journal of cancer prevention. 12/2013; 18(4):313-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII; NR2F2) is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in cell-fate specification, organogenesis, angiogenesis, and metabolism. Ablation of COUP-TFII in the mouse uterus causes infertility due to defects in embryo attachment and impaired uterine stromal cell decidualization. Although the function of COUP-TFII in uterine decidualization has been described in mice, its role in the human uterus remains unknown. We observed that, as in mice, COUP-TFII is robustly expressed in the endometrial stroma of healthy women, and its expression is reduced in the ectopic lesions of women with endometriosis. To interrogate the role of COUP-TFII in human endometrial function, we used a small interfering RNA-mediated loss of function approach in primary human endometrial stromal cells. Attenuation of COUP-TFII expression did not completely block decidualization; rather it had a selective effect on gene expression. To better elucidate the role of COUP-TFII in endometrial stroma cell biology, the COUP-TFII transcriptome was defined by pairing microarray comparison with chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that COUP-TFII regulates a subset of genes in endometrial stroma cell decidualization such as those involved in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Importantly this analysis shows that COUP-TFII plays a role in controlling the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The determination that COUP-TFII plays a role in inflammation may add insight into the role of COUP-TFII in embryo implantation and in endometrial diseases such as endometriosis.
    Molecular Endocrinology 10/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PR) have important functions in uterine environment. In previous studies, using high density DNA microarray analysis, we identified low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is one of the genes upregulated by P4 and PR. In present studies, we examined the expression of Lrp2 through real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry by P4-PR response. Lrp2 mRNA transcript was significantly increased after P4 treatment in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the wild-type mice. However, Lrp2 expression was not observed in the progesterone receptor knock out (PRKO) mice treated with P4. The expression of Lrp2 expression is not regulated by estrogen. During early pregnancy, the expression of Lrp2 was detected at 2.5dpc and then significantly increased at 3.5dpc in luminal and glandular epithelium. These results suggest that Lrp2 is a novel target gene by P4 and PR.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is closely associated with endometrial hyperplasia, unopposed estrogen exposure, and genetic alterations. However, the exact cause of endometrial cancer is still unknown. We previously identified mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) as an important mediator of progesterone signaling in uterus. Tumor suppressor function of progesterone, acting through Mig-6, coordinates endometrial stromal-epithelial communication. The expression of Mig-6 in these cellular compartments is under tight temporal and endocrine control. Here, the role of Mig-6 in the uterine epithelium was defined using floxed Mig-6 (Mig-6(f/f)) mice crossed to Wnt7a-Cre mice (Wnt7a(cre+) Mig-6(f/f)). Wnt7a(cre+) Mig-6(f/f) mice developed endometrial hyperplasia and estrogen-dependent endometrial cancer. Wnt7a(cre+) Mig-6(f/f) mice significantly increased proliferation in epithelial cells as well as apoptosis in sub-epithelial stroma cells. The expression of NOTCH1 and BIRC3 were increased in epithelial cells of Wnt7a(cre+) Mig-6(f/f) mice whereas PR levels were decreased in stromal cells. Progesterone therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing endometrial cancer as well as controlling growth of the endometrium. However, the effectiveness of progesterone for women with endometrial cancer is less clear. The hyperplasia phenotype of Wnt7a(cre+) Mig-6(f/f) mice was prevented by progesterone treatment while PR(cre+) Mig-6(f/f) mice, ablation of Mig-6 in all compartments of the uterus, did not have any effects. We showed that activation of progesterone signaling in the stroma regulates proliferation and apoptosis via suppression of ERα signaling in epithelium. Thus, epithelial Mig-6 is a critical tumor suppressor involved in progesterone mediated protection against the development of endometrial cancer.
    Cancer Research 06/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenomyosis is defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Despite its frequent occurrence, the precise etiology and physiopathology of adenomyosis is still unknown. WNT/β-catenin signaling molecules are important and should be tightly regulated for uterine function. To investigate the role of β-catenin signaling in adenomyosis, the expression of β-catenin was examined. Nuclear and cytoplasmic β-catenin expression was significantly higher in epithelial cells of human adenomyosis compared to control endometrium. To determine if constitutive activation of β-catenin in the murine uterus leads to development of adenomyosis, mice were used which expressed a dominant stabilized β-catenin in the uterus by crossing the PR-Cre mouse with Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice . Uteri of PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice displayed an abnormal irregular structure and highly active proliferation in the myometrium, and subsequently developed adenomyosis. Interestingly, the expression of E-cadherin was repressed in epithelial cells of PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice compared to control mice. Repression of E-cadherin is one of the hallmarks of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). The expression of SNAIL and ZEB1 was observed in some epithelial cells of the uterus in PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice but not in control mice. Vimentin and COUP-TFII, mesenchymal cell markers, were expressed in some epithelial cells of PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice. In human adenomyosis, the expression of E-cadherin was decreased in epithelial cells compared to control endometrium, while CD10, endometrial stromal marker, was expressed in some epithelial cells of human adenomyosis. These results suggest that abnormal activation of β-catenin contributes to adenomyosis development through the induction of EMT.
    The Journal of Pathology 06/2013; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the genomic plasticity of somatic cells without ectopic genetic manipulation, we cultured mouse fibroblasts with ovarian cells, embryonic fibroblasts of different strains, and parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Of 41 trials, cell aggregation resembling nascent ESC colony from inner cell mass was detected in 9 cases (22%), and 6 cases (67%) yielded fibroblast-derived colonies with ESC morphology. Cells used in coculture provided the critical (P=0.0061) inducing factor for the aggregation. These colony-forming fibroblasts (CFFs) showed similar characteristics to those in ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), including pluripotency gene expression, in vitro differentiation, and teratoma formation. Furthermore, CFFs produced somatic chimera, although none showed germline chimerism. CFFs had a tetraploid-like karyotype, and their imprinting patterns differed from parthenogenetic ESCs, thereby confirming their nongermline transmissibility. We observed dysregulation of cell cycle-related proteins, as well as both homologous and heterologous recombination of genomic single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CFFs. Our observations provide information on somatic cell plasticity, resulting in stemness or tumorigenesis, regardless of colony-forming cell progenitors in the fibroblast population. The plasticity of somatic genomes under environmental influences, as well as acquisition of pluripotency by cell fusion, is also implicated.-Lee, S. T., Gong, S. P., Yum, K. E., Lee, E. J., Lee, C. H., Choi, J. H., Kim, D. Y., Han, H., Kim, K.-S., Hysolli, E., Ahn, J. Y., Park, I.-H., Han, J. Y., Jeong, J.-W., Lim, J. M. Transformation of somatic cells into stem cell-like cells under a stromal niche.
    The FASEB Journal 04/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is required for decidualization, interacting with progesterone receptor (PR) in uterus. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that crosstalk between STAT3 and PR signaling is required for successful implantation. To identify the interaction between STAT3 and PR isoforms, we performed immunoprecipitation following transient cotransfection and found that STAT3 physically interacted with PR-A, which is known to be important for uterine development and function, but not with PR-B. To further investigate the role of Stat3 in uterine function, Stat3 was conditionally ablated only in the PR-positive cells (PR(cre/+) Stat3(f/f); Stat3(d/d)). Our studies revealed that ovarian function and uterine development of Stat3(d/d) mice were normal. However, Stat3(d/d) female mice were infertile due to defective embryo implantation. Unlike Stat3(f/f) mice, Stat3(d/d) mice exhibited an unclosed uterine lumen. Furthermore, uteri of Stat3(d/d) mice were unable to undergo a well-characterized hormonally induced decidual reaction. The expression of stromal PR was decreased during decidualization and preimplantation period in Stat3(d/d) mice, and PR target genes were significantly down-regulated after progesterone induction. Our results suggest that STAT3 and PR crosstalk is required for successful implantation in the mouse uterus.-Lee, J. H., Kim, T. H., Oh, S. J., Yoo, J.-Y., Akira, S., Ku, B. J., Lydon, J. P., Jeong, J.-W. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus.
    The FASEB Journal 03/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to understand the biology of the endometrium and potentially develop new diagnostic tools and treatments for endometrial diseases, the highly orchestrated gene expression/regulation that occurs within the uterus must first be understood. Even though a wealth of information on endometrial gene expression/regulation is available, this information is scattered across several different resources in formats that can be difficult for the average bench scientist to query, integrate, and utilize. The Endometrium Database Resource (EDR) was created as a single evolving resource for protein- and micro-RNA-encoding genes that have been shown by gene expression microarray, Northern blot, or other experiments in the literature to have their expression regulated in the uterus of humans, mice, rats, cows, domestic pigs, guinea pigs, and sheep. Genes are annotated in EDR with basic gene information (eg, gene symbol and chromosome), gene orthologs, and gene ontologies. Links are also provided to external resources for publication/s, nucleic and amino acid sequence, gene product function, and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) phase expression graph information. The resource also allows for direct comparison of relative gene expression in different microarray experiments for genes shown in the literature to be differentially expressed in the uterus. It is available via a user-friendly, web-based interface and is available without charge or restriction to the entire scientific community. The EDR can be accessed at http://edr.research.bcm.edu.
    Molecular Endocrinology 01/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is associated with aberrant gene expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with disease. To determine if the development of endometriotic lesions directly impacts eutopic endometrial gene expression, we sequentially analyzed the eutopic endometrium across the time-course of disease progression in a baboon model of induced disease. Endometriosis was induced in baboons (n = 4) by intraperitoneal inoculation of autologous menstrual endometrium. Eutopic endometria were collected during the mid-secretory phase (Days 9-11 post-ovulation) at 1, 3, 6-7, 10-12, and 15-16 mo after disease induction and compared with tissue from disease-free baboons. RNA was hybridized to Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays and data were extracted using Gene-Chip Operating Software. Subsequently, both Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis were used to find biological states that have a statistically significant enrichment concomitant with pair-wise comparison of human endometriosis arrays. Within one month of induction of the disease, 4,331 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering revealed self-segregation into two groups: a) 1, 3 and 10-12 mo and b) 6-7 and 15-16 mo, together with controls. Clustering analysis at each stage of disease validated dysregulation of several signaling pathways including Nodal-like receptor, EGF, ERK/MAPK and PI3/AKT. Sequential analysis of the same animals during disease progression demonstrated an early disease insult and a transitory dominance of an estrogenic phenotype; however, as the disease progressed a progesterone-resistant phenotype became evident. Furthermore, we demonstrate a 38.6% differential gene expression overlap with endometrial samples in the mid-secretory phase from women with endometriosis, concomitant with similar dysregulation in human disease candidate genes Fos, Nodal, Suclg2, and Kras, amongst others. Molecular changes in the eutopic endometrium, associated with endometriosis, are directly impacted by endometriotic lesions, providing strong evidence that it is the disease, rather than inherent defective endometrium, that results in aberrant gene expression in the eutopic endometrium. Furthermore, this baboon model provides a powerful means whereby the early events associated with the pathology of disease and the resulting infertility may be elucidated.
    Biology of Reproduction 01/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

709 Citations
224.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Section of Hematology/Oncology
      • • Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2007
    • Texas A&M University System Health Science Center
      • Texas A&M Health Science Center
      Bryan, Texas, United States