Howard G Shertzer

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States

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Publications (111)460.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol antioxidant and it exhibits numerous and versatile functions. Disturbances in GSH homeostasis have been associated with liver diseases induced by drugs, alcohol, diet and environmental pollutants. Until recently, our laboratories and others have developed mouse models with genetic deficiencies in glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme in the GSH biosynthetic pathway. This review focuses on regulation of GSH homeostasis and, specifically, recent studies that have utilized such GSH-deficient mouse models to investigate the role of GSH in liver disease processes. These studies have revealed a differential hepatic response to distinct profiles of hepatic cellular GSH concentration. In particular, mice engineered to not express the catalytic subunit of GCL in hepatocytes [Gclc(h/h) mice] experience almost complete loss of hepatic GSH (to 5% of normal) and develop spontaneous liver pathologies characteristic of various clinical stages of liver injury. In contrast, mice globally engineered to not express the modifier subunit of GCL [Gclm(-/-) mice] show a less severe hepatic GSH deficit (to ≈15% of normal) and exhibit overall protection against liver injuries induced by a variety of hepatic insults. Collectively, these transgenic mouse models provide interesting new insights regarding pathophysiological functions of GSH in the liver.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Howard G Shertzer, Mansi Krishan, Mary Beth Genter
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    ABSTRACT: In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early-stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the brain.
    Neuroscience Letters 06/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four dioxin-inducible enzymes--NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and three cytochromes P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 & CYP1B1)--are implicated in both detoxication and metabolic activation of various endobiotics and xenobiotics. NQO1 is generally regarded as a cytosolic enzyme; whereas CYP1 proteins are located primarily in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins are also targeted to mitochondria. This lab has generated Cyp1a1(mc/mc) and Cyp1a1(mtt/mtt) knock-in mouse lines in which CYP1A1 protein is targeted exclusively to ER (microsomes) and mitochondria, respectively. Comparing dioxin-treated Cyp1(+/+) wild-type, Cyp1a1(mc/mc), Cyp1a1(mtt/mtt), and Cyp1a1(-/-), Cyp1b1(-/-) and Nqo1(-/-) knockout mice, in the present study we show that [a] NQO1 protein locates to cytosol, ER and mitochondria, [b] CYP1B1 protein (similar to CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins) traffics to mitochondria as well as ER, and [c] NQO1 and CYP1B1 targeting to mitochondrial or ER membranes is independent of CYP1A1 presence in that membrane.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work indicates that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) given IP to mice alter the regulation of inflammation- and oxidative stress-related genes in brain. Here we assessed the distribution and toxic potential of AgNP following intranasal (IN) exposure. Adult male C57BL/6J mice received 25-nm AgNP (100 or 500 mg/kg) once IN. After 1 or 7 days, histopathology of selected organs was performed, and tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured as an indicator of oxidative stress. Aggregated AgNP were found in spleen, lung, kidney, and nasal airway by routine light microscopy. Splenic AgNP accumulation was greatest in red pulp and occurred with modestly reduced cellularity and elevated hemosiderin deposition. Aggregated AgNP were not associated with microscopic changes in other tissues except for nasal mucosal erosions. Autometallography revealed AgNP in olfactory bulb and the lateral brain ventricles. Neither inflammatory cell infiltrates nor activated microglia were detected in brains of AgNP-treated mice. Elevated tissue GSH levels was observed in nasal epithelia (both doses at 1 day, 500 mg/kg at 7 days) and blood (500 mg/kg at 7 days). Therefore, IN administration of AgNP permits systemic distribution, produces reversible oxidative stress in the nose and in blood, and mildly enhances macrophage-mediated erythrocyte destruction in the spleen.
    Toxicologic Pathology 05/2012; 40(7):1004-13. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1-182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3-520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well.
    Toxicological Sciences 01/2012; 125(1):79-90. · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Ying Chen, Mansi Krishan, Daniel W Nebert, Howard G Shertzer
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    ABSTRACT: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) generates both hepatocellular injury and steatosis, processes that involve oxidative stress. Herein, we evaluated the role of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity. Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), comprising catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits, is rate limiting in de novo GSH biosynthesis; GCLM maintains GSH homeostasis by optimizing the catalytic efficiency of GCL holoenzyme. Gclm(-/-) transgenic mice exhibit 10-20% of normal tissue GSH levels. Gclm(-/-) and Gclm(+/+) wild-type (WT) female mice received TCDD for 3 consecutive days and were then examined 21 days later. As compared with WT littermates, Gclm(-/-) mice were more sensitive to TCDD-induced hepatocellular toxicity, exhibiting lower reduction potentials for GSH, lower ATP levels, and elevated levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). However, the histopathology showed that TCDD-mediated steatosis, which occurs in WT mice, was absent in Gclm(-/-) mice. This finding was consistent with cDNA microarray expression analysis, revealing striking deficiencies in lipid biosynthesis pathways in Gclm(-/-) mice; qrt-PCR analysis confirmed that Gclm(-/-) mice are deficient in expression of several lipid metabolism genes including Srebp2, Elovl6, Fasn, Scd1/2, Ppargc1a, and Ppara. We suggest that whereas GSH protects against TCDD-mediated hepatocellular damage, GSH deficiency confers resistance to TCDD-induced steatosis due to impaired lipid metabolism.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 11/2011; 25(1):94-100. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2011; 257(3):338-48. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3-520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice.
    Toxicological Sciences 06/2011; 123(1):58-70. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consuming a high-fat (HF) diet produces excessive weight gain, adiposity, and metabolic complications associated with risk for developing type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. This study evaluated the influence of whey protein isolate (WPI) on systemic energy balance and metabolic changes in mice fed a HF diet. Female C57BL/6J mice received for 11 wk a HF diet, with or without 100 g WPI/L drinking water. Energy consumption and glucose and lipid metabolism were examined. WPI mice had lower rates of body weight gain and percent body fat and greater lean body mass, although energy consumption was unchanged. These results were consistent with WPI mice having higher basal metabolic rates, respiratory quotients, and hepatic mitochondrial respiration. Health implications for WPI were reflected in early biomarkers for fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Livers from WPI mice had significantly fewer hepatic lipid droplet numbers and less deposition of nonpolar lipids. Furthermore, WPI improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conclude that in mice receiving a HF diet, consumption of WPI results in higher basal metabolic rates and altered metabolism of dietary lipids. Because WPI mice had less hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance, WPI dietary supplements may be effective in slowing the development of fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/2011; 141(4):582-7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Certain liver diseases have been associated with depletion of glutathione (GSH), the major antioxidant in the liver. A recent report about Gclc(h/h) mice with a hepatocyte-specific ablation of Gclc (the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) has shown an essential role of GSH in hepatic function. Gclc(h/h) mice develop severe steatosis and die of liver failure within one month, due to ~95% depletion of hepatic GSH; mitochondria are the major affected organelles, displaying abnormal ultrastructure and impaired functioning. Gclc(h/h) mice were fed with L-N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 10 g/L) in drinking water, starting at postnatal day 18. Gclc(h/h) mice were rescued by use of NAC supplementation, and survived until adulthood. NAC replenished the mitochondrial GSH pool and attenuated mitochondrial damage, with accompanying diminished hepatic steatosis; however, abnormal liver biochemical tests, hepatocyte death, and hepatic oxidative stress persisted in the rescued mice. At 50 days of age, the liver from rescued Gclc(h/h) mice started to display characteristics of fibrosis and at age 120 days, macronodular cirrhosis was observed. Immunohistostaining for liver-specific markers as well as the expression profile of hepatic cytokines indicated that the repopulation of hepatocytes in the cirrhotic nodules involved the expansion of oval cells. Replenishment of mitochondrial GSH and restoration of mitochondrial function by NAC prevents mortality caused by the loss of hepatocyte GSH de novo synthesis, allowing steatosis to progress to a chronic stage. Thus, with NAC supplementation, Gclc(h/h) mice provide a model for the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
    Journal of Hepatology 12/2010; 53(6):1085-94. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mice and in humans, treatment with the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ) produces excessive weight gain, adiposity and secondary metabolic complications, including loss of glucose and insulin homeostasis. In mice consuming a high-fat (HF) diet, a similar phenotype develops, which is inhibited by the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP) and by the antioxidant tetrahydroindenoindole (THII). Therefore, we examined the ability of APAP and THII to prevent metabolic changes in mice receiving OLZ. C57BL/6J mice received either a normal diet or a HF diet, and were administered daily dosages of OLZ (3 mg kg(-1) body weight), alone or with APAP (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) or THII (4.5 mg kg(-1) body weight), for 10 weeks. Parameters of body composition and metabolism, including glucose and insulin homeostasis and oxidative stress, were examined. OLZ treatment doubled the HF diet-induced increases in body weight and percent body fat. These increases were partially prevented by both APAP and THII, although food consumption was constant in all groups. The THII protection was associated with an increase in whole body and mitochondrial respiration. OLZ also exacerbated, and both APAP and THII prevented, HF diet-induced loss of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. As increased body fat promotes insulin resistance by a pathway involving oxidative stress, we evaluated production of reactive oxygen and lipid peroxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT). HF diet caused an increase in lipid peroxidation, NADPH-dependent O(2) uptake and H(2)O(2) production, which were further exacerbated by OLZ. APAP, THII and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride, each abolished oxidative stress in WAT. We conclude that both APAP and THII intervene in the development of obesity and metabolic complications associated with OLZ treatment.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 06/2010; 34(6):970-9. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the role of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in pulmonary susceptibility to ozone toxicity, utilizing GSH deficient C57BL/6J mice that lack the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM). Gclm(-/-) knockout mice had 70% GSH depletion in the lung. Gclm(+/+) wild-type and Gclm(-/-) mice were exposed to either 0.3 ppm ozone or filtered air for 48h. Ozone-induced lung hyperpermeability, as measured by total protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, was surprisingly lower in Gclm(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Lung hyperpermeability did not correlate with the degree of neutrophilia or with inflammatory gene expression. Pulmonary antioxidant response to ozone, assessed by increased mRNA levels of metallothionein 1 and 2, alpha-tocopherol transporter protein, and solute carrier family 23 member 2 (sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter) was greater in Gclm(-/-) mice than in Gclm(+/+) mice. These results suggest that compensatory augmentation of antioxidant defenses in Gclm(-/-) mice may confer increased resistance to ozone-induced lung injury.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2010; 396(2):407-12. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokine-activated inhibitor of kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) is a key mediator of immune and inflammatory responses, but recent studies suggest that IKKbeta is also required for tissue homeostasis in physiopathological processes. Here we report a novel role for IKKbeta in maintenance of constitutive levels of the redox scavenger GSH. Inactivation of IKKbeta by genetic or pharmacological means results in low cellular GSH content and marked reduction of redox potential. Similar to Ikkbeta(-/-) cells, Tnfr1(-/-) and p65(-/-) cells are also GSH-deficient. As a consequence, cells deficient in IKKbeta signaling are extremely susceptible to toxicity caused by environmental and pharmacological agents, including oxidants, genotoxic agents, microtubule toxins, and arsenic. GSH biosynthesis depends on the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), consisting of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). We found that loss of IKKbeta signaling significantly reduces basal NF-kappaB activity and decreases binding of NF-kappaB to the promoters of Gclc and Gclm, leading to reduction of GCLC and GCLM expression. Conversely, overexpression of GCLC and GCLM in IKKbeta-null cells partially restores GSH content and prevents stress-induced cytotoxicity. We suggest that maintenance of GSH is a novel physiological role of the IKKbeta-NF-kappaB signaling cascade to prevent oxidative damage and preserve the functional integrity of the cells.
    Molecular pharmacology 02/2010; 77(5):784-92. · 4.53 Impact Factor
  • Howard G Shertzer
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    ABSTRACT: The protection against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 5 microg/kg body weight) toxicity by the antioxidant 4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-b]indole (THII) was examined in female C57BL/6J mice. TCDD produced increases in the levels of hepatic lipid-derived aldehydes, rates of mitochondrial production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, and the oxidation state of cytosolic GSH. In contrast, mitochondrial GSH increased in reduction state, correlating with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Systemically, TCDD lowered body weight gain, percentage body fat, and hepatic ATP levels, parameters prevented by concomitant administration of 100 microM THII in drinking water. However, TCDD-induced increases in mitochondrial respiration and decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity were not prevented by THII. These results suggest that TCDD-mediated oxidative stress was not responsible for changes in mitochondrial respiration or membrane fluidity. Furthermore, although TCDD produced a large increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, this was not associated with the poor gain in weight produced by TCDD.
    International Journal of Toxicology 11/2009; 29(1):40-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence is the irreversible entry of cells into growth arrest. Senescence of primary cells in culture has long been used as an in vitro model for aging. Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) controls the synthetic rate of the important cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The catalytic subunit of GCL, GCLC, is catalytically active and essential for life. By contrast the modifier subunit of GCL, GCLM, is dispensable in mice. Although it is recognized that GCLM increases the rate of GSH synthesis, its physiological role is unclear. Herein, we show that loss of Gclm leads to premature senescence of primary murine fibroblasts as characterized by: (a) diminished growth rate, (b) cell morphology consistent with senescence, (c) increases in senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and (d) cell cycle arrest at the G(1)/S and G(2)/M boundaries. These changes are accompanied by increased intracellular ROS, accumulation of DNA damage, and induction of p53 and p21 proteins. We also found that N-acetylcysteine increases intracellular GSH and prevents premature senescence in Gclm(-/-) cells. These results suggest that the control of GCLM, which in turn controls aspects of the cellular redox environment via GSH, is important in determining the replicative capacity of the cell.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2009; 47(4):410-8. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past, CYP1A1 protein was known to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; microsomes). More recently, CYP1A1 was shown also to be targeted to the inner mitochondrial membrane; mitochondrial import is dependent on NH(2)-terminal processing that exposes a cryptic targeting signal. It is interesting that microsomal and mitochondrial CYP1A1 enzymes exhibit different substrate specificities, electron donors, and inducer properties. To understand the physiological functions of microsomal versus mitochondrial CYP1A1, we have generated three knock-in lines by altering the CYP1A1 NH(2) terminus. Cyp1a1(mtt/mtt) mice encode an NH(2)-terminal 31-amino acid-truncated protein, deleting the ER-targeting signal and exposing the cryptic mitochondrial-targeting signal. Cyp1a1(mtp/mtp) mice encode a protein carrying L7N and L17N mutations; this mutant lacks the signal recognition particle (SRP)-binding site and subsequent ER-targeting, but requires proteolysis by a cytosolic peptidase for mitochondrial import. Cyp1a1(mc/mc) mice encode a microsomal protein having R34D and K39I mutations, which abolish the mitochondrial targeting signal. After dioxin or beta-naphthoflavone treatment of these mouse lines, the CYP1A1 protein was shown to be located in the mitochondria of the Cyp1a1(mtp/mtp) and Cyp1a1(mtt/mtt) lines and in microsomes of the Cyp1a1(mc/mc) line. To test for differences in function, we compared the response to dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). After 18 days of daily oral BaP, wild-type and Cyp1a1(mc/mc) mice were completely protected, whereas Cyp1a1(-/-) and Cyp1a1(mtp/mtp) mice showed striking toxicity and compensatory up-regulation of CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 mRNA in several tissues. Our data support the likelihood that it is the microsomal rather than mitochondrial CYP1A1 enzyme that protects against oral BaP toxicity.
    Molecular pharmacology 01/2009; 75(3):555-67. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important complication of liver surgery and transplantation. Mitochondrial function is central to this injury. To examine alterations in mitochondrial function during I/R, we assessed the mitochondrial proteome in C57Bl/6 mice. Proteomic analysis of liver mitochondria revealed 234 proteins with significantly altered expression after I/R. From these, 13 proteins with the greatest expression differences were identified. One of these proteins, peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), has never before been described in mitochondria. In hepatocytes from sham-operated mice, Prdx6 expression was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. After ischemia or I/R, Prdx6 expression disappeared from the cytoplasm and appeared in the mitochondria, suggesting mitochondrial trafficking. To explore the functional role of Prdx6 in hepatic I/R injury, wild-type and Prdx6-knockout mice were subjected to I/R injury. Prdx6-knockout mice had significantly more hepatocellular injury compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, the increased injury in Prdx6-knockout mice occurred despite reduced inflammation and was associated with increased mitochondrial generation of H(2)O(2) and dysfunction. The mitochondrial dysfunction appeared to be related to complex I of the electron transport chain. These data suggest that hepatocyte Prdx6 traffics to the mitochondria during I/R to limit mitochondrial dysfunction as a protective mechanism against hepatocellular injury.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 12/2008; 296(2):G266-74. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is characterized by elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) resulting from improper insulin regulation and/or insulin resistance. Herein we used female C57BL/6J mouse models for type 1 diabetes (streptozotocin [STZ] treatment) and type 2 diabetes (high-fat diet) to examine the ability of 4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-b]indole (THII) to intervene in the progression of diabetes. THII (100 microM in drinking water) significantly diminished and partially reversed the increase in FBG levels produced by STZ. After 10 weeks on a high-fat diet, mice had normal FBG levels, but exhibited fasting hyperinsulemia and loss of glucose tolerance. THII significantly diminished these changes in glucose and insulin. In isolated liver mitochondria, THII inhibited succinate-dependent H(2)O(2) production, while in white adipose tissue, THII inhibited NADPH oxidase-mediated H(2)O(2) production and lipid peroxidation. Without intervention, such oxidative processes might otherwise promote diabetogenesis via inflammatory pathways. THII also increased O(2) consumption and lowered respiratory quotient (CO(2) produced/O(2) consumed) in vivo, indicating a greater utilization of fat for metabolic fuel. Increased metabolic utilization of fat correlated with a decrease in the rate of body weight gain in THII-treated mice fed the high-fat diet. We conclude that THII may retard the progression of diabetes via multiple pathways, including the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory pathways.
    Chemico-biological interactions 10/2008; 177(1):71-80. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) develops from a pre-diabetic condition that is characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and is exacerbated by obesity. In this study, we compared the ability of over-the-counter analgesic drugs (OTCAD) [acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); naproxen (NAP); aspirin (ASA)], to protect against the development of a pre-diabetic state in mice fed a high fat diet. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, mice had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, but exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with 20 mg OTCADs/kg body weight improved glucose tolerance, with the order of efficacy, APAP=ASA>IBU, while NAP proved ineffective. Mice fed the high fat diet also exhibited increases in weight gain associated with an increase in body fat. OTCADs prevented in part this increase in body fat, in the order of efficacy, APAP=IBU>NAP=ASA. In isolated liver mitochondria, OTCADs inhibited succinate-dependent H2O2 production, while in white adipose tissue, APAP inhibited NADPH-oxidase mediated H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation. Thus, OTCADs diminish pro-oxidant processes that might otherwise exacerbate inflammation and a pre-diabetic state. We conclude that OTCADs, especially APAP and IBU, may be valuable tools to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes from a pre-diabetic condition.
    Biochemical pharmacology 07/2008; 76(2):216-24. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion is the most important element in the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Since oxidative stress is involved in the progressive loss of beta cell function, we evaluated the potential for the over-the-counter analgesic drug and antioxidant, acetaminophen (APAP), to intervene in the diabetogenic process. We used mouse models for type 1 diabetes (streptozotocin) and type 2 diabetes (high-fat diet) to examine the ability of APAP to intervene in the progression of diabetes. In C57BL/6J mice, streptozotocin caused a dosage dependent increase in fasting blood glucose (FBG), from 100 to >600mg/dl. Daily APAP (20mg/kg BW, gastric gavage), significantly prevented and partially reversed the increase in FBG levels produced by streptozotocin. After 10 weeks on a high-fat diet, mice developed fasting hyperinsulemia and impaired glucose tolerance compared to animals fed a control diet. APAP largely prevented these changes in insulin and glucose tolerance. Furthermore, APAP prevented most of the increase in body fat in mice fed the high-fat diet. One protective mechanism for APAP is suggested by studies using isolated liver mitochondria, where low micromolar concentrations abolished the production of reactive oxygen that might otherwise contribute to the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. These findings suggest that administration of APAP to mice, in a dosage used safely by humans, reduces the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen and concomitantly prevents the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in established animal models.
    Biochemical pharmacology 04/2008; 75(6):1402-10. · 4.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
460.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1981–2013
    • University of Cincinnati
      • • Center for Environmental Genetics
      • • Department of Environmental Health
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Touchstone Center for Diabetes
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • University of Bath
      • Department of Chemistry
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989
    • The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1988
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States