ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous-acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-quality synchronized audio recording for evaluating velopharyngeal closure. Design: IRB approved case series. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Patients: Three, healthy adult volunteers with normal speech pattern Interventions: MRI with simultaneous recorded audio files evaluating velopharyngeal closure. Main Outcome Measure: Precise imaging and audio coordination of specific phonatory tasks. Results: Synchronization of MRI and audio in all three adults. Conclusion: Our novel imaging and audio protocol provides simultaneous acquired MRI with synchronized high quality audio for evaluating velopharyngeal closure. This technique may provide the opportunity to improve diagnosis and surgical planning in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Key Words: magnetic resonance imaging, velopharyngeal insufficiency, pediatrics, cleft palate, speech.
The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 07/2011; · 0.82 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of injectable calcium hydroxylapatite for treatment of velopalatal (VP) insufficiency (VPI).
Observational case series of 7 patients treated with injectable calcium hydroxylapatite for VPI and followed for 10 to 24 months.
Academic pediatric otolaryngology practice.
Seven children aged 6 to 16 years with clinically significant VPI stemming from documented small VP gaps and who did not benefit from speech therapy were treated with calcium hydroxylapatite injection pharyngoplasty.
Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation with calcium hydroxylapatite.
Treatment success was defined as (1) speech improvement to the degree that parents felt no additional treatment was needed and (2) meeting postoperative nasometric measures. Treatment failure was defined as parental report of insufficient improvement in speech. Complications and additional treatments for VPI were noted.
There were no major complications in any of the 7 children injected with calcium hydroxylapatite. There was 1 minor complication: 1 patient was readmitted for postoperative pain and dehydration. Of the 7 patients, 4 experienced a satisfactory result for up to 17 months. Findings from postoperative nasometry were either within reference range, or less than 1 SD greater than the reference range, for all sounds. There were 3 treatment failures, each with preexisting craniofacial abnormality. Two patients in the group that failed treatment later underwent revision superior pharyngeal flap surgery without complication or hindrance from the calcium hydroxylapatite injection. Four children underwent subsequent magnetic resonance imaging evaluations up to 1 year after injection, which revealed no evidence of migration.
The data from this small series suggest that posterior pharyngeal wall injection with calcium hydroxylapatite is safe and may be effective in treating select patients with VPI. Further longitudinal studies, with a larger series of patients, examining the safety, efficacy, and patient selection are warranted to better understand the possible use of posterior pharyngeal wall injection of calcium hydroxylapatite in children with symptomatic VPI.
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 04/2008; 134(3):268-71. · 1.63 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To report our experience with all patients diagnosed with type 1 laryngeal cleft over a period of 3 years in our referral practice and to describe a functional diagnostic and management algorithm for children with this disorder.
A prospective longitudinal study in a tertiary care referral center. Twenty pediatric patients diagnosed with type 1 laryngeal cleft in a 3-year period (5/1/2002-5/1/2005) were included in this study. The incidence, presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions performed, and clinical outcomes were evaluated.
The incidence of type 1 laryngeal cleft was 7.6%. Among the 20 patients in this study, aspiration with thin liquids was the most common presenting symptom (18 patients, 90%). Three patients underwent modified barium swallow (MBS) alone, 3 patients underwent functional endoscopic evaluation of swallow (FEES) alone, and 11 patients underwent both MBS and FEES prior to intraoperative endoscopic evaluation. Four patients (20%) were successfully treated with conservative therapy. Sixteen patients (80%) required endoscopic surgical repair after failing a course of conservative measures. The success rate of surgical repair was 94% (15 out of 16 patients).
Type 1 laryngeal cleft can be challenging diagnostically. We propose a functional diagnostic and management algorithm that includes MBS, FEES, suspension laryngoscopy with bimanual interarytenoid palpation, and a trial of conservative therapy, as a way to diagnose and manage type 1 laryngeal cleft prior to consideration of surgical repair. If conservative therapy fails, then surgical intervention is indicated.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 01/2007; 70(12):2073-9. · 1.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This case series of three young children with type I laryngeal clefts is presented to demonstrate the utility of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in managing these patients. FEES revealed laryngeal penetration in a posterior to anterior direction in two patients and penetration from lateral to medial in the third patient. The type of laryngeal penetration helped in making the diagnosis of a type I cleft in two children and helped establish a safe feeding regiment in the third child. Patients with type I laryngeal clefts are often misdiagnosed, most likely resulting from the complex presentation of signs/symptoms and the difficulty of detecting small clefts with currently available tests. The pattern of laryngeal aspiration seen with FEES can help in diagnosis and management in this patient population.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 03/2006; 70(2):339-43. · 1.17 Impact Factor