A K Sethi

University College of Medical Sciences, Old Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (46)60.55 Total impact

  • M Mohta · P Harisinghani · A K Sethi · D Agarwal ·
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of phenylephrine might be improved by giving doses higher than that traditionally used (100 µg). This study compared the effects of three initial bolus doses of intravenous phenylephrine; 100 µg (group P100), 125 µg (group P125) and 150 µg (group P150), for the treatment of post-spinal hypotension in patients undergoing elective caesarean delivery. If hypotension was not corrected by this dose, additional boluses of 25 µg were given every minute. Further hypotensive episodes were treated with half the initial bolus dose, followed by 25 µg boluses, as required. Umbilical arterial and venous blood samples were obtained for blood gas analysis and Apgar scores recorded. One hundred and twenty subjects (40 per group) who developed post-spinal hypotension (75%) were included in this randomised, double blind trial. Although systolic blood pressure was higher at certain time-points after 150 µg phenylephrine, there were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of the first bolus of phenylephrine to treat hypotension (85%, 95% and 95% in groups P100, P125 and P150, respectively, P=0.215); the additional dose of phenylephrine after the first bolus (P=0.810); the number of additional boluses (P=0.318) or of hypotensive episodes (P=0.118). There were no significant differences in the number of patients developing reactive hypertension or bradycardia, in maternal side-effects or in neonatal outcomes. Although the study may have been underpowered, initial phenylephrine bolus doses of 100 µg, 125 µg and 150 µg did not significantly differ in efficacy to treat post-spinal hypotension in these patients.
    Anaesthesia and intensive care 01/2015; 43(1):74-80. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Ashok Kumar Sethi · Manisha Desai · Asha Tyagi · Surendra Kumar ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Combitube(®) and EasyTube™ enable effective ventilation whether placed in the trachea or esophagus and can be used in prehospital settings, as well as in "Cannot Ventilate Cannot Intubate" situations in the operating room. Whether they can be continued to provide general anesthesia, if required, is not established. Thus the efficacy of Combitube and EasyTube was evaluated and compared with the tracheal tube for general anesthesia using controlled ventilation. Combitube, EasyTube and tracheal tubes were used in 30 patients each to secure the airway in a randomized controlled manner. Ventilatory parameters were measured along with hemodynamic variables, and characteristics related to device placement. There was no significant difference in the various ventilatory parameters including minute ventilation requirement to maintain eucapnia amongst the three groups at any time point. There was no hypoxia or hypercarbia in any patient at any time. Placement of EasyTube was more difficult (P = 0.01) as compared with both Combitube and tracheal tube. EasyTube and Combitube resulted in higher incidence of minor trauma than with a tracheal tube (P = 0.00). Combitube and EasyTube may be continued for general anesthesia in patients undergoing elective nonlaparoscopic surgeries of moderate duration, if placed for airway maintenance. Given the secondary observations regarding placement characteristics of the airway devices, it, however cannot be concluded that the devices are a substitute for endotracheal tube for airway maintenance per se, unless specifically indicated.
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 11/2014; 30(4):526-532. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.142849
  • Rashmi Salhotra · Varun Arora · Chhavi Sarabpreet Sharma · Ashok Kumar Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: A 29 year old woman, a case of post burn contracture of the neck came for the release. McGrath video laryngoscope was chosen as the initial tool for airway management. Despite an excellent view, intubation failed due to lack of working airway space available after use of video laryngoscope. Successful intubation was achieved with Macintosh laryngoscope although the laryngoscopy view was Cormack and Lehane grade IIIa and percentage of glottic opening score was 25%. More research into the predictors of difficult laryngoscopy or intubation with the video laryngoscope needs to be done before recommending these devices for use in difficult airway scenarios.
    07/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.4038/slja.v22i2.6833
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    Asha Tyagi · Surendra Kumar · Rashmi Salhotra · Ashok Kumar Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Rescue strategies like changes in tilt of table are used to raise the level of an inadequate sensory block following intrathecal injection. Epidural volume extension (EVE) refers to an injection of normal saline through epidural catheter following an intrathecal block. It results in a rapid increase in the sensory level of subarachnoid block. Thus, it has been postulated that EVE may be used as a rescue strategy for an inadequate post-spinal sensory block. However, the minimum effective volume (MEV) of normal saline for EVE induced increase in level of spinal block has not been researched till date. We proposed to determine the MEV of normal saline required for EVE induced increase in post-spinal block sensory level. This prospective sequential allocation study was conducted in consenting adult males after institutional ethical committee approval scheduled for lower limb surgery under combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia, who had an inadequate level of sensory block. Herein, an inadequate level was defined as lower than T10 at 10 min after the intrathecal injection, with no ascent for two consecutive readings taken 2 min apart. The EVE was performed with normal saline injected through epidural catheter, and was considered successful if the level of sensory block increased by two or more dermatomal segments within 5 min of the injection. The volume of normal saline for EVE was decided by using the up-and-down method, with the first patient receiving 10 mL and a dosing interval of 1 mL in subsequent patients. The analysis was done using the formula of Dixon and Massey, which enabled calculation of the MEV with 95% CI. Quantitative parametric data is represented as mean ± SD and nonparametric data as median (range). The MEV of normal saline to raise the level of sensory block by two or more dermatomal segments within 5 min of EVE is 7.4 mL (95% CI: 5.5-9.9 mL).
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 04/2014; 30(2):228-32. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.130028
  • Deepti Agarwal · Manish Chopra · Medha Mohta · Ashok Kumar Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In elderly patients, use of adjuvant with small doses of local anesthetics is a preferred technique for spinal anesthesia for lower limb surgeries. This study tested the hypothesis that addition of small doses of clonidine augments the spinal block levels produced by hyperbaric bupivacaine in elderly without affecting the side-effects if any of clonidine in these patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Above 60 years male patients were allocated to three equal groups. Group C received 9 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine without clonidine while Group C15 and Group C30 received 15 μg and 30 μg clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine respectively for spinal anesthesia. Effect of clonidine on sensory block levels was the primary study outcome measure. Motor blockade and hemodynamic parameters were also studied. Results: A significantly higher median block levels were achieved in Group C15 (P < 0.001) and Group C30 (P = 0.015) than Group C. Highest median sensory block level, the mean times for sensory regression to T12 level and motor block regression were statistically significant between Groups C15 and C and between Groups C30 and C. On comparison of fall in systolic blood pressure trends, there was no significant difference in the clonidine groups as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In elderly patients, clonidine when used intrathecally in doses of 15 μg or 30 μg with bupivacaine, significantly potentiated the sensory block levels and duration of analgesia without affecting the trend of systolic blood pressure as compared to bupivacaine alone. Clonidine in doses of 30 μg however facilitated the ascent of sensory level block to unexpectedly higher dermatomes for a longer time.
    04/2014; 8(2):209-14. DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.130720
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    ABSTRACT: Search for an ideal premedicant drug for children is still on. A prospective, randomized trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of midazolam, triclofos and hydroxyzine as premedication in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II patients 2-8 years of age, scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgery were included. The patients were randomly divided into three groups M, T and H of 20 children each who received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, triclofos 75 mg/kg and hydroxyzine 0.5 mg/kg respectively, orally 60 min before surgery. The acceptability of drugs, level of sedation, anxiety during separation and on mask application was assessed. The acceptability of midazolam and hydroxyzine was better than triclofos. Hydroxyzine was found to have lesser sedative effect as compared to both midazolam and triclofos. No major adverse effects were observed. Midazolam was found to be a better premedicant in terms of sedation, anxiolysis and safety.
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 03/2014; 30(1):53-8. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.125704
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    ABSTRACT: Continuous thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) provides effective analgesia for unilateral multiple fractured ribs (MFR). However, prolonged infusion of local anaesthetic (LA) in high doses can predispose to risk of LA toxicity, which may be reduced by using safer drugs or drug combinations. This study was conducted to assess efficacy and safety of paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine and adrenaline with or without fentanyl to provide analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Thirty adults, having ≥3 unilateral MFR, with no significant trauma outside chest wall, were studied. All received bolus of 0.5% ropivacaine 0.3 ml/kg through paravertebral catheter, followed by either 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml in group RA or ropivacaine 0.2% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml and fentanyl 2 μg/ml in group RAF. Rescue analgesia was provided by IV morphine. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student t-test, Chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. After TPVB, VAS scores, respiratory rate and PEFR improved in both groups with no significant inter-group differences. Duration of ropivacaine infusion, morphine requirements, length of ICU and hospital stay, incidence of pulmonary complications and opioid-related side-effects were similar in both groups. Ropivacaine requirement was higher in group RA than group RAF. No patient showed signs of LA toxicity. Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml at 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr provided effective and safe analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Addition of fentanyl 2 μg/ml allowed reduction of ropivacaine concentration to 0.2% without decreasing efficacy or increasing opioid-related side-effects.
    Indian journal of anaesthesia 11/2013; 57(6):555-561. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.123327
  • Asha Tyagi · Vanya Chugh · Surendra Kumar · Ashok K Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the quality of research presentations made in conferences, its success or failure to be published in a peer-reviewed journal is a well-accepted marker. However, there is no data regarding the publication of research presentations made in Indian conferences of anesthesiology. The primary objective was to determine publication rate of research presented at the largest and best attended national conference in anesthesiology, the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists' Conference (ISACON), and also compare it with the rate from an international conference American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA annual meeting) held in the same year. All 363 abstracts presented as poster or podium presentations at the ISACON, and an equal number of randomly selected abstracts presented at ASA annual meeting were searched on Pubmed and Google Scholar for their full-text publications in peer-reviewed journals using a standardized search strategy. As secondary observations, abstracts were assessed for completeness by noting certain components central to research methodology. Also, changes between abstract of the presentation and published paper were noted with respect to certain components. The publication rate of presentations at ISACON and ASA meetings was 5% and 22%, respectively. The abstracts from ISACON lacked central components of research such as methods and statistical tests. The commonest change in the full-text publications as compared with the original abstract from both conferences was a change in authorship. Steps are required to augment full-text publication of Indian research, including a more rigorous peer review of abstracts submitted to ISACON to ensure their completeness.
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 04/2013; 29(2):216-20. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.111727

  • 10/2012; 1(4):422-429. DOI:10.14260/jemds/68
  • A Tyagi · C S Sharma · S Kumar · D K Sharma · AK Jain · AK Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Epidural volume extension is a technical modification of the combined spinal epidural block. It involves the epidural injection of normal saline or a small volume of local anaesthetic after an intrathecal injection, aiming to augment the post-spinal sensory level. Although the consequent sensory block augmentation has been adequately documented, the probable factors influencing epidural volume extension and its implications for clinical practice are not well defined. This article reviews published literature relating to the probable factors affecting epidural volume extension, its clinical implications, case reports of its successful clinical application and summarises its unexplored effects.
    Anaesthesia and intensive care 07/2012; 40(4):604-13. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Asha Tyagi · Surendra Kumar · Ashok Kumar Sethi · Upreet Dhaliwal ·
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    ABSTRACT: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student's stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky's 13-point sense of coherence scale. Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky's sense of coherence (SOC) scale. Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%), while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor-patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55) (25(th) percentile) was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60) in the survey. Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student's personality.
    Indian journal of anaesthesia 07/2012; 56(4):342-7. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.100814
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    ABSTRACT: The use of reduced intrathecal doses is advised for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. However, there are inadequate data regarding the minimum effective dose of intrathecal bupivacaine for cesarean delivery. Preeclampsia is caused by an endothelial dysfunction leading to generalized vasoconstriction. Whether this can offset the pregnancy-induced decrease in intrathecal dose requirement caused by epidural venous dilation and consequent thecal compression is not known. There are no data to evaluate the minimum effective dose of intrathecal drug for cesarean delivery in preeclamptic patients. This study aimed to determine the minimum effective dose represented by the ED50 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine for normotensive and severely preeclamptic patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. Combined spinal epidural anesthesia was administered using a standardized technique on 18 consecutively preeclamptic and normotensive patients, each carrying an otherwise uncomplicated singleton pregnancy. The dose of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine was decided by using the up-and-down method with an initial dose of 9 mg and dosing change of 1 mg. All patients received 20 μg of fentanyl intrathecally with bupivacaine. A successful block was defined as one that resulted in a sensory block to T4 level with modified Bromage score of 1 or 2 within 15 minutes of intrathecal injection. ED50 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine was identical in severely preeclamptic and normotensive parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery (4.7 mg; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-4.9 mg). When a combined-spinal epidural is planned in normotensive or severely preeclamptic patients for an elective cesarean delivery, the ED50 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine along with 20 μg of fentanyl is 4.7 mg.
    Regional anesthesia and pain medicine 01/2012; 37(1):40-4. DOI:10.1097/AAP.0b013e318233c5f5 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • M. Mohta · S.S. Janani · A.K. Sethi · D. Agarwal · A. Tyagi ·
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    ABSTRACT: (Anaesthesia. 2010;65(12):1200–5)
    Obstetric Anesthesia Digest 11/2011; 31(4):228–229. DOI:10.1097/01.aoa.0000406682.55400.8f
  • Asha Tyagi · Anil Kumar · Gautam Girotra · Ashok Kumar Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Previous trials have documented failure of block augmentation with epidural volume extension, when applied after the intrathecal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine was made in sitting position. However, there is no study comparing the effect of change in patient position during block performance, on the results of epidural volume extension. The study was conducted in two parts in American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section under regional anesthesia. In the first part, 28 patients were randomized to one of the two groups, depending on whether epidural volume extension was applied following the block in sitting (group SE) or lateral position (group LE) (n=14 each). In the second part of the study another 28 patients were recruited and randomized to receive the block in sitting (group S) or lateral (group L) position (n=14 each), without epidural volume extension. All patients received combined spinal epidural block using needle-through-needle technique with intrathecal injection of 9 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5%) and 10 μg fentanyl. Epidural volume extension was performed using 5 ml normal saline in groups SE and LE. In the first part of the study, the maximum sensory block level was higher in group LE vs. SE (P<0.05). In the second part of the study, no significant difference was seen in the maximum sensory level between group S and group L (P>0.05). If epidural volume extension is being applied with intention of rapid extension of sensory block when hyperbaric bupivacaine has been injected intrathecally, the combined spinal epidural block should be performed in lateral position rather than in the sitting position.
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 10/2011; 27(4):459-64. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.86577
  • M Mohta · L E Ophrii · D Agarwal · S Bhatt · A K Sethi · G Chilkoti ·

    Anaesthesia and intensive care 09/2011; 39(5):969-71. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    A Tyagi · R Kumar · A K Sethi · M Mohta ·
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    ABSTRACT: The potential advantages of pressure-controlled over volume-controlled ventilation during laparoscopic surgery have yet to be proven. We randomly assigned 42 patients with BMI <30 kg.m(-2) scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to receive either pressure- or volume-controlled ventilation. Compared with volume-controlled ventilation, pressure-controlled ventilation resulted in a significant decrease in mean (SD) peak airway pressure at 10 min (20.4 (2.7) vs 24.0 (4.7)cmH₂O, p=0.004) and 30 min (20.7 (3.0) vs 23.9 (4.9)cmH₂O, p=0.015) and an increase in mean airway pressure at 10 min (10.5 (0.9) vs 9.6 (1.1)cmH₂O, p=0.007) and 30 min (10.5 (1.1) vs 9.6 (1.2)cmH₂O, p=0.016) after the start of surgery. Gas exchange and haemodynamic stability were similar. We conclude that pressure-controlled ventilation is a safe alternative and offers some advantages to volume-controlled ventilation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in non-obese patients.
    Anaesthesia 06/2011; 66(6):503-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2011.06713.x · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    M Mohta · S Sai Janani · AK Sethi · D Agarwal · A Tyagi ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the effects of intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and mephentermine on the prevention of maternal hypotension and neonatal outcome in patients receiving spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Sixty ASA 1-2 patients with term, uncomplicated singleton pregnancy undergoing caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each, to receive a prophylactic intravenous infusion of either phenylephrine or mephentermine. The incidence of hypotension was statistically similar in the two groups. However, in patients receiving phenylephrine, 7 (23%) developed bradycardia and 6 (20%), reactive hypertension. Neonatal outcome, in terms of Apgar scores and umbilical artery pH, was similar in both the groups. To conclude, phenylephrine and mephentermine infusions are equally effective in preventing post spinal hypotension in patients undergoing caesarean section and are associated with a similar neonatal outcome.
    Anaesthesia 12/2010; 65(12):1200-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2010.06559.x · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Asha Tyagi · Utkarsh Gupta · Anil Kumar · Ashok Kumar Sethi · Medha Mohta ·
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if epidural volume extension and continued postoperative epidural injections prevent hearing loss associated with a 23-gauge (G) Quincke spinal needle. Prospective, double blinded trial. Operating rooms. 30 adult patients scheduled for lower abdominal or perineal surgery during spinal anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 15 each. All patients received subarachnoid injection with a 23-G Quincke needle. While patients in Group S received a single-shot spinal, Group E patients underwent epidural catheter placement one intervertebral space above. The epidural catheter was bolused with 10 mL of normal saline followed by postoperative epidural boluses of local anesthetic for analgesia as needed. Patients' auditory function was evaluated by pure tone audiometry (frequencies of 250-8,000 Hz) on the day before and two days after receiving the spinal anesthesia. Unilateral low-frequency hearing loss (500 Hz) was seen in Group S (P < 0.05). It was prevented by the repeated epidural injections as used in Group E. Following spinal anesthesia, epidural volume extension with 10 mL of normal saline followed by epidural local anesthetic boluses titrated to adequate postoperative analgesia (6-8 mL each time) prevents post-spinal hearing loss.
    Journal of clinical anesthesia 12/2010; 22(8):587-91. DOI:10.1016/j.jclinane.2010.03.004 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    D Agarwal · M Mohta · A Tyagi · AK Sethi ·
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    ABSTRACT: There are a number of case reports describing accidental subdural block during the performance of subarachnoid or epidural anaesthesia. However it appears that subdural drug deposition remains a poorly understood complication of neuraxial anaesthesia. The clinical presentation may often be attributed to other causes. Subdural injection of local anaesthetic can present as high sensory block, sometimes even involving the cranial nerves due to extension of the subdural space into the cranium. The block is disproportionate to the amount of drug injected, often with sparing of sympathetic and motor fibres. On the other hand, the subdural deposition can also lead to failure of the intended block. The variable presentation can be explained by the anatomy of this space. High suspicion in the presence of predisposing factors and early detection could prevent further complications. This review aims at increasing awareness amongst anaesthetists about inadvertent subdural block. It reviews the relevant anatomy, incidence, predisposing factors, presentation, diagnosis and management of unintentional subdural block during the performance of neuraxial anaesthesia.
    Anaesthesia and intensive care 11/2010; 38(1):20-6. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Asha Tyagi · Sathiya Seelan · Ashok K Sethi · Medha Mohta ·
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is considered a relative contraindication for epidural blockade. Recent evidence indicates that thoracic epidural blockade may be of benefit during sepsis by improving gut perfusion. This study was planned to evaluate whether combining thoracic epidural blockade with general anaesthesia could decrease the post-operative mortality and morbidity in patients with sepsis due to perforation peritonitis. This randomised non-blinded study included consenting adult patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II-III, undergoing emergency laparotomy for small intestinal perforation peritonitis. Severity of illness was evaluated using Mannheim Peritonitis Index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score and clinical indicators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Patients were randomised into two groups depending on the anaesthetic technique [general anaesthesia combined with thoracic epidural block (group GT) and general anaesthesia (group GA), n = 33 each. The thoracic block was extended from T5 to T10 using 0.125% bupivacaine in aliquots of 2-3 ml, with 50 μg fentanyl. Post-operatively, patients were followed for occurrence of any major morbidity till discharge from hospital, and 30-day mortality. 'Major morbidity' included development of organ failure. Post-operative markers for gut motility and perfusion, that is, time to passage of flatus, stools, resumption of oral feeds and occurrence of anastomotic leak were also observed. Sample size was calculated at power of 80% and α error of 0.05, aiming to detect a decrease of 50% in the incidence of post-operative major morbidity or mortality. Patients in the two groups were similar with respect to demographic profile and severity of sepsis. The number of patients with major morbidity or 30-day mortality were statistically similar between the two groups (group GT, 0/33; group GA 4/33; P = 0.114). A significantly shorter time to pass stools and resume oral feeds in group GT (4 ± 2 vs. 3 ± 1 days) (P = 0.006 and 0.012, respectively) and lesser incidence of anastomotic leak (0/33 vs. 4/33; P = 0.114) showed earlier recovery of gut motility and perfusion in that group. Use of intra-operative segmental thoracic epidural blockade performed in addition to general anaesthesia suggested some benefit in improving post-operative mortality or major morbidity, but the trend was not significant, perhaps due to the small sample size. There was, however, a significantly earlier return of bowel motility and earlier discharge from hospital.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 11/2010; 28(4):291-7. DOI:10.1097/EJA.0b013e3283416691 · 2.94 Impact Factor