[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is regarded as core competence to improve healthcare quality. In the current study, we investigated the EBP of six groups of professionals: physicians, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, technicians, and other allied healthcare personnel.
A structured questionnaire survey of regional hospitals throughout Taiwan was conducted by post in 2011. Questionnaires were mailed to all healthcare workers of 11 randomly selected hospitals. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors for implementing EBP.
In total, 6,160 returned questionnaires, including 645 from physicians, 4,206 from nurses, 430 from pharmacists, 179 from physical therapists, 537 from technicians, and 163 from other allied healthcare professionals, were valid for the analysis. Physicians and pharmacists were more aware of EBP than were the other professional groups (p < 0.001). Positive attitudes toward and beliefs in EBP were significantly lower among nurses than in the other groups (p < 0.001). Physicians had more sufficient knowledge and skills of EBP than did the other professionals (p < 0.001); in addition, they implemented EBP for clinical decision-making more often and perceived fewer personal barriers to EBP (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that EBP implementation was associated with the following characteristics of participants: EBP training, having a faculty position, academic degree, one's profession, and perceptions (beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills and barriers).
This study depicts various levels of EBP implementation among medical, nursing, pharmacological, and allied healthcare personnel. There were significant differences in their implementation of EBP. We observed that certain factors were associated with EBP implementation, including personal backgrounds and perceptions toward EBP. The data suggest that strategies for enhancing EBP implementation should differ for various groups of professionals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been proposed as a core competence to improve healthcare quality. The profile of EBP among respiratory therapists (RTs) has not been explored yet.
The current study was to investigate how RTs perceived the implementation of EBP.
A postal questionnaire survey was conducted for the RTs in Taiwan's regional hospitals during a four-month period in 2011.
A majority of RTs were aware of EBP (88.0%). Although most RTs hold a favorable impression of EBP, their knowledge of and skill in EBP implementation were deficient. Only half of RTs have implemented EBP for clinical service. Insufficient convenient kits (59.1%), deficient designated personnel (50.0%), and lack of time (45.5%) were major barriers to implementing EBP. RTs rated MEDLINE as the most commonly used evidence-based retrieval database, followed by UpToDate, the Cochrane Library, MD Consult, ProQuest, CINAHL, DynaMed, and Micromedex. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated sufficient skill in EBP and usage of online database as favorable factors for implementing EBP. In contrast, barriers of time constraint and insufficient knowledge were unfavorable factors for the implementation of EBP.
Our findings indicate that EBP is not widespread among RTs. We have identified important factors in relation to the implementation of EBP. The data provide valuable evidence in plotting strategies for disseminating EBP implementation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Competition and education are intimately related and can be combined in many ways. The role of competition in medical education of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has not been investigated. In order to enhance the dissemination and implementation of EBM in Taiwan, EBM competitions have been established among healthcare professionals. This study was to evaluate the impact of competition in EBM learning. METHODS: The EBM competition used PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) queries to examine participants' skills in framing an answerable question, literature search, critical appraisal and clinical application among interdisciplinary teams. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate EBM among participants in the years of 2009 and 2011. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire survey at three months prior to the competition and finished the same questionnaire right after the competition. RESULTS: Valid questionnaires were collected from 358 participants, included 162 physicians, 71 nurses, 101 pharmacists, and 24 other allied healthcare professionals. There were significant increases in participants' knowledge of and skills in EBM (p < 0.001). Their barriers to literature searching and forming answerable questions significantly decreased (p < 0.01). Furthermore, there were significant increases in their access to the evidence-based retrieval databases, including the Cochrane Library (p < 0.001), MD Consult (p < 0.001), ProQuest (p < 0.001), UpToDate (p = 0.001), CINAHL (p = 0.001), and MicroMedex (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrates a method that successfully enhanced the knowledge of, skills in, and behavior of EBM. The data suggest competition using PICO queries may serve as an effective way to facilitate the learning of EBM.
BMC Medical Education 05/2013; 13(1):66. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of 2007, the National Health Research Institutes has been promoting the dissemination of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The current study examined longitudinal trends of behaviors in how hospital-based physicians and nurses have searched for medical information during the spread of EBM. METHODS: Cross-sectional postal questionnaire surveys were conducted in nationally representative regional hospitals of Taiwan thrice in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Demographic data were gathered concerning gender, age, working experience, teaching appointment, academic degree, and administrative position. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors and changes over time. RESULTS: Data from physicians and nurses were collected in 2007 (n = 1156), 2009 (n = 2975), and 2011 (n = 3999). There were significant increases in the use of four Internet-based resources -- Web portals, online databases, electronic journals, and electronic books -- across the three survey years among physicians and nurses (p < 0.001). Access to textbooks and printed journals, however, did not change over the 4-year study period. In addition, there were significant relationships between the usage of Internet-based resources and users' characteristics. Age and faculty position were important predictors in relation to the usage among physicians and nurses, while academic degree served as a critical factor among nurses only. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians and nurses used a variety of sources to look for medical information. There was a steady increase in use of Internet-based resources during the diffusion period of EBM. The findings highlight the importance of the Internet as a prominent source of medical information for main healthcare professionals.
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 01/2013; 13(1):4. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs) to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. METHODS: The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. RESULTS: In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p<0.05), and training in equipment administration (p<0.001) and drug administration (p<0.005). In addition, language constraints were more common among missions to Central America (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the performance of clinical service between the two regions. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs.
BMC International Health and Human Rights 12/2012; 12(1):37. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the perceptions of short-term assignments of medical services among participating health care professionals dispatched from Taiwan to underdeveloped areas. Structured questionnaires were mailed to four groups of professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel) who had participated in any of 88 medical missions dispatched to 24 allied nations. A total of 278 returns were valid for analysis. Among them, 222 respondents reported that they had participated in just one overseas medical mission (79.9%). The majority of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses listed humanitarianism as their foremost incentive for participation. In contrast, public health personnel most frequently reported that they had been assigned to the mission abroad. Pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel most commonly stated that their top goal was health care; but physicians said that aiding Taiwan's diplomatic relations was their main motive. While all groups generally recognized language proficiency and cultural awareness as important for conducting successful short-term medical aid missions (STMMs), many members of groups did not rate their own capabilities in those area as sufficient, especially pharmacists (p < .001). Orientation for participants and training for local health workers were seen as relatively insufficient. In conclusion, there are considerable differences in the thoughts about STMMs across four key groups of heath personnel. The findings can help inform efforts to integrate evidence into the deployment of STMMs.
Evaluation & the Health Professions 10/2012; · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale, aims and objectives There are a variety of resources to obtain health information, but few studies have examined if main and allied health professionals prefer different methods. The current study was to investigate their information-searching behaviours. Methods A constructed questionnaire survey was conducted from January through April 2011 in nationwide regional hospitals of Taiwan. Questionnaires were mailed to main professionals (physicians and nurses) and allied professionals (pharmacists, physical therapists, technicians and others), with 6160 valid returns collected. Results Among all professional groups, the most commonly used resource for seeking health information was a Web portal, followed by colleague consultations and continuing education. Physicians more often accessed Internet-based professional resources (online databases, electronic journals and electronic books) than the other groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, physical therapists more often accessed printed resources (printed journals and textbooks) than the other specialists (P < 0.05). And nurses, physical therapists and technicians more often asked colleagues and used continuing education than the other groups (P < 0.01). The most commonly used online database was Micromedex for pharmacists and MEDLINE for physicians, technicians and physical therapists. Nurses more often accessed Chinese-language databases rather than English-language databases (P < 0.001). Conclusions This national survey depicts the information-searching pattern of various health professionals. There were significant differences between and within main and allied health professionals in their information searching. The data provide clinical implications for strategies to promote the accessing of evidence-based information.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 06/2012; · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Online databases have been increasingly used as a key resource in the search for health information. The current study aims to compare the use patterns of online databases between physicians and nurses. A structured questionnaire was mailed to physicians and nurses of randomly selected regional hospitals in Taiwan. Valid questionnaires with complete answers were collected from 544 physicians and 1,573 nurses from November 2008 to February 2009. In general, physicians made more use of online databases than nurses (p < 0.001). They more often accessed English-language online databases (p < 0.001), including MEDLINE, MD Consult, UpToDate, Cochrane Library and ProQuest. On the other hand, nurses accessed Chinese-language online databases more frequently than physicians (p < 0.001). Using a multivariate logistic regression model to adjust the personal characteristics, we found that nurses more often accessed Chinese-language online databases than physicians. Physicians used online databases to locate health information the most for clinical practice (76.6%), followed by instruction preparation (63.3%), and research (57.0%). Nevertheless, nurses used such databases more often for class assignments (66.4%) and clinical practice (55.8%). In conclusion, the behavior and motivation of access to online databases varied between physicians and nurses. Our findings provide evidence in the strategies to enhance the accessing of online databases.
Informatics for Health and Social Care 06/2012; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Cochrane Library is the most important online evidence retrieval database of systematic reviews. Since 2007, the National Health Research Institutes has offered Taiwan's regional hospitals free access to the Cochrane Library. This study investigated how these hospitals disseminate its utilisation.
The usage rate of Cochrane reviews was measured in the participating hospitals from January 2008 to December 2009. Thereafter, a questionnaire survey was conducted for each regional hospital disseminator at the beginning of 2010 to analyse their methods of disseminating Cochrane reviews.
The hospitals were stratified into three groups according to the relative rate of access: high (n=15), medium (n=16) and low (n=13). In comparison with the low-usage hospitals, the high-usage hospitals tended to assign a disseminator of evidence-based medicine to take charge of the dissemination of Cochrane reviews (p<0.001). In addition, the high-usage hospitals more often used the following six methods: providing relevant information via email (p<0.05), investing in early adopters (p<0.05), using assistance from designated personnel (p<0.05), highlighting the activity of early adopters (p<0.05), conducting workshops (p=0.001), and inviting experts to speak (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between high- and low-usage hospitals in organisational barriers.
This study has identified several helpful strategies used by Taiwan's hospitals to enhance dissemination of the Cochrane Library, including raising of awareness, active delivery of information, mentoring relationships, and educational training. The data suggest that disseminating evidence-based medicine simultaneously is a key element.
Postgraduate medical journal 05/2012; 88(1043):511-4. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common disorder during the neonatal period. Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) carries a potential for permanent neurological impairment. The current study analyzed possible etiologies leading to NH.
A retrospective cohort of neonates with total serum bilirubin (TSB) ≥ 20 mg/dL was surveyed from 1995 to 2007. Subjects with gestational ages < 34 weeks were excluded, leaving a total of 413 enrolled neonates.
The most common etiology in relation to marked NH was breast milk feeding (38.5%), followed by glucose-6-phospahate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (24.0%), ABO incompatibility (21.8%), extravascular hemorrhage (6.5%), Rh incompatibility (2.9%), bacterial infection (2.2%), hereditary spherocytosis (1.2%), dehydration (1.2%), diabetic mother (1.0%), polycythemia (0.7%), and gastrointestinal obstruction (0.7%). Other rare etiologies included Down syndrome, Chinese herb intake, asphyxia, galactosemia and congenital hypothyroidism. We did not identify any known cause in 63 neonates (15.3%). Neonates with more than one etiology tended to have higher TSB than subjects without a known etiology (p < 0.05). Anemia was more common in those with G6PD deficiency, blood group incompatibility, hereditary spherocytosis, and gastrointestinal obstruction. Neonates fed breast milk tended to have prolonged NH.
This study depicts the clinical features of marked NH. Breast milk feeding, G6PD deficiency and ABO incompatibility are common etiologies in Taiwan. Prolonged NH is more common in neonates fed breast milk than those who were given formula.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietitians can obtain nutrition-related information from a variety of sources. The current study was to investigate how registered dietitians look for nutritional information and perceive evidence-based nutrition (EBN). A postal questionnaire survey was conducted, with 67 valid returns collected. The most common informational sources were Web portals, followed by continuing education, colleague consultation, textbooks, online databases, electronic journals, printed journals, and electronic textbooks. Among the 11 commonly used online databases, dietitians preferred to access MEDLINE and three databases in Chinese. Sixty-two dietitians (92.5%) were aware of EBN. Although they had a favorable impression of EBN, their knowledge of and skills in EBN were relatively lacking. The most common barrier to the implementation of EBN was a lack of library resources in Chinese (58.1%), followed by deficient skill in critical appraisal (54.8%), insufficient convenient kits (53.2%), and time constraints (50.0%). In conclusion, most registered dietitians search for information through non-EBN resources. Language is an important element relevant to the implementation of EBN. These findings may help the refining of strategies to promote the accessing of evidence-based information.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2012; 21(4):630-7. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to identify the association between maternal diet with Chinese herbal medicines and prolonged jaundice of breast-fed infants. Healthy infants at 25 to 45 days of age were eligible for enrollment into this prospective study. Jaundice was defined as a transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) value ≥ 5 mg/dL. A questionnaire survey asking feeding type, stool pattern, and maternal diet was conducted at the time of TcB measurement. A total of 1148 infants were enrolled, including 151 formula-fed, 436 combination-fed, and 561 breast-fed infants. The incidences of jaundice were 4.0% in formula-fed infants, 15.1% in combination-fed infants, and 39.8% in breast-fed infants (P < 0.001). In addition, jaundice was noted in 37.1% of preterm infants and 25.0% of term infants (P < 0.001). Furthermore, jaundice was more common in breast-fed infants whose mothers did not consume the traditional Chinese herbal medicines than in breast-fed infants whose mothers did consume such medicines (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this cohort study has identified late-preterm birth and breast feeding as the contributory factors for prolonged jaundice of apparently well infants. The data indicate that postpartum diet with Chinese herbal medicines is associated with breast milk jaundice.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:150120. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to identify clinical, etiologic, and laboratory factors that potentiate adverse outcome of hyperbilirubinemia among term and late preterm neonates in logistic regression analysis. A retrospective cohort of infants with total serum bilirubin (TSB) ≥ 20 mg/dL from 1995 to 2007 was surveyed. Eighteen infants had adverse outcome. Controls were 270 infants without sequelae. Risks were significantly higher in infants with six etiologies causing hyperbilirubinemia: sepsis (odds ratio [OR] = 161.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.7 to 2242.8), gastrointestinal obstruction (OR = 39.2, 95% CI = 2.7 to 567.3), Rh incompatibility (OR = 31.0, 95% CI = 5.1 to 188.9), hereditary spherocytosis (OR = 19.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 235.5), ABO incompatibility (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.3 to 19.7), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 16.7). Infants with acute bilirubin encephalopathy were more likely to have adverse outcome than subjects without acute bilirubin encephalopathy (OR = 281.7, 95% CI = 25.8 to 3076.7). Adverse outcome was more common in infants with a positive direct Coombs test (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.3 to 15.4). Infants with hemoglobin < 10 g/dL tended to have adverse outcome more often than those with hemoglobin ≥ 13 g/dL (OR = 11.8, 95% CI = 3.3 to 42.9). Infants with TSB of 35 mg/dL or more (OR = 472.5, 95% CI = 47.8 to 4668.8) and of 30 to 34.9 mg/dL (OR = 9.5, 95% CI = 1.6 to 57.9) carry greater risks as compared with those with TSB of 20 to 24.9 mg/dL. In conclusion, this study quantitatively verified the potential risks for adverse outcome of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
American Journal of Perinatology 03/2011; 28(5):405-12. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) among hospital-based health professionals, since 2007 the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan has run a complex outreach program that includes information resource support and promotional campaigns.
The aim is to evaluate the impact of this outreach program on the diffusion of EBP.
Sixty-one regional hospitals in Taiwan.
A cross-sectional, pre- and post-survey of a nationally representative sample of physicians and nurses was carried out in 2007 and 2009 to examine views related to EBP including changes in beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills, perceived barriers and behaviors.
Physicians and nurses in the 2009 survey tended to have more knowledge and skill of EBP than their counterparts in the 2007 survey. They were less likely, however, to believe that EBP can improve patient care quality and to support the implementation of EBP. The prevalence of perceived barriers to EBP declined during the 2-year study period. In addition, physicians and nurses were more likely to access the online evidence retrieval databases according to the 2009 survey when compared with responses to the 2007 survey.
The knowledge of, skill in, and behavior regarding EBP have improved among physicians and nurses of regional hospitals in Taiwan after a promotion period of 2 years and they perceive fewer barriers to EBP. These data suggest that the multifaceted nationwide promotion program of the type conducted by NHRI succeeded in diffusion and implementation of EBP among professionals.
International Journal for Quality in Health Care 10/2010; 22(5):430-6. · 1.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of exchange transfusion (ET) via three different catheterization methods: femoral vein (FV); umbilical vein (UV); and umbilical artery/vein (UA/V).
A retrospective cohort of neonates who underwent ET for hyperbilirubinemia between 1996 and 2007 was surveyed. Subjects with gestational age < 33 wks were excluded.
Neonatal intensive care units in a tertiary referral hospital.
A total of 109 neonates with 128 ET procedures (33 via FV, 35 via UV, and 60 via UA/V routes) were analyzed.
There was no significant difference in the decline of total serum bilirubin between each group. When compared with the UA/V group, the transfusion rate was slower in the FV and UV groups (p < .001). Adverse events with clinical significance were more common in ET via the UA/V route than ET via the FV and UV routes (p < .05; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.0). Neonates with ET via the UA/V route tended to have more asymptomatic laboratory aberrances (p < .01; odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.6). There were no significant differences in the transfusion rate (p = .498) and adverse events (p = .822) between the FV and UV groups.
ET through the FV route is an effective and secure method for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia when the UV route is unavailable. Physicians should be cautious when using UA/V catheterization for ET.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 04/2010; 12(1):61-4. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has been widely investigated, few studies compare physicians and nurses on performance.
A structured questionnaire survey was used to investigate EBP among physicians and nurses in 61 regional hospitals of Taiwan. Valid postal questionnaires were collected from 605 physicians and 551 nurses during February to May 2007.
Physicians were more aware of EBP than nurses. Although both groups had high recognition of belief in and favorable attitudes toward EBP, their knowledge of and skill in EBP were relatively low. When compared with nurses, physicians were more willing to support the promotion of EBP implementations in clinical services. Physicians' knowledge and skills regarding the application of EBP principles were greater than nurses. Furthermore, physicians more often accessed the on-line evidence-retrieval databases, including the Cochrane Library. The most commonly ranked barriers to EBP applications for both groups included lack of designated personnel, lack of convenient kits, limited basic knowledge of EBP, and time. In general, nurses generated more barriers than physicians.
There were significant discrepancies between physicians and nurses in their awareness of, attitude toward, knowledge of, skill in, behavior toward, and barriers regarding EBP. In implementing EBP, strategies to overcome barriers and provide on-line evidence-retrieval systems should differ for physicians and nurses.
Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 01/2010; 30(2):132-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: This study analyzes the clinical features of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in infants with marked hyperbilirubinemia. We retrospectively assessed a cohort of 413 infants with peak total serum bilirubin (TSB) level >or=20 mg/dL from 1995 to 2007. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency was proportional to the level of peak TSB: 21.1% (81/383) in 20 mg/dL to 29.9 mg/dL, 45.5% (10/22) in 30 mg/dL to 39.9 mg/dL, and 100% (8/8) in >or=40 mg/dL. Male sex was more common in G6PD deficiency (75.8%). When compared with G6PD-normal infants, those with G6PD deficiency tended to have extreme hyperbilirubinemia (peak TSB level >or=25 mg/dL) and hemoglobin value<13 g/dL (P<0.001). Furthermore, mortality rate was significantly higher in G6PD-deficient infants (3.0%) than in the G6PD-normal counterparts (0.0%). Among 58 of the G6PD-deficient infants who were followed for more than 12 months, 4 developed the classic neurologic manifestations of kernicterus (6.6%). These findings show that G6PD deficiency is an important risk factor of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, death, and kernicterus.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 01/2010; 32(1):11-4. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Health care systems have recognized the importance of clinical effectiveness as demonstrated by systematic reviews (SRs). However, related efforts for developing SRs and its subsequent outcomes vary among countries, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region.
This study examines the development of SRs and compares the performance among 11 countries and regions in the Asia-Pacific in order to identify feasible promotion strategies for alliances in this part of the world.
We retrieved data on published SRs from PubMed by employing previously developed search strategies to examine the developing situation, not only in general but also in each country and region. We then compared the performance of each country with regard to SRs in terms of several predefined aspects. In addition to comparing the raw number of publications, this study also took into account other factors such as the total number of physicians and gross domestic product.
Among the 11 countries and regions included in the study, Australia set an outstanding example in SR activities. New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, and India also contributed significantly to this body of knowledge. Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan could improve by producing more Cochrane or non-Cochrane style SRs.
The findings reveal the importance of governmental support for the development of SRs. This includes providing the required resources such as research infrastructure, funding, and manpower. The principles and methods of SRs also need further promotion. In addition, it is crucial to bring together all research partners in the region, particularly those with already established Cochrane entities, to reduce unnecessary barriers to communication and to accelerate progress in SR research.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine. 01/2010; 2(2):79-86.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physicians have to deal with a broad range of medical problems in clinical practice, thus making the timely acquisition of relevant information is a critical skill for physicians to improve care quality. The current national study investigates how physicians search for medical information and analyses how they use online medical databases. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted, with 457 valid returns collected. Internet-based resources (Web portals, online databases, and electronic journals) were more often accessed by physicians to look for medical information than personal or paper ones. Almost universally, physicians have accessed online databases. MEDLINE was the most frequently accessed database. Furthermore, physicians under 50 years old tended to access online databases more often than their elder colleagues (OR = 5.27, 95% CI = 1.96-14.14 for age <35; OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.07-10.60 for ages 35-50). In addition, physicians with faculty position were more often accessing online databases (OR = 3.32; 95% CI = 1.75-6.30). Other factors - including clinical experience, administrative position, gender, academic degree, and professional specialty - carried no significant differences. These data may assist in determining how to promote the use of online evidence-based medical information for clinical services.
Informatics for Health and Social Care 10/2009; 34(3):127-35. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to investigate the gene expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under various concentrations and periods of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) gas exposure. Cultured HUVECs were exposed to 0, 20, and 80 ppm NO for 0, 24, and 48 h. With NO exposure for 24 h, ET-1 peptide levels decreased in both the 20 and 80 ppm groups. Thereafter, at 48 h, ET-1 peptide levels persistently decreased in the 20 ppm group, but significantly increased in the 80 ppm group. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the expression levels of eNOS protein and mRNA in the 80 ppm 48 h group. The data suggest a time- and dose-dependent effect of NO gas exposure on the gene expression of ET-1 and eNOS in HUVECs. A high concentration and long period of NO exposure induces an inhibition of eNOS and enhancement of ET-1, which could lead to vasoconstriction. These findings may have clinical implications in NO therapy regarding the optimal dose and period.
The Chinese journal of physiology 04/2009; 52(2):59-64. · 0.75 Impact Factor