Vidya Mehta

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (6)19.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: FOXG1 is a transcription factor that interacts with multiple signaling pathways and modulates neuronal differentiation in the telencephalon. Dysregulation of FOXG1 expression has been previously reported in medulloblastoma. In this study, we demonstrate a regional specific expression of FOXG1 and its colocalization with Nestin expression in the premigratory mitotically active (outer) layer of the external granular layer of the cerebellum. An inverse expression of the granular precursor cell markers, Math1 and Musashi1, in the inner nonmitotic migratory layer of the external granular layer and in the internal granular layer was observed. Furthermore, modulation of FOXG1 in the medulloblastoma cell line, DAOY, was associated with the induction of neuronal differentiation markers and significant changes in multiple signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Additionally, we observed enhanced survival in intracerebellar mice xenografts injected with DAOY cells bearing shFOXG1 constructs versus shLuciferase construct. Overall, these findings suggest that down-modulation of FOXG1 is a prerequisite for the onset of neuronal differentiation during cerebellar development and that a decrease of FOXG1 in medulloblastoma cells offers a survival advantage in mice. We propose that the disruption of signaling pathways that promote mature neuronal differentiation by overexpressed FOXG1 is a contributing event in the neoplastic transformation of cerebellar stem cells.
    Human pathology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2015.08.003 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Adult pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are rare and have an aggressive clinical course compared with pediatric patients. Constitutive Ras/RAF/MAPK signaling appears to be an important oncogenic event in sporadic PA. We evaluated clinical data and molecular profiles of adult PAs at our institution.Methods We identified 127 adult PAs in our institutional database. Cases with available tissue were tested for BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion/duplication (B-K fusion) by fluorescence in situ hybridization and submitted for mutation profiling using the Sequenom mutation profiling panel. Subgroup analyses were performed based on clinical and molecular data.ResultsThe majority of adult PAs are supratentorial. Twenty-two percent of cases had an initial pathologic diagnosis discordant with the diagnosis made at our institution. Recurrence was seen in 42% of cases, and 13% of patients died during follow-up. Adjuvant radiotherapy following surgical resection was associated with a statistically significant decrease in progression-free survival (P = .004). B-K fusion was identified in 20% (9 of 45) of patients but was not associated with outcome. No BRAF V600E mutations (0 of 40 tested) were found.Conclusion This was the largest single institution series of adult PA. A significant proportion of adult PAs follow an aggressive clinical course. Our results support a period of observation following biopsy or surgical resection. B-K fusion in adult PA does not influence outcome, and BRAF V600E mutation appears to be a very rare event. Further study of tumor biology and optimal treatment is needed, given a more aggressive clinical behavior.
    Neuro-Oncology 01/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.1093/neuonc/not246 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal tumor most often occurring in the posterior fossa in children younger than 3 years of age. Adult cases of AT/RT are very rare, and 27 cases with a diagnosis of either AT/RT or (malignant) rhabdoid tumor have been reported to date. The authors report an adult case of an AT/RT occurring in the pineal region with molecular cytogenetic and immunohistochemical confirmation. A 33-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of headache and blurred vision progressing to diplopia, and was admitted emergently due to deteriorating mental status. An MR image showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass involving the posterior third ventricle and pineal region with mild hydrocephalus. She underwent a subtotal resection of the tumor and was then treated with chemoradiation. Thirteen months after surgery, she was still alive with radiological evidence of recurrence/residual lesions. Histological sections showed epithelioid cellular sheets of rhabdoid tumor cells with scattered mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely and strongly positive for epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin, and showed focal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, pancytokeratin, and neurofilament protein. Loss of nuclear immunoreactivity for INI1 protein was observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed monosomy 22. Histologically, this tumor consisted exclusively of epithelioid tumor cells with rhabdoid features. The differential diagnoses include rhabdoid glioblastoma, metastatic carcinoma, and rhabdoid meningioma. Molecular testing to identify monosomy 22 or deletions of the chromosome 22q11 containing the INI1/hSNF5 gene and/or immunohistochemical staining with INI1 antibody is of great importance for the diagnosis of this tumor.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2009; 113(2):374-9. DOI:10.3171/2009.10.JNS09964 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant embryonal tumor of the cerebellum. Amplification of c-myc or N-myc is infrequently identified and, when present, is often associated with the large cell/anaplastic (LC/A) phenotype. The frequency of low-level copy gain of myc oncogenes and its relationship to prognosis of MB has not been explored. Archival cases of MB were histologically reviewed and classified into 3 major subtypes: classic, nodular, and LC/A. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the authors analyzed 58 cases with a pure histological subtype for the copy number (CN) of myc (c-myc and N-myc) oncogenes. Cases with > 5-fold CN were further analyzed using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. A > 5-fold myc CN was noted in 5 (20.8%) of 24 LC/A, 1 (5.3%) of 19 classic, and 2 (13.3%) of 15 nodular subtypes. In a significant number of tumors (14 [56%] of 24 LC/A, 13 [68%] of 19 classic, and 10 [67%] of 15 nodular MBs) the CN was > 2-fold but < 5-fold. High-level amplification, defined as > 10-fold CN, was only seen in the LC/A subtype (5 cases), although moderate amplification (> 5-fold but < 10-fold) could be detected in other histological subtypes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization readily detected most cases corresponding to tumors with > 5-fold amplicon CN by quantitative real-time PCR, and could detect all 5 cases with > 10-fold CN by quantitative real-time PCR. The group of patients with > 5-fold myc amplicon CN showed significantly shorter survival than those with < 5-fold CN (p = 0.045), independent of histological subtype. Since FISH could easily detect most cases in the moderate-to-high myc gene amplification (> 5-fold CN) group, the FISH assay has utility in detecting subsets of MB with poorer prognosis.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 02/2009; 3(1):61-5. DOI:10.3171/2008.10.PEDS08105 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The growth pattern of pilocytic astrocytoma (PAs) is unpredictable. Gene expression profiling has recently demonstrated an inverse relationship between myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and progression free survival (PFS) in PAs. We present here the pattern of expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers (ODMs) in PAs by immunohistochemistry and their correlation with PI and PFS. Sixty-four cases of PA were reviewed and representative sections were stained for Ki-67 and ODMs, including MBP, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-alpha), Olig-1, and Olig-2. Sections were graded semi-quantitatively for intensity (I: 0-3+) and extent (E: 0-4+) of staining. PI was expressed as a percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Immunoreactivity of MBP, PDGFR-alpha, Olig-1, and Olig-2 was observed in 84, 56, 97, and 75% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between MBP expression and PI (r (2) = .696, p = .014). A positive correlation was observed between PDGFR-alpha and PI (r (2) = .727, p = .011). Further analysis showed a significant difference in PFS between low expressors [I + E score < or = 3] and high expressors (I + E score > or = 4) for PDGFR-alpha with p < .001. Notably, there was a significant difference in PFS between high expressors of MBP and high expressors of PDGFR-alpha with p < .001. These results suggest that expression of ODMs, especially MBP and PDGFR-alpha, may identify two clinical subsets of PA. In addition, we have shown the expression of 4 different ODMs in PAs, which may support the possibility that PAs arise from oligodendrocyte progenitor/precursor cells probably similar to the O2A progenitor cells in the mouse.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 01/2008; 86(2):183-90. DOI:10.1007/s11060-007-9455-7 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastomas represent 20% of malignant brain tumors of childhood. Although, they show multiple, non-random genomic alterations, no common, early genetic event involving all histologic types of medulloblastomas have been described. Nineteen medulloblastomas were analyzed using chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (cCGH). Nine tumors with the most frequent number of genetic changes were further analyzed using bacterial artificial chromosome array CGH (aCGH). With aCGH, the frequency of gains and losses were higher than with cCGH. Chromosome 2p gains spanning 2p11-2p25 including N-myc locus, 2p24.1 were detected in 5/9 (55%) tumors while 14q12 gains were detected in 6/9 (67%) tumors. The 14q12 locus overlapped with the FOXGI gene locus. Quantitative real time PCR showed a 2-7-fold copy gain for FOXG1 in all the nine tumors. Protein expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in all histologic types. The expression of FOXG1 and p21cip1 showed an inverse relationship. FOXG1 copy gain (>2 to 21 folds) was seen in 93% (55/59) of a validating set of tumors and showed a positive correlation with protein expression (Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient = 0.276; P = 0.038) representing the first report of FOXG1 dysregulation in medulloblastoma. Modulation of FOXG1 expression in DAOY cell line using siRNA showed a modest decrease in proliferation with a 2-fold upregulation of p21cip1. Current reports indicate that FOXG1 represses TGF-beta induced expression of p21cip1 and cytostasis, and forms a transcriptional repressor complex with Notch signaling induced hes1. Our findings are consistent with a role for FOXG1 in the inhibition of TGF-beta induced cytostasis in medulloblastoma.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 12/2007; 85(2):111-22. DOI:10.1007/s11060-007-9394-3 · 3.07 Impact Factor