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Publications (11)22.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that a single nucleotide polymorphism rs11536889 in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TLR4 was associated with periodontitis. In this study the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression were investigated. Monocytes from subjects with the C/C genotype expressed higher levels of TLR4 on their surfaces than those from subjects with the other genotypes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the C/C and G/C subjects secreted higher levels of IL-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand, than the cells from the G/G subjects. However, there was no significant difference in TLR4 mRNA levels in PBMCs from the subjects with each genotype. After stimulation with tripalmitoylated CSK(4) (Pam(3)CSK(4)), TLR4 mRNA levels increased in PBMCs from both the C/C and G/G subjects, whereas TLR4 protein levels increased in PBMCs from the C/C but not G/G subjects. Transient transfection of a series of chimeric luciferase constructs revealed that a fragment of 3'-UTR containing rs11536889 G allele, but not C allele, suppressed luciferase activity induced by LPS or IL-6. Two microRNAs, hsa-miR-1236 and hsa-miR-642a, were predicted to bind to rs11536889 G allele. Inhibition of these microRNAs reversed the suppressed luciferase activity. These microRNA inhibitors also up-regulated endogenous TLR4 protein on THP-1 cells (the G/G genotype) after LPS stimulation. Furthermore, mutant microRNAs that bind to the C allele inhibited the luciferase activity of the construct containing the C allele. These results indicate that genetic variation of rs11536889 contributes to translational regulation of TLR4, possibly by binding to microRNAs.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 287(30):25163-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) is believed to be associated with aggressive periodontitis characterized by a rapid bone loss. A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has a similar structure to Escherichia coli LPS, and they are Toll-like receptor 4 agonists. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. To investigate the effects of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS on bone formation, we targeted BSP as a marker for osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. BSP mRNA levels were decreased by 0.1 µg/ml and increased by 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS at 6 h in osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. In transient transfection analyses, 0.1 µg/ml decreased and 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS increased luciferase activities of the construct (-116 to +60). Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the constructs showed that the effects of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS were mediated by a cAMP response element (CRE), a FGF2 response element (FRE), and a homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Tyrosine kinase, ERK1/2, and PI3-kinase/Akt participated in the effects of both 0.1 and 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS. The results of gel shift showed that 0.1 µg/ml decreased while 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS increased CRE-, FRE-, and HOX-binding protein complexes formation at 6 h, and revealed that 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS induced BSP transcription through CREB1, JunD, Fra2, c-Fos, Runx2, Dlx5, and Smad1 targeting those response elements. These studies therefore indicated that 0.1 µg/ml suppressed and 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS increased BSP gene transcription mediated through CRE, FRE, and HOX elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2012; 113(9):2822-34. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a noncollagenous protein of the extracellular matrix in mineralized connective tissues that has been implicated in the nucleation of hydroxyapatite. Forskolin (FSK), an activator of adenylate cyclase, increased the intracellular cAMP level, which stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent mitogen in many cell types, including osteoblasts. In human prostate cancer DU145 cells, FSK (1 μM) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased BSP and Runx2 mRNA and protein levels at 3 and 12h, respectively. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of DU145 cells with FSK (1 μM) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased the luciferase activities of constructs between -60LUC to -927LUC and -108LUC to -927LUC, including the human BSP gene promoter. Effects of FSK and FGF2 abrogated in constructs included 2bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2). Luciferase activities induced by FSK and FGF2 were blocked by protein kinase A and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FSK and FGF2 increased the binding of CRE1 and CRE2. CRE1-protein complexes were supershifted by phospho-CREB1 and c-Fos antibodies, and disrupted by CREB1, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, p300, Runx2, Dlx5 and Smad1 antibodies. CRE2-protein complexes were disrupted by CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, p300, Runx2, Dlx5 and Smad1 antibodies. These studies demonstrate that FSK and FGF2 stimulate BSP transcription in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by targeting the CRE1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    Gene 10/2010; 471(1-2):1-12. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaempferol is a typical flavonol-type flavonoid that is present in a variety of vegetables and fruits, and has a protective effect on postmenopausal bone loss. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone and could be crucial for osteoblast differentiation, bone matrix mineralization and tumor metastasis. In the present study we investigated the regulation of BSP transcription by kaempferol in rat osteoblast-like UMR106 cells, and the effect of kaempferol on new bone formation. Kaempferol (5 microM) increased BSP and Osterix mRNA levels at 12 h and up-regulated Runx2 mRNA expression at 6 h. Kaempferol increased luciferase activity of the construct pLUC3, which including the promoter sequence between nucleotides -116 to +60. Transcriptional stimulation by kaempferol abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the inverted CCAAT, CRE, and FRE elements. Gel shift analyses showed that kaempferol increased nuclear protein binding to CRE and FRE elements, whereas the CCAAT-protein complex did not change after kaempferol stimulation. Twelve daily injections of 5 microM kaempferol directly into the periosteum of parietal bones of newborn rats increased new bone formation. These data suggest that kaempferol increased BSP gene transcription mediated through inverted CCAAT, CRE, and FRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter, and could induce osteoblast activities in the early stage of bone formation.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 08/2010; 110(6):1342-55. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major mediator of inflammatory response. Periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS has quite different character from Escherichia coli LPS. E. coli LPS is agonist for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas P. gingivalis LPS worked as antagonist for TLR4. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. To investigate the effects of P. gingivalis LPS on BSP transcription, we used rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. BSP mRNA levels were decreased by 0.1 microg/ml and increased by 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS at 12 h. Results of luciferase assays showed that 0.1 microg/ml decreased and 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS increased BSP transcription in -116 to +60 BSP construct. The effects of P. gingivalis LPS were abrogated by double mutations in cAMP response element (CRE) and FGF2 response element (FRE). Tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, ERK1/2 inhibitor and antioxidant N-acetylcystein inhibited effects of P. gingivalis LPS. Protein kinase A inhibitor and PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitor only abolished the effect of 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS. Furthermore, 0.1 microg/ml LPS decreased the CRE- and FRE-protein complexes formation, whereas 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS increased the nuclear protein binding to CRE and FRE. ChIP assays revealed increased binding of CREB1, JunD, Fra2, Runx2, Dlx5, and Smad1 to a chromatin fragment containing the CRE and FRE by 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS. These studies therefore indicated that 0.1 microg/ml suppressed, and 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS increased BSP gene transcription mediated through CRE and FRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 07/2010; 110(4):823-33. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was originally discovered as a vasoconstrictor protein excreted by vascular endothelial cells. Recently, tumor-produced ET-1 has been considered to stimulate osteoblasts to form new bone, and to be an important mediator of osteoblastic bone metastasis. ET-1 has high affinity for two different membrane receptors, ET(A)R and ET(B)R, which are expressed by many types of cells including osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a phosphorylated and sulfated glycoprotein associated with mineralized connective tissues. To investigate the effects of ET-1 on BSP transcription, we used rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. Levels of BSP and osteopontin mRNA were increased at 12 h after treatment with ET-1 (10 ng/ml), and ET-1 at the same concentration induced luciferase activity of a -116 to +60 BSP promoter construct at 6 h. Transcriptional activity of -84BSPLUC, which contains the cAMP response element (CRE), was increased by ET-1. Furthermore, at 6 h, ET-1 (10 ng/ml) increased the binding of nuclear protein to CRE, the FGF2 response element (FRE) and the homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Antibodies against CREB1, JunD and Fra2 disrupted the formation of CRE-protein complexes, while antibodies against Runx2 and Dlx5 reduced the formation of FRE- and HOX-protein complexes. These findings indicate that ET-1 increases BSP transcription via the CRE, FRE and HOX sites in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Oral Science 06/2010; 52(2):221-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Butyric acid (sodium butyrate; BA) is an extracellular metabolite secreted from periodontopathic bacteria present in subgingival plaque. BA induces apoptosis of T and B cells, and acts as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, and may be crucial for osteoblast differentiation, bone matrix mineralization and tumor metastasis. In the present study we investigated the regulation of BSP transcription by BA in rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. At 12 h, BA (10(-4) M) increased the level of BSP mRNA, and enhanced the luciferase activity of the construct pLUC3, which includes the promoter sequence between nucleotides -116 and +60. Transcriptional stimulation by BA was abrogated in the pLUC3 construct which containing a 2-bp mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE). Gel shift analyses showed that BA increased the binding of nuclear protein to FRE. These data suggest that BA increases the transcription of the BSP gene mediated through FRE in the rat BSP gene promoter, and induces osteoblast activity in the early stage of bone formation.
    Journal of Oral Science 06/2010; 52(2):231-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic polyphosphate (poly(P)) is a biopolymer existing in almost all cells and tissues. The biological functions of poly(P) in micro-organisms have been extensively investigated in studies of poly(P) in eukaryotic cells, especially osteoblasts, and are increasing. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in bone mineralization, and is selectively expressed by differentiated osteoblasts. In this study, application of sodium phosphate glass type 25 (SPG25, 12.5 and 125 microM) increased BSP mRNA levels at 12 h in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. In transient transfection assay, 12.5 and 125 microM SPG25 increased luciferase activities of the constructs pLUC3 (-116 to +60), pLUC4 (-425 to +60), pLUC5 (-801 to +60) and pLUC6 (-938 to +60). Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the luciferase constructs showed that the effects of SPG25 were mediated by a FGF2 response element (FRE) and a homeodomain protein binding site (HOX). Luciferase activities induced by SPG25 were blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycine A, MAP kinase kinase inhibitor U0126, PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitor LY249002 and inorganic phosphate transport inhibitor foscarnet. Gel shift analyses showed that both 12.5 and 125 microM SPG25 increased nuclear protein binding to FRE and HOX elements. These studies demonstrate that SPG25 stimulates BSP transcription by targeting FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.
    Gene 03/2010; 452(2):79-86. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a major non-collagenous, extracellular matrix glycoprotein associated with mineralized tissues. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is recognized as a potent mitogen for a variety of mesenchymal cells. FGF2 produced by osteoblasts accumulates in the bone matrix and acts as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of osteoblasts. We previously reported that FGF2 regulates BSP gene transcription through the FGF2 response element (FRE) and activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site overlapping with the glucocorticoid response element in the rat BSP gene promoter. In the present study, FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels at 6 h in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of MCF7 cells with FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased the luciferase activity of the constructs between -84LUC and -927LUC. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FGF2 increased the binding of AP1 and CRE2. The CRE2- and AP1-protein complexes were disrupted by antibodies against CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, Fra2, p300 and Runx2. These studies demonstrate that FGF2 stimulates BSP transcription in MCF7 human breast cancer cells by targeting the AP1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Oral Science 01/2010; 52(1):125-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is produced by mesenchymal cells and released by platelets following aggregation and is synthesized by osteoblasts. In bone, PDGF stimulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. PDGF also increases bone resorption, most likely by increasing the number of osteoclasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, selectively expressed by differentiated osteoblast. To determine the molecular mechanisms PDGF regulation of human BSP gene transcription, we have analyzed the effects of PDGF-BB on osteoblast-like Saos2 and ROS17/2.8 cells. PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml) increased BSP mRNA and protein levels at 12 h in Saos2 cells, and induced BSP mRNA expression at 3 h, reached maximal at 12 h in ROS17/2.8 cells. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of Saos2 cells with PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activities of all constructs between -184LUC to -2672LUC including the human BSP gene promoter. Effects of PDGF-BB abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2), activator protein 1(3) (AP1(3)) and shear stress response element 1 (SSRE1). Luciferase activities induced by PDGF-BB were blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor H89 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that PDGF-BB increased binding of CRE1, CRE2, AP1(3) and SSRE1 elements. CRE1- and CRE2-protein complexes were supershifted by CREB1 and phospho-CREB1 antibodies. Notably, AP1(3)-protein complexes were supershifted by c-Fos and JunD, and disrupted by CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 antibodies. These studies, therefore, demonstrate that PDGF-BB stimulates human BSP transcription by targeting the CRE1, CRE2, AP1(3) and SSRE1 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    Gene 02/2009; 435(1-2):80-7. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. We previously reported that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) regulates BSP gene transcription via FGF2 response element (FRE) in the proximal promoter of rat BSP gene. We here report that activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site overlapping with glucocorticoid response element (GRE) AP1/GRE in the rat BSP gene promoter is another target of FGF2. Using the osteoblastic cell line ROS17/2.8, we determined that BSP mRNA levels increased by 10 ng/ml FGF2 at 6 and 12 h. Runx2 protein levels increased by FGF2 (10 ng/ml) at 3 h. Treatment of ROS17/2.8 cells with FGF2 (10 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activities of constructs including -116 to +60 and -938 to +60 of the rat BSP gene promoter. Effects of FGF2 abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the FRE and AP1/GRE elements. Luciferase activities induced by FGF2 were blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, src-tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 and MAP kinase kinase inhibitor U0126. Gel shift analyses showed that FGF2 increased binding of FRE and AP1/GRE elements. Notably, the AP1/GRE-protein complexes were supershifted by Smad1 and c-Fos antibodies, c-Jun and Dlx5 antibodies disrupted the complexes formation, on the other hand AP1/GRE-protein complexes did not change by Runx2 antibody. These studies demonstrate that FGF2 stimulates BSP gene transcription by targeting the FRE and AP1/GRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Gene 03/2008; 410(1):97-104. · 2.20 Impact Factor