[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is controversy on the preferred mode of delivery (vaginal delivery (VD) versus caesarean section (CS)) in preterm breech delivery in relation to neonatal outcome. While CS is supposed to be safer for the fetus, arguments against CS can be the increased risk of maternal morbidity, risks for future pregnancies, and costs. Moreover, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome occurs more frequently after CS compared to VD. In the past, several RCTs have been started on this subject, but they were all preliminary and stopped due to recruitment difficulties. As the Cochrane review of these RCT's reported on 116 women only, knowledge on the effectiveness of CS and VD can at present only be obtained from non-randomized studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of non-randomized studies that assessed the association between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality in women with preterm breech presentation. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library for articles comparing neonatal mortality after VD versus CS in preterm breech presentation (gestational age 25(+0) till 36(+6) weeks). Seven studies, involving a total of 3557 women, met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. The weighted risk of neonatal mortality was 3.8% in the CS group and 11.5% in the VD group (pooled RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.48-0.81)). We conclude that cohort studies indicate that CS reduces neonatal mortality as compared to VD.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 10/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women in the western world. Several studies have described the association between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and CVD in later life. Our aim was to compare postpartum cardiovascular risk factors in women who had a shorter and women who had a longer exposure to endothelial activation during their term hypertensive pregnancy.
We studied a subsample of women with pregnancy-induced hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term, who had participated in the randomized HYPITAT trial comparing induction of labour (IOL cohort) (n=110) or expectant monitoring (EM cohort) (n=91). We assessed, 2.5 years postpartum, cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, high sensitive CRP, micro-albumin and metabolic syndrome, and compared these risk factors between the induction and expectant groups.
The mean time from randomization to delivery was 3.3 days in the induction group and 10.3 days in the expectant group (p<.001), generating a difference in exposure of 7 days. After a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, the prevalence of hypertension (IOL 34%; EM 37%, p=.66) and metabolic syndrome (IOL 26%; EM 27%, p=1.0) was similar in both groups. Furthermore, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, lipids, HsCRP-levels and micro-albumin were all comparable between women who had induction of labour and those who had expectant monitoring.
In women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy at term, induction of labour does not affect the clinical and biochemical cardiovascular profile at 2.5 years postpartum.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 08/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heavy menstrual bleeding is an important health problem. Two frequently used therapies are the levonorgestrel intra-uterine system (LNG-IUS) and endometrial ablation. The LNG-IUS can be applied easily by the general practitioner, which saves costs, but has considerable failure rates. As an alternative, endometrial ablation is also very effective, but this treatment has to be performed by a gynaecologist. Due to lack of direct comparison of LNG-IUS with endometrial ablation, there is no evidence based preferred advice for the use of one of these treatment possibilities.Method/designA multicenter randomised controlled trial, organized in a network infrastructure in the Netherlands in which general practitioners and gynaecologists collaborate.Women >= 34 years with heavy menstrual bleeding, a Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart (PBAC) score exceeding 150 points and no future child wish can participate in the trial. After informed consent, women will be randomised to a strategy starting with a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system or a strategy starting with endometrial ablation.The primary outcome is the PBAC score at 24 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes are patient satisfaction, complications, number of re-interventions, menstrual bleeding pattern, quality of life, sexual function, sick leave and costs. As predictors of effect of intervention we also meaure level of coagulation factors.DiscussonThis study, considering both effectiveness and cost effectiveness of LNG-IUS versus endometrial ablation may well improve care for women with heavy menstrual bleeding.Trial registrationDutch trial register, number NTR2984.
BMC Women s Health 08/2013; 13(1):32. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Lifestyle interventions in obese pregnant women reduce adverse maternal outcomes of pregnancy. However, the association between weight change due to interventions and the actual reduction in complications is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and the rate of pregnancy complications.Study Design The authors included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of lifestyle interventions during pregnancy on GWG and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. For each outcome they assessed the association between GWG and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.Results They analyzed data of 23 RCTs (4,990 women). Increased GWG was associated with a nonsignificant increase in the incidence of preeclampsia (PE) (0.2% per gained kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5 to 0.9%, p > 0.05), gestational diabetes (GDM) (0.3% per gained kg, 95% CI -0.5 to 1.0%, p > 0.05), and induction of labor (IOL) (1.5% per gained kg, 95% CI -0.9 to 3.9%, p > 0.05).Conclusions Reduction in GWG due to lifestyle interventions in pregnancy had statistically nonsignificant effects on lowering the incidence of PE, GDM, and IOL. Possibly, the beneficial effect of lifestyle interventions on pregnancy outcomes is due to an effect independent of the reduction of GWG.
American Journal of Perinatology 08/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the evaluation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers for personalizing cancer care. The literature on the trial designs for evaluation of these markers is diverse and there is no consensus in the classification or nomenclature. We set this study to review the literature systematically, to identify the proposed trial designs and to develop a classification scheme. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Methodology Register and MathSciNet up to January 2013 for articles describing these trial designs. In each eligible article we identified the trial designs presented and extracted the term used for labeling the design, components of patient flow (marker status of eligible participants, intervention, and comparator), study questions and analysis plan. Our search strategy resulted in 88 eligible articles, wherein 315 labels had been used by authors in presenting trial designs; 134 of these were unique. By analyzing patient flow components we could classify the 134 unique design labels into four basic patient flow categories, which we labeled with the most frequently used term: single-arm, enrichment, randomize-all, and biomarker-strategy designs. A fifth category consists of combinations of the other four patient flow categories. Our review demonstrated that a considerable number of labels has been proposed for trial designs evaluating prognostic and predictive biomarkers which, based on patient flow elements, can be classified into five basic categories. The classification system proposed here could help clinicians and researchers in designing and interpreting trials evaluating predictive biomarkers, and could reduce confusion in labeling and reporting.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is associated with major morbidity and mortality in women in the Western world. Prediction of an individual cardiovascular disease risk in young women is difficult. It is known that women with hypertensive pregnancy complications have an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease in later life and pregnancy might be used as a cardiovascular stress test to identify women who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study we assess the possibility of long term cardiovascular risk prediction in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term. METHODS: In a longitudinal follow-up study, between June 2008 and November 2010, 300 women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term (HTP cohort) and 94 women with a history of normotensive pregnancies at term (NTP cohort) were included. From the cardiovascular risk status that was known two years after index pregnancy we calculated individual (extrapolated) 10-and 30-year cardiovascular event risks using four different risk prediction models including the Framingham risk score, the SCORE score and the Reynolds risk score. Continuous data were analyzed using the Student's T test and Mann--Whitney U test and categorical data by the Chi-squared test. A poisson regression analysis was performed to calculate the incidence risk ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the different cardiovascular risk estimation categories. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, HTP women had significantly higher mean (SD) extrapolated 10-year cardiovascular event risks (HTP 7.2% (3.7); NTP 4.4% (1.9) (p<.001, IRR 5.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 19)) and 30-year cardiovascular event risks (HTP 11% (7.6); NTP 7.3% (3.5) (p<.001, IRR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.5)) as compared to NTP women calculated by the Framingham risk scores. The SCORE score and the Reynolds risk score showed similar significant results. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at term have higher predicted (extrapolated) 10-year and 30-year cardiovascular event risks as compared to women with a history of uncomplicated pregnancies. Further large prospective studies have to evaluate whether hypertensive pregnancy disorders have to be included as an independent variable in cardiovascular risk prediction models for women.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 06/2013; 13(1):126. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving diabetic pregnancy outcome is a goal shared by many involved specialists. Despite proper glucose control, the incidence of maternal and perinatal complications is very high, including a high risk for pre-eclampsia, congenital malformations, perinatal mortality and macrosomia. To improve outcome, not only collaborating in the doctor's office is required but also participation in critical evaluation of our treatment strategies by means of randomised clinical trials.
The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 06/2013; 71(5):270-273. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of antenatal sonographical measurement of the lower uterine segment (LUS) thickness in the prediction of the risk of uterine rupture during a trial of labour (TOL) in women with a previous Caesarean section (CS). METHODS: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to identify articles published on the subject of sonographic LUS measurement and the occurrence of a uterine defect after delivery. Four independent researchers performed identification of papers and data extraction. The selected studies were scored on methodological quality, sensitivity and specificity of measurement of LUS thickness in the prediction of a uterine defect were calculated. We performed bivariate meta-analysis to estimate summary Receiver Operating Characteristic (sROC) curves. RESULTS: We included 21 studies with a total of 2,239 analysed patients. The quality of the included studies was good, although comparison was difficult because of heterogeneity. The estimated sROC curves showed that measurement of LUS thickness seems promising in the prediction of the occurrence of uterine defects (dehiscence and rupture) in the uterine wall. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of myometrial LUS thickness for cut-offs between 0.6-2.0 mm was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.87) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.82 to 0.97), cut-offs between 2.1-4.0 reached a sensitivity and specificity of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.81 to 0.98) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.26 to 0.90). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of full LUS thickness for cut-offs between 2.0-3.0 mm was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.77) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80 to 0.96), cut-offs between 3.1-5.1 reached a sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis gives support to the use of the antenatal LUS measurements in the prediction of a uterine defect during trial of labour. Clinical applicability should be assessed in prospective observational studies using a standardized method of measurement.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of preference and treatment allocation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients in the randomized EMMY trial of hysterectomy versus uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. STUDY DESIGN: We invited 349 patients eligible for trial participation, of which 177 agreed to participate (the 'randomized group'). Within the randomized group, patients were allocated to. UAE (n=88) or hysterectomy (n=89). The remaining 172 patients refused randomization and received the treatment of their preference (varying from hysterectomy to no treatment at all), of which 103 patients agreed to fill in questionnaires (the 'preference group'). Patients' treatment preferences and HRQOL were assessed at baseline and the patients were prospectively followed to evaluate HRQOL at 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: At baseline, most patients in the randomized group preferred UAE: 115/177 (65%). In the preference group most patients preferred hysterectomy: 100/172 (58%). At 12 months there was no effect of having had the preferred treatment on HRQOL, neither in the randomized nor in the preference group. The randomized group improved significantly in both mental and physical health, compared to baseline. In the preference group, only mental health improved compared to baseline, while physical health did not improve significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial comparing UAE and hysterectomy for symptomatic fibroids, the pre-randomization preference for a specific treatment did not affect HRQOL. Trial participants improved better on physical HRQOL than women who refused to participate.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 03/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: What are the dropout rates in lifestyle intervention programs (LIPs) for overweight and obese infertile women and can intervention- or patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout be identified in these women? SUMMARY ANSWER: The median dropout rate was 24% in overweight and obese infertile women who participated in a LIP; clinical useful intervention or patient-related factors associated with dropout could not be identified. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Overweight and obese infertile women might improve their chance of conception when they improve their lifestyle and lose weight. Dropout from LIPs reduces the chance of losing considerable weight and is therefore considered to be an important limiting factor of the success of LIPs. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This systematic review included 15 studies published between January 1980 and December 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The included studies investigated the effect of LIPs for overweight and obese infertile women with infertility. From these studies, dropout rates and intervention- and patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout, as well as weight loss and pregnancy rates, were recorded. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: There were 15 studies identified, of which 10 reported dropout rates. The median dropout rate was 24% (range: 0-31%). Four studies reported baseline characteristics of women who dropped out, but modifiable predictors of dropout could not be identified. Weight loss and pregnancy rates were lower in women who dropped out than in women who completed the LIPs. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: There were limited numbers of studies investigating patient-related factors associated with dropout. The heterogeneity in the studies precluded us from drawing firm conclusions on the relation between the type of intervention and dropout. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Dropout from LIPs is a major drawback because it predisposes to less weight loss and lower pregnancy rates. Identification of predictors of dropout is needed to identify overweight and obese infertile women who are prone for dropout. These women might benefit from extra support and monitoring, to potentially increasing adherence rates, weight loss and pregnancy chances. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): M.A.Q.M. was supported by a research grant from the Dutch Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The department of obstetrics and gynaecology received research grants from Merck Sharpe and Dohme BV, feering pharmaceuticals, Merck Serono, the Netherlands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term, 2.5 years after pregnancy.
STUDY DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study in the Netherlands between June 2008 and November 2010, cardiovascular risk factors were compared between women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term (HTP cohort, n=306) and women with a history of normotensive pregnancies at term (NTP cohort, n=99). HTP women had participated in a randomized, longitudinal trial assessing the effectiveness of induction of labor in women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term. All women were assessed 2.5 years after pregnancy for blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, high sensitive CRP and micro-albumin and metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, hypertension (HTP, 34%; NTP, 1%; P<.001) and metabolic syndrome (HTP, 25%; NTP, 5%; P<.001) were more prevalent in HTP women compared with NTP women. HTP women had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher BMI and waist circumference. Glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high sensitive CRP-levels were significantly higher and HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in HTP women.
CONCLUSIONS: In women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term hypertension and metabolic syndrome are more common, and they have higher levels of biochemical cardiovascular risk factors 2.5 years after pregnancy.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 02/2013; · 3.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: Can mixture survival models help distinguish infertility from subfertility in couples with an unexplained unfulfilled child wish? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mixture models estimated that 47% of the couples were infertile; female age and previous pregnancy were significantly related to infertility, whereas duration of child wish was associated with a longer time to pregnancy for subfertile couples. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: To differentiate between couples who require assisted conception and couples who still have good chances of natural, i.e. unassisted, conception, several prediction models of natural conception have been developed. Prognostic factors in these models are usually assessed by Cox proportional hazard models that cannot differentiate between couples with an unfulfilled child wish who are subfertile, i.e. have reduced ability to conceive naturally, and couples who are really infertile, i.e. are completely unable to conceive naturally. We evaluated whether a mixture survival model can make such a distinction. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Consecutive couples presenting at the fertility clinics of 38 centres in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004 joined a prospective cohort study. Of the 7860 couples in the cohort, 3917 couples met our inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 219 days, with a maximum of 5 years. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, METHODS: Couples had to present with an unexplained cause of an unfulfilled child wish. A mixture model was used to estimate the proportion of couples who were infertile and the time to pregnancy for the subfertile couples. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: During the follow-up, 794 couples conceived naturally. The mixture model estimated that 47% [95% confidence interval (CI): 33-56%] of couples were infertile, despite the absence of objective factors indicating a cause for infertility. Of the evaluated prognostic factors, female age, duration of child wish, previous pregnancy, semen quality, BMI and cycle length, female age [odds ratio (OR): 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19] and previous pregnancy (0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.67) were significant predictors of infertility. Among subfertile couples, a longer duration of a child wish (FFR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.61-0.85) was a significant prognostic factor for time to pregnancy. In the Cox models, all variables except BMI were significant predictors of time to pregnancy. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The mixture model had limited power due to a low number of couples at the end of the follow-up period. Mixture model analyses on external, long-term follow-up data are necessary to validate our results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Mixture models could be a useful tool in selecting couples who require assisted reproductive technology because the effects of prognostic factors can be subdivided into effects on the fraction of infertile couples and effects on the time to pregnancy for subfertile couples, which is not possible in conventional models. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by grant 945/12/002 from ZonMw, the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, The Hague, the Netherlands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: It is unclear which technique for skin closure should be used at caesarean section (CS) in order to get the best cosmetic result. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the cosmetic result of different techniques for skin closure after CS. A two-center single-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in The Netherlands. Women undergoing their first CS were eligible for the trial. In a factorial design, women were randomly allocated to (1) closure of the fat layer versus non-closure and (2) staples or intracutaneous stitches for skin closure. The cosmetic result was assessed using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). RESULTS: We included 124 women. In the stitches group 63% [39/62] women judged the scar as satisfactory, versus 63% [38/60] in the staples group (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.64-1.6). When the subcutaneous fat layer was closed, 52% [33/63] of the women scored the scar as satisfactory, versus 75% [44/59] of the women in whom the fat layer was not separately closed (RR 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.89). This effect was independent of the subcutaneous thickness (p-value for interaction 0.64). Of the secondary outcomes, subcutaneous closure of the fat layer was associated with a longer admission time (median 4 days; IQR 3-5 versus 3 days; IQR 3-5, p-value 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: The choice of staples or stitches does not affect the cosmetic result after a caesarean section. Closing of the subcutaneous fat layer, however, negatively affects the cosmetic result and is associated with a longer admission time.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 08/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubal patency tests are routinely performed in the diagnostic work-up of subfertile patients, but it is unknown whether these diagnostic tests add value beyond the information obtained by medical history taking and findings at physical examination. We used individual patient data meta-analysis to assess this question.
We approached authors of primary studies for data sets containing information on patient characteristics and results from tubal patency tests, such as Chlamydia antibody test (CAT), hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy. We used logistic regression to create models that predict tubal pathology from medical history and physical examination alone, as well as models in which the results of tubal patency tests are integrated in the patient characteristics model. Laparoscopy was considered to be the reference test.
We obtained data from four studies reporting on 4883 women. The duration of subfertility, number of previous pregnancies and a history of previous pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), pelvic surgery or Chlamydia infection qualified for the patient characteristics model. This model showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.65]. For any tubal pathology, the addition of HSG significantly improved the predictive performance to an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI 0.73-0.76) (P < 0.001). For bilateral tubal pathology, the addition of both CAT and HSG increased the predictive performance to an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI 0.74-0.79).
In the work-up for subfertile couples, the combination of patient characteristics with CAT and HSG results gives the best diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of bilateral tubal pathology.
Human Reproduction 07/2012; 27(10):2979-90. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of a CVD event in women who have had a hypertensive disorder in one of their previous pregnancies. These data also suggest that these increased risks are associated with severity and time of onset of pre-eclampsia. Risk factors for CVD have not yet been compared between women who experienced early versus late and mild versus severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
In this study we compared classic CVD risk factors of postpartum women with previous early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE), late onset pre-eclampsia (LOPE) and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
A total of 81 women with previous EOPE (delivery required ⩽34 weeks), 76 with LOPE (delivery ⩾36 weeks) and 229 with PIH were included along with 79 healthy controls. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models in PASW statistics 17.0, SPSS Inc.
Adjusted means of blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose levels and LDL levels were significantly increased after all hypertensive disorders of pregnancy compared to controls. This increase of CVD risk factors was significantly correlated with severity and time of onset of the disease (Table 1). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (BMI > 30 kg/m2 and ⩾2 of the following; triglycerides ⩾ 150 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol ⩾50 mg/dl, systolic blood pressure ⩾130 or diastolic blood pressure ⩾85 and fasting plasma glucose levels ⩾100 mg/dl) did not differ between the study groups; women who had PIH had the highest number of components of the metabolic syndrome ().
These results further establish the predisposition to CVD in women with previous pre-eclampsia or PIH. EOPE is associated with a more pronounced CVD risk factor profile than LOPE or PIH, which may explain the previously described higher CVD event risk.
Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women's Cardiovascular Health. 07/2012; 2(3):188.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Around 50% of women of childbearing age are either overweight [body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m(2)] or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). The antenatal period provides an opportunity to manage weight in pregnancy. This has the potential to reduce maternal and fetal complications associated with excess weight gain and obesity.
To evaluate the effectiveness of dietary and lifestyle interventions in reducing or preventing obesity in pregnancy and to assess the beneficial and adverse effects of the interventions on obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes.
Major electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and Science Citation Index were searched (1950 until March 2011) to identify relevant citations. Language restrictions were not applied.
Systematic reviews of the effectiveness and harm of the interventions were carried out using a methodology in line with current recommendations. Studies that evaluated any dietary, physical activity or mixed approach intervention with the potential to influence weight change in pregnancy were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using accepted contemporary standards. Results were summarised as pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data. Continuous data were summarised as mean difference (MD) with standard deviation. The quality of the overall evidence synthesised for each outcome was summarised using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and reported graphically as a two-dimensional chart.
A total of 88 studies (40 randomised and 48 non-randomised and observational studies, involving 182,139 women) evaluated the effect of weight management interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. Twenty-six studies involving 468,858 women reported the adverse effect of the interventions. Meta-analysis of 30 RCTs (4503 women) showed a reduction in weight gain in the intervention group of 0.97 kg compared with the control group (95% CI -1.60 kg to -0.34 kg; p = 0.003). Weight management interventions overall in pregnancy resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.92; p = 0.008) and shoulder dystocia (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.70; p = 0.02). Dietary interventions in pregnancy resulted in a significant decrease in the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.85; p = 0.0009), gestational hypertension (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.88; p = 0.03) and preterm birth (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.96; p = 0.03) and showed a trend in reducing the incidence of gestational diabetes (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03). There were no differences in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age infants between the groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.29). There were no significant maternal or fetal adverse effects observed for the interventions in the included trials. The overall strength of evidence for weight gain in pregnancy and birthweight was moderate for all interventions considered together. There was high-quality evidence for small-for-gestational-age infants as an outcome. The quality of evidence for all interventions on pregnancy outcomes was very low to moderate. The quality of evidence for all adverse outcomes was very low.
The included studies varied in the reporting of population, intensity, type and frequency of intervention and patient complience, limiting the interpretation of the findings. There was significant heterogeneity for the beneficial effect of diet on gestational weight gain.
Interventions in pregnancy to manage weight result in a significant reduction in weight gain in pregnancy (evidence quality was moderate). Dietary interventions are the most effective type of intervention in pregnancy in reducing gestational weight gain and the risks of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension and shoulder dystocia. There is no evidence of harm as a result of the dietary and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy. Individual patient data meta-analysis is needed to provide robust evidence on the differential effect of intervention in various groups based on BMI, age, parity, socioeconomic status and medical conditions in pregnancy.
Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 07/2012; 16(31):iii-iv, 1-191.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether cervical favourability (measured by cervical length and the Bishop score) should inform obstetricians' decision regarding labour induction for women with gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia at term.
A post hoc analysis of the Hypertension and Pre-eclampsia Intervention Trial At Term (HYPITAT).
Obstetric departments of six university and 32 teaching and district hospitals in the Netherlands.
A total of 756 women diagnosed with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia between 36 + 0 and 41 + 0 weeks of gestation randomly allocated to induction of labour or expectant management.
Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling.
The occurrence of a high-risk maternal situation defined as either maternal complications or progression to severe disease. Secondary outcomes were caesarean delivery and adverse neonatal outcomes.
The superiority of labour induction in preventing high-risk situations in women with gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia at term varied significantly according to cervical favourability. In women who were managed expectantly, the longer the cervix the higher the risk of developing maternal high-risk situations, whereas in women in whom labour was induced, cervical length was not associated with a higher probability of maternal high-risk situations (test of interaction P = 0.03). Similarly, the beneficial effect of labour induction on reducing the caesarean section rate was stronger in women with an unfavourable cervix.
Against widely held opinion, our exploratory analysis showed that women with gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia at term who have an unfavourable cervix benefited more from labour induction than other women.
The trial has been registered in the clinical trial register as ISRCTN08132825.
BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 06/2012; 119(9):1123-30. · 3.76 Impact Factor