Jin Tae Hong

Chungbuk National University, Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea

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Publications (281)715.51 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate whether the high antioxidant activity induced by selenium (Sel) treatment and selenoprotein M (SelM) overexpression affected the protein profile of the brain cortex. To accomplish this, the changes in global protein expression were measured in transgenic (Tg) rats expressing human SelM (CMV/hSelM) and non‑Tg rats using two‑dimensional electrophoresis (2‑DE). The results revealed that: ⅰ) CMV/hSelM Tg rats showed a high level of enzyme activity for antioxidant protein in the brain cortex compared to non‑Tg rats; ⅱ) the high activity of these enzymes induced a decrease in total antioxidant concentration and γ‑secretase activity in CMV/hSelM Tg rats; ⅲ) five proteins were upregulated and three were downregulated by SelM overexpression; ⅳ) among the five upregulated proteins, two associated with creatine kinase B‑type (B‑CK) and E3 ubiquitin‑protein ligase RING1 (RING finger protein 1) were further increased in the two groups following Sel treatment, whereas synaptotagmin-15 (SytXV), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H (eIF-4H) and lactate dehydrogenase B (LDH-B) were increased or decreased under the same conditions; ⅴ) the three downregulated proteins did not induce a significant change in expression following Sel treatment; and ⅵ) the protein expression level alterations of the two selected spots (B‑CK and SytXV) identified by 2‑DE were extremely similar to the results from western blot analysis. Overall, the results of the present study provide primary novel biological evidence that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in the brain cortex of CMV/hSelM Tg rats are associated with Sel biology, including the response to Sel treatment and SelM overexpression.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, which is initiated by certain tumor micro-environmental conditions and diverse protein factors, plays a pivotal role during tumor development and metastasis. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop effective anti-angiogenic agents as anticancer therapeutics. In the current study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic potential of an ethanol extract of Annona atemoya seeds (EEAA) in vitro and in vivo.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2014; 14(1):353. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a bifunctional protein with both glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. Expression of PRDX6 has been detected in human Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia patients. However, no study has described PRDX6 function in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. Herein, we investigated the effects of PRDX6 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration using PRDX6 transgenic (Tg) mice. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot data for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed that PRDX6 Tg mice had much higher loss of dopaminergic neurons by MPTP administration compared to non-Tg mice, as well as there was much higher behavioral impairment and astrocyte activation in PRDX6 Tg mice. MPTP-induced GPx activity was not different between PRDX6 Tg mice and non-Tg mice, which is accompanied by hyperoxidation of PRDX6. While iPLA2 activity was increased in PRDX6 Tg mice followed by an increase in the level of ROS and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Intriguingly, the expression pattern of PRDX6 showed similar distribution and co-localization with astrocytes, but not neuron in the mouse and human brain. Furthermore, we demonstrated that iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 induced astrocytic activation followed by increased proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL1-β), 4-HNE, and PRDX6 hyperoxidation in primary cultured astrocytes. Our findings provide novel insights for PRDX6 function on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system, and we suggest that PRDX6 has an important role in dopaminergic neurodegeneration of PD.
    Molecular neurobiology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-32β can act as either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines with being dependent on the status of disease development. Herein, we investigated whether IL-32β overexpression changes cytokine levels and affects amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced pro-inflammation in the brain. IL-32β transgenic (Tg) mice and non-Tg mice were intracerebroventricularly infused with Aβ1-42 once a day for 14 days, and then cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Our data showed that IL-32β Tg mice increased memory impairment, glia activation, amyloidogenesis, and neuroinflammation. The expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), Iba1, and β-secretase 1 (BACE1) in the cortex and hippocampus was much higher in the Aβ1-42-infused IL-32β Tg mice brain. The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was much higher in Aβ1-42-infused IL-32β Tg mice brain. We also found that cytokines including IP-10, GM-CSF, JE, IL-13, and interferone-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) were elevated in Aβ1-42-infused IL-32β Tg mice brain. These results suggest that IL-32β could activate NF-κB and STAT3, and thus affect neuroinflammation as well as amyloidogenesis, leading to worsening memory impairment.
    Molecular neurobiology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen has been known to reduce the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, exact mechanisms are not clear. We investigated whether estrogen can increase amyloid-beta (Aβ) degradation and affects Aβ-induced memory impairment in an estrogen deficiency model. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) knockout mice and wild-type mice were intracerebroventricular (ICV) infused with Aβ (300 pmol) for 2 weeks. Cognitive function was then assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. In addition, Western blot analysis, immunostaining, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and enzyme activity assays were used to examine the degree of Aβ deposition in the brains of ERα knockout mice. In our present study, Aβ was accumulated more in the ERα knockout mice brain and greatly worsened memory impairment and glial activation as well as neurogenic inflammation. These results suggest that estrogen may protect memory impairment by stimulating the degradation of Aβ and down-regulate neurogenic inflammation as well as amyloidogenesis.
    Molecular neurobiology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Melia azedarach led to the isolation of two new C-seco-nimbolinin-type limonoids, 3α-acetoxy-1α,7α-dihydroxy-12α-methoxynimbolinin (1) and 3α-acetoxy-1α,12α-dihydroxy-7α-(2-methylprop-2-enoyl)nimbolinin (2), together with eleven known compounds, 3–13. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1H- and 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY, and HR-FAB-MS.
    Helvetica Chimica Acta 08/2014; 97(8). · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sesquiterpenoid tussilagone (TUS) has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TUS on dendritic cell (DC) functions and the underlying mechanisms. TUS inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of DCs, as shown by decrease in surface molecule expression, cytokine production, cell migration, and allo-T cell activation. In addition, TUS inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB, MAPKs, and IRF-3 signalings in DCs, although it did not directly affect kinase activities of IRAK1/4, TAK1, and IKK, which suggests that TUS might indirectly inhibit TLR signaling in DCs. As a critical mechanism, we showed that TUS activated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which degrades heme to immunosuppressive products, such as carbon monoxide and bilirubin. HO-1 inhibitor reversed the inhibitory activity of TUS in DCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that TUS inhibits DC function through the induction of HO-1.
    International immunopharmacology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH) is known to inhibit inflammation by partially understood mechanisms. Here, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of MH were examined using enzymatic, cellular, and animal assays. In enzymatic assays, MH inhibited COX-2 activity with an IC50 of 0.062 μM, and also COX-1 with an IC50 of 2.4 μM. In cellular assays, MH was immunotoxic above 10 μM. At non-toxic concentrations (below 3 μM), MH strongly inhibited COX-2-mediated prostaglandin production with an IC50 of 0.1 μM, whereas did not or slightly affect other functions of B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. In an animal model, MH inhibited the increase in footpad thickness and popliteal lymph node weight in zymosan-injected mice. When analyzed the draining pLNs of zymosan-injected mice on day 5, MH inhibited the overall inflammatory responses. However, MH inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-mediated prostaglandin production without affecting tumor necrosis factor-α production in inflamed tissues within 6 h after zymosan injection. In summary, our data suggest that COX-2 may be a direct anti-inflammatory target of MH in vitro and in vivo.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was investigated to know whether pachymic acid (PA), one of the predominant triterpenoids in Poria cocos (Hoelen) has the sedative-hypnotic effects, and underlying mechanisms are mediated via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Oral administration of PA markedly suppressed locomotion activity in mice. This compound also prolonged sleeping time, and reduced sleep latency showing synergic effects with muscimol (0.2 mg/kg) in shortening sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induced by pentobarbital, both at the hypnotic (40 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) doses. Additionally, PA elevated intracellular chloride levels in hypothalamic primary cultured neuronal cells of rats. Moreover, Western blotting quantitative results showed that PA in-creased the amount of protein level expression of GAD65/67 over a broader range of doses. PA increased α- and β-subunits protein levels, but decreased γ-subunit protein levels in GABAA receptors. The present experiment provides evidence for the hypnotic effects as PA enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAA-ergic mechanisms in rodents. Taken together, it is proposed that PA may be useful for the treatment of sleep disturbed subjects with insomnia.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2014; 22(2014):314-320. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives) are the most important pharmacologically active ingredients, and these compounds could inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells by inducing of apoptotic cell death. Here we focused on the anticancer effects of tectochrysin on human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its mechanism of action. We analysed the activity of tectochrysin on NSCLC cells (A549 and NCI-H460) by use of Western blot analysis for major apoptotic proteins and death receptor expression. We also used EMSA for effects on STAT3 DNA binding activity. Tectochrysin (0-80 μM) suppressed the growth of A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells by inducing of apoptotic cell death in a concentraion dependent manner. Expression of DR3 and Fas as well as DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax were concomitantly increased, but the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins; Bcl-2 was decreased in both cancer cells. In addition, tectochrysin treatment also inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. However, deletion of DR3 and Fas by small interfering RNA significantly reversed tectochrysin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 in A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Pull down assay and docking model showed interaction of tectochrysin with STAT3. We propose that tectochrysin leads to apoptotic cell death in NSCLC cells through activation of DR3 and Fas expression via inhibition of STAT3 phosphphorylation.
    Cancer letters. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for initiation of the adoptive immune response. DC maturation is often attenuated in several pathological conditions including cancer. In this study, we report the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide (PG) on DC maturation. PG induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as proved by the increase in the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I/II on the cell surface. PG also induced functional maturation of DCs, as proved by elevated production of interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-β, and by enhanced allogeneic T cell stimulation ability of PG-treated DCs. PG efficiently induced maturation of DCs from C3H/HeN mice, which have normal Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), but not that of DCs from C3H/HeJ mice, which have mutated TLR4, suggesting that TLR4 might be one of the PG receptors in DCs. In line with TLR4 activation, PG increased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK, and the nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun, p-CREB, and c-Fos. PG also activated NF-κB signaling, as evidenced by degradation of IκBα/β and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. In summary, our data suggest that PG induces DC maturation by activating MAPK and NF-κB signaling downstream of TLR4.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology. 07/2014; 72.
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    ABSTRACT: ent-Sauchinone is a polyphenolic compound found in plants belonging to the lignan family. ent-Sauchinone has been shown to modulate the expression of inflammatory factors through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. It is well known that neuroinflammation is associated with amyloidogenesis. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether ent-Sauchinone could have anti-amyloidogenic effects through the inhibition of NF-kappaB pathways via its anti-inflammatory property.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 07/2014; 11(1):118. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new 2-phenoxychromones 1 and 2 and two prenylflavonoids 3 and 4 along with 12 known compounds (5-16) were isolated from the CH2Cl2-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Epimedium koreanum. Compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 15 exhibit inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production with IC50 values ranging from 16.8 to 49.3 μM. Compounds 1, 4, 7, and 12 also showed inhibitory effects on interleukin-1β production with IC50 values ranging from 8.6 to 38.9 μM in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
    Journal of natural products. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mediate tumor-associated immune suppression in both cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. Reduction or elimination of MDSCs reduces the rate of tumor progression and improves cancer therapies that employ mechanisms of immunity. Here we show that baccatin III, which is the precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, exerts anti-tumor immunomodulatory activity in very low doses (0.05-0.5mg/kg), although it is regarded as an inactive derivative of paclitaxel. Oral administration of baccatin III significantly reduced the growth of tumors induced by engrafting BALB/c mice with either 4 T1 mammary carcinoma or CT26 colon cancer cells. Baccatin III (0.5mg/kg) did not exert anti-tumor activity in athymic nude mice. Baccatin III decreased the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleens of the tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, MDSCs isolated from baccatin III-treated mice, compared with those isolated from vehicle-treated mice, had a significantly reduced suppressive effect on T cells treated with the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, these cells produced significantly reduced amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. These results suggest that baccatin III reduced tumor progression by inhibiting the accumulation and suppressive function of MDSCs.
    International immunopharmacology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human keratinocytes are located in the outermost skin layer and thus particularly vulnerable to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation exposure. Previous studies have focused on the cellular and molecular perspectives of UVB-induced keratinocyte damage. In the present study, it was demonstrated that pretreatment with the phytochemical arctiin, one of the lignin compounds, protects human HaCaT keratinocytes from UVB-mediated damage. Biochemical assays revealed that UVB-induced cytotoxicity and cell death were significantly reduced in arctiin-pretreated HaCaT cells. In addition, arctiin promoted the wound healing and DNA repair properties of keratinocytes. The photoprotective effects of arctiin were associated with changes in the expression levels of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in HaCaT cells. A bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the miRNAs were functionally involved in cancer, cell cycle, and Wnt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. In the present study, the results from the cellular and molecular assays demonstrated a novel role for arctiin in UVB protection in keratinocytes, which is mediated by miRNA responses and the suppression of UVB-induced cell death. Furthermore, arctiin is implicated as a potential chemopreventive agent through UVB protection of keratinocytes.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 06/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation is important for the development of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. Since changes of cytokine level are critical for neuroinflammation in the brain, we investigated whether IL-32α overexpression could change neuroinflammation and, thus, affect stroke development. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced development of ischemia, and ischemic neuronal cell death were reduced in IL-32α-overexpressing transgenic mice (IL-32α mice) brain through the decreased release of neuroinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) and activation of astrocytes, but enhancement of anti-neuroinflammatory cytokines (IL-10). Reactive oxygen species generation and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-2 were also reduced in the IL-32α mice brain. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), a critical transcriptional factor regulating neuroinflammation, was much lower, but activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a crucial role in cell survival and proliferation, was much higher in IL-32α-overexpressing mice brain compared to those of wild-type mice brain. These results suggest that IL-32α can prevent cerebral ischemia damage via upregulation of anti-neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and STAT3 activation, but downregulation of neuroinflammatory cytokines and NF-κB activation.
    Molecular neurobiology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease without known ways to cure. A key neuropathologic manifestation of the disease is extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Specific mechanisms underlying the development of the disease have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we investigated effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on memory dysfunction in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. 4-O-methylhonokiol (1 mg/kg for 3 month) significantly reduced deficit in learning and memory of the transgenic mice, as determined by the Morris water maze test and step-through passive avoidance test. Our biochemical analysis suggested that 4-O-methylhonokiol ameliorated Aβ accumulation in the cortex and hippocampus via reduction in beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 expression. In addition, 4-O-methylhonokiol attenuated lipid peroxidation and elevated glutathione peroxidase activity in the double transgenic mice brains. Thus, suppressive effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on Aβ generation and oxidative stress in the brains of transgenic mice may be responsible for the enhancement in cognitive function. These results suggest that the natural compound has potential to intervene memory deficit and progressive neurodegeneration in AD patients.
    Biomolecules & therapeutics. 05/2014; 22(3):232-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes necrosis of centrilobular cells of the liver. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune system may contribute to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Interaction between RANTES and its receptor C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 is related to recruitment of macrophages to sites of inflammation. In this study, we examined effects of CCR5 deficiency on APAP-mediated liver injury by employing CCR5 knockout (KO) mice. CCR5 wild-type (WT) and KO mice received intraperitoneal injection of APAP (300 mg/kg) and were killed 24 h after the injection. Hepatic injury was determined by using histological and biochemical analyses. Intraperitoneal APAP caused the hepatocytic necrosis, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin staining and an increase in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels in serum. Hepatic damage appeared to be larger in CCR5 WT animals compared with KO animals. There were no differences in cytochrome P450 2E1 between CCR5 WT and KO animals suggesting that the resistance of CCR5 KO mice did not come from alterations in APAP metabolism. Infiltration of macrophages into the liver was reduced in CCR5 KO mice, and this was accompanied decreased inflammatory responses. Inhibition of macrophage activity by pretreatment of gadolinium chloride significantly blocked APAP-caused hepatotoxicity. These results indicate that recruitment of macrophage into the inflammatory sites significantly contributes to APAP-mediated hepatocytic death and CCR5 gene deletion protects from APAP-induced liver injury by alleviating macrophage recruitment and inflammatory responses. This study represents a critical role of CCR5 in macrophage infiltration into the liver and subsequent hepatotoxicity upon challenge of APAP.
    Archives of Toxicology 04/2014; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Luteolin, a flavonoid extracted from a number of plants with recognized anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, inhibits angiogenic processes and modulates multidrug resistance. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of action of this flavonoid agent are still undergoing study. In order to elucidate whether luteolin exhibits an anticancer effect in cervical cancer cells, HeLa cells were incubated with luteolin and apoptosis was assessed by observing nuclear morphological changes, and performing Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell cycle analysis, western blotting, RT-PCR and mitochondrial membrane potential measurements were also carried out. Luteolin showed a significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect only in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical cancer cells, when compared to its effect on HPV-negative cervical cancer C33A cells. Expression levels of human papilloma virus E6 and E7 oncogenes were suppressed, those of related factors pRb and p53 were recovered and E2F5 was increased by luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the expression of death receptors and death receptor downstream factors such as Fas/FasL, DR5/TRAIL and FADD in HeLa cells, and activated caspase cascades. In particular, luteolin enhanced the activity of caspase-3 and -8 in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of caspase-3 induced caspase-8 activity and vice versa. Luteolin also induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and cytochrome c release, and inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression. In conclusion, luteolin exerts anticarcinogenic activity through inhibition of E6 and E7 expression and cross-activation of caspase-3 and -8. Taken together, these results suggest that luteolin induces inactivation of HPV-18 oncogene expression and apoptosis by activating the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
    Oncology Reports 04/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new dihydropyranocoumarin, (+)-cis-(3'S,4'S)-diisobutyrylkhellactone (1), together with five known compounds, 3'-senecioyl-4'-acetylkhellactone (2), 3'-isovaleryl-4'-acetylkhellactone (3), 3',4'-disenecioylkhellactone (4), 3'-isovaleryl-4'-senecioylkhellactone (5), and 3',4'-diisovalerylkhellactone (6), was isolated from Glehnia littoralis. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly 1D and 2D NMR data including HMQC and HMBC. All the isolated compounds showed the potential to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 7.4 to 44.3μM.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 04/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
715.51 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Chungbuk National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Ewha Womans University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Biomaterials Science
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Ajou University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea National University of Transportation
      • Department of Food Science and Food Technology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yeungnam University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Asan, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2006–2012
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Bioscience and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Chonbuk National University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2011
    • Korea Food and Drug Administration
      Seishō-gun, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2003–2009
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      • • Bioevaluation Center
      • • Laboratory of Cellular Biology
      Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 1993
    • Korea Institute of Toxicology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea