[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clearance of apoptotic exudate neutrophils (efferocytosis) induces either pro- or anti-inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages depending on host genetic background. In this study, we investigated whether neutrophil efferocytosis induces a stable macrophage phenotype that could be recalled by late restimulation with LPS. Bone marrow-derived macrophages previously stimulated by pro- but not anti-inflammatory neutrophil efferocytosis expressed a regulatory/M2b phenotype characterized by low IL-12 and high IL-10 production following restimulation, increased expression of LIGHT/TNF superfamily 14, Th2-biased T cell responses, and permissive replication of Leishmania major. Induction of regulatory/M2b macrophages required neutrophil elastase activity and was partially dependent on TLR4 signaling. These results suggested that macrophage differentiation to a regulatory phenotype plays a role in resolution of inflammation but could contribute to increased humoral Ab responses and parasite persistence in the infected host.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 185(4):2044-50. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction between apoptotic cells and phagocytes through phosphatidylserine recognition structures results in the production of TGF-beta, which has been shown to play pivotal roles in the anti-inflammatory and anti-immunogenic responses to apoptotic cell clearance. Using 3T3-TbetaRII and RAWTbetaRII cells in which a truncated dominant-negative TGF-beta receptor II was stably transfected to avoid autofeedback induction of TGF-beta, we investigate the mechanisms by which TGF-beta was produced through PSRS engagement. We show, in the present study, that TGF-beta was regulated at both transcriptional and translational steps. P38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK were involved in TGF-beta transcription, whereas translation required activation of Rho GTPase, PI3K, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin with subsequent phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E. Strikingly, these induction pathways for TGF-beta production were different from those initiated in the same cells responding to LPS or PMA.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(5):3575-85. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cells are rapidly engulfed by adjacent tissue cells or macrophages before they can release pro-inflammatory/proimmunogenic intracellular contents. In addition, recognition of the apoptotic cells is actively anti-inflammatory and anti-immunogenic with generation of anti-inflammatory mediators such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. Here, we have investigated the role played by the induction of TGF-beta in the coordinate expression of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and in the suppression of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide (NO). By use of a dominant negative TGFbetaII receptor, TGF-beta signaling was blocked, and its participation in the consequences of apoptotic cell stimulation was determined. The induction of TGF-beta itself could be attributed to exposed phosphatidylserine on the apoptotic cells, which therefore appears to drive the balanced inflammatory mediator responses. Arachidonic acid release, COX-2, and prostaglandin synthase expression were shown to be significantly dependent on the TGF-beta production. On the other hand, a requirement for TGF-beta was also shown in the inhibition of thromboxane synthase and thromboxanes, of 5-lipoxygenase and sulfidopeptide leukotrienes, as well as of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and NO. TGF-beta-dependent induction of arginase was also found and would further limit the NO generation. Finally, apoptotic cells stimulated production of 15-lipoxygenase and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a potentially anti-inflammatory pathway acting through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and lipoxin A(4) production, which were also up-regulated by a TGF-beta-dependent pathway in this system. These results strongly suggest that the apoptotic cell inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator production is pleiotropic and significantly dependent on the stimulation of TGF-beta production.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2007; 281(50):38376-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although TGF-beta inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo, its anti-inflammatory activities may be ineffective in early or severe acute inflammatory circumstances. In this study, we suggest a role for oxidative stress on TGF-beta signaling, leading to prevention of its normal anti-inflammatory effects but leaving its Smad-driven effects on cellular differentiation or matrix production unaffected. Stimulation of the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, human or mouse alveolar macrophages with LPS led to NF-kappaB-driven production of proinflammatory mediators, which were inhibited by TGF-beta. This inhibition was prevented in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. We found that hydrogen peroxide acted by inducing p38 MAPK activation, which then prevented the ERK activation and MAPK phosphatase-1 up-regulation normally induced by TGF-beta. This was mediated through Src tyrosine kinases and protein phosphatase-1/2A. By contrast, hydrogen peroxide had no effects on TGF-beta-induced Smad2 phosphorylation and SBE-luc reporter gene transcription.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2006; 176(2):1209-17. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with damage to the heart, which is a characteristic of Chagas disease. In this article, we discuss recently identified mechanisms of aberrant T-cell activation that are responsible for persistence of T. cruzi and cardiac injury. Among them, apoptosis of host cells drives T. cruzi replication in macrophages and is present in cardiac inflammation. It is proposed that phagocytic removal of infected apoptotic cardiomyocytes, combined with signaling through innate immune receptors, is required to initiate immune responses that damage the heart.
Trends in Parasitology 06/2005; 21(5):237-43. · 5.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aqueous fraction of the ethanolic extract (AFL) of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl (Menispermaceae), popularly known as milona, has been shown to have both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study we investigated the modulation of macrophage antimicrobicidal activity by in vitro treatment with the extract from C. sympodialis. Normal and thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected in vitro with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi DM28c clone. We observed that the AFL (used at doses ranging from 13 to 100 microg/ml) increased T. cruzi growth and induced a 75% reduction in nitric oxide production. This inhibition could be mediated by the stimulation of macrophage interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion since the in vitro treatment with the AFL stimulated IL-10 production by T. cruzi-infected macrophages. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of the AFL from C. sympodialis could be, at least in part, mediated by the inhibition of macrophage functions and that the inhibition of macrophage microbicidal activity induced by the C. sympodialis extract may be mediated by the decrease in macrophage function mediated by interleukin-10 production.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 03/2003; 36(2):199-205. · 1.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is induced in the course of immune responses to infectious agents. The last step of apoptosis is recognition and ingestion of the dying cells by phagocytes. Here, Marcela F. Lopes and colleagues discuss recent studies and argue that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells plays a previously unrecognized role in regulating the nature of immune responses against pathogens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After apoptosis, phagocytes prevent inflammation and tissue damage by the uptake and removal of dead cells. In addition, apoptotic cells evoke an anti-inflammatory response through macrophages. We have previously shown that there is intense lymphocyte apoptosis in an experimental model of Chagas' disease, a debilitating cardiac illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we show that the interaction of apoptotic, but not necrotic T lymphocytes with macrophages infected with T. cruzi fuels parasite growth in a manner dependent on prostaglandins, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and polyamine biosynthesis. We show that the vitronectin receptor is critical, in both apoptotic-cell cytoadherence and the induction of prostaglandin E2/TGF-beta release and ornithine decarboxylase activity in macrophages. A single injection of apoptotic cells in infected mice increases parasitaemia, whereas treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors almost completely ablates it in vivo. These results suggest that continual lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages have a role in parasite persistence in the host, and that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have potential therapeutic application in the control of parasite replication and spread in Chagas' disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL), from the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and its isolated glycan and lipid (dihydroceramide) components, were investigated in J774 cells and primary macrophages. Isolated GIPL ceramide, but not intact GIPL or its glycan, induced intense fluid phase endocytosis when added exogenously. In the presence of the cytokine IFN-gamma, GIPL ceramide induced marked apoptosis in J774 cells and macrophages, independent of nitric oxide secretion. When cells were preincubated with the GIPL-derived glycan chain, addition of intact GIPL induced macrophage apoptosis in the presence of IFN-gamma. Synthetic C2-dihydroceramide also induced apoptosis in the presence of IFN-gamma. Induction of apoptosis in T. cruzi-infected macrophages by GIPL ceramide plus IFN-gamma led to increased parasite release compared with IFN-gamma treatment alone. Viable parasites released comprised both infective trypomastigote and spheromastigote forms. These results identify a novel pathway by which T. cruzi glycosylphosphatidylinositol family molecules affect host macrophages, with implications for the infectious process.
The Journal of Immunology 12/1998; 161(9):4909-16. · 5.52 Impact Factor