[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol-induced endothelial changes might contribute to an increase in blood pressure in regular alcohol consumers. Some antihypertensive drugs affect oxidative stress and endothelial function and might counteract the effects of alcohol at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of three different types of antihypertensive agents on alcohol-induced endothelial responses and oxidative stress. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to increasing concentrations (1, 10, 60 micromol/L) of zofenoprilat, carvedilol, and lacidipine in the absence and in the presence of ethanol (140 mmol/L). Concentrations of endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in the culture media as markers of endothelial function, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular glutathione (GSHi) were measured as markers of oxidative stress. Exposure to alcohol increased the levels of ET, NO, and MDA, and decreased GSHi. Carvedilol and zofenoprilat were more effective than lacidipine in counteracting the effects of alcohol on ET production. Alcohol-induced NO production was enhanced by carvedilol, whereas zofenoprilat and lacidipine did not have a significant effect. The alcohol-induced increase in MDA concentrations was blunted by all three drugs, but only carvedilol restored a normal response. All three drugs increased GSHi levels, with the effect being greater for carvedilol and lacidipine than zofenoprilat. Carvedilol is more effective than zofenoprilat and lacidipine in counteracting alcohol-induced endothelial responses in vitro and in decreasing oxidative stress. These effects might be particularly beneficial in patients with alcohol-related hypertension.
Hypertension Research 03/2008; 31(2):345-51. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated a close association between heavy alcohol consumption and hypertension. The mechanisms of this association, however, remain elusive. We studied the effects of alcohol withdrawal on blood pressure, hormonal parameters, and circulating markers of endothelial activity.
In 14 hypertensive heavy alcohol consumers (> 200 g/day) who agreed to participate in a hospital withdrawal programme we monitored, for 30 days, blood pressure, plasma levels of renin, aldosterone, cortisol, endothelin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and urinary levels of catecholamines. Patients in the withdrawal group were compared with eight hypertensive heavy drinkers who refused to participate in the programme and maintained regular alcohol consumption and 11 normotensive teetotalers.
By the third day after withdrawal, blood pressure was significantly decreased and the normalization of levels was obtained in 13 of 14 patients by the end of the study. Alcohol withdrawal significantly decreased plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, but did not affect levels of active renin and fractionated urinary catecholamines. At baseline, plasma endothelin and PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in alcoholic individuals than in teetotalers, and after the cessation of alcohol intake decreased progressively, reaching levels different from baseline within 1 week. A significant correlation was found between changes in endothelin and PAI-1, and blood pressure variations during alcohol abstinence that remained significant only for endothelin with the multivariate approach.
Hypertension is rapidly reversible in the majority of heavy drinkers after the withdrawal of alcohol consumption. In these patients, hypertension is associated with an increased release of endothelial factors that might contribute to the increase in blood pressure.
Journal of Hypertension 08/2006; 24(8):1493-8. · 3.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently discovered hormone resistin is linked to the development of insulin resistance, but direct evidence of resistin levels in humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is lacking.
We conducted this study to assess the relationship between serum resistin and NAFLD. We measured serum resistin and biochemical, hormonal, and histological correlates in 28 NAFLD patients, 33 controls, and 30 obese patients [body mass index (BMI), >30 kg/m2] without NAFLD.
Resistin and adiponectin expression were measured in sc adipose tissue by quantitative RT-PCR. Resistin was higher in NAFLD patients compared with controls (5.87 +/- 0.49 vs. 4.30 +/- 0.20 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and obese patients (4.37 +/- 0.27 ng/ml; P = 0.002). Increased resistin mRNA was also found in the adipose tissue of NAFLD patients compared with controls and obese subjects.
Both NAFLD and obese patients had lower adiponectin levels, whereas leptin was increased only in the obese group. No correlation was found between resistin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, BMI, homeostasis model assessment, insulin, glucose, transaminases, and lipid values. A positive correlation was found between resistin and histological inflammatory score. These data report increased resistin in NAFLD patients that is related to the histological severity of the disease, but do not support a link between resistin and insulin resistance or BMI in these patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although heavy alcohol drinkers are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular events, moderate alcohol intake is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular death. This paradox might reflect a dose-related effect of different alcohol intakes on endothelial function and this, in turn, might depend on changes in oxidative stress.
We tested the effects of alcohol withdrawal in heavy alcohol consumers and compared the plasma levels of endothelin-1, nitric oxide, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, von Willebrand factor, malondialdehyde, and intracellular glutathione with those of alcoholics that did not modify their alcohol intake and teetotalers. In human endothelial cells that had been cultured for 2 weeks in the presence of different concentrations of ethanol, we assessed the same parameters after withdrawal of ethanol exposure.
Alcohol increased the levels of endothelin-1, nitric oxide, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and decreased the levels of von Willebrand factor both in vivo and in vitro. These changes were dose dependent, rapidly reversed after withdrawal of exposure, and associated with the presence of increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased levels of both malondialdehyde and intracellular glutathione. Blockade of oxidative stress by incubation of endothelial cells in the presence of oxidants' scavengers prevented the alcohol-induced functional modifications of the endothelium.
Alcohol affects endothelial function with an effect that is mediated by an activated oxidative stress and is rapidly reversed after withdrawal. Dose-related endothelial responses to different alcohol intakes might translate in either vascular protection or vascular damage.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 11/2005; 29(10):1889-98. · 3.42 Impact Factor