Barbara Phillips-Bute

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (138)619.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common, serious complication of cardiac surgery. Since prior studies have supported a genetic basis for postoperative AKI, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for AKI following coronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The discovery data set consisted of 873 nonemergent CABG surgery patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (PEGASUS), while a replication data set had 380 cardiac surgical patients (CATHGEN). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were based on Illumina Human610-Quad (PEGASUS) and OMNI1-Quad (CATHGEN) BeadChips. We used linear regression with adjustment for a clinical AKI risk score to test SNP associations with the postoperative peak rise relative to preoperative serum creatinine concentration as a quantitative AKI trait. Nine SNPs meeting significance in the discovery set were detected. The rs13317787 in GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 intergenic region (3p21.6) and rs10262995 in BBS9 (7p14.3) were replicated with significance in the CATHGEN data set and exhibited significantly strong overall association following meta-analysis. Additional fine mapping using imputed SNPs across these two regions and meta-analysis found genome-wide significance at the GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 locus and a significantly strong association at BBS9. Thus, through an unbiased GWAS approach, we found two new loci associated with post-CABG AKI providing new insights into the pathogenesis of perioperative AKI.Kidney International advance online publication, 17 June 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.161.
    Kidney International 06/2015; 88(4). DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.161 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) identifies viability for marginal organs but complicates and lengthens lung transplantation surgery. Preliminary evidence supports equivalency for EVLP-assisted versus traditional (non-EVLP) procedures regarding graft function, postoperative course, mortality, and survival. However, acute kidney injury (AKI), a common serious complication of lung transplantation, has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that EVLP-assisted and non-EVLP lung transplantations are associated with different AKI rates. Demographic, procedural, and renal data were gathered for 13 EVLP-viable lung transplantations and a non-EVLP group matched 4:1 for single versus double, pulmonary disease, and age. AKI was defined by AKI Network (AKIN) criteria and peak creatinine rise relative to baseline (Δ%Cr) during the 1st 10 postoperative days. Chi-square was performed for AKIN and 2-tailed t test for %ΔCr. Patient and procedural characteristics were similar between the groups. One non-EVLP patient required postoperative dialysis. AKI rates were also similar, as assessed by both AKIN (EVLP 7/13 (54%) vs non-EVLP 32/52 (62%); P = .61) and %ΔCr (EVLP 91 ± 81% vs non-EVLP 72 ± 62%; P = .63). We did not observe different AKI rates between EVLP-assisted and traditional lung transplant procedures. Although 1 non-EVLP patient required dialysis, AKI rates were otherwise similar. These findings further support EVLP as a strategy to expand the organ pool and reduce concerns for high-renal risk recipients. The small sample size and retrospective design are limitations. However, our sample size is similar to other reports, and it is the first to analyze AKI after EVLP-assisted lung transplantation. Larger multicenter prospective studies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Transplantation Proceedings 12/2014; 46(10):3598-602. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.06.068 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABO dependent variation in von Willebrand factor (vWf) and procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII) is a plausible mechanism for modulating perioperative hemostasis and bleeding. Group AB has the highest and group O the lowest vWf and FVIII levels. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ABO blood group is associated with perioperative transfusion and subsequent survival after coronary revascularization. This retrospective study combined demographic, operative, and transfusion data, including follow-up for a median of 2,096 days, for consecutive aortocoronary bypass (CABG) and CABG/valve procedures from 1996-2009 at a tertiary referral University Heart Center. Between group differences were compared by a Kruskall Wallis test, and hazard ratios [95 % confidence intervals] are reported for mortality risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. From 15,454 patients, follow-up records were available for 13,627 patients: 6,413 group O, 5,248 group A, 1,454 group B, and 435 group AB. Packed red blood cells were the most commonly transfused blood product (3 [0-5] units), while group AB received 2 [0-5] units (Kruskall Wallis Chi squared value for between group differences = 8.2; p = 0.04). Group AB favored improved long-term, postoperative survival (Hazard ratio = 0.82 [95 %CI 0.68-0.98]; p = 0.03), which became evident approximately a year after surgery. In conclusion, the procoagulant phenotype of blood group AB is associated with fewer transfusions and improved late survival after cardiac surgery. Whether this finding is related to fewer perioperative transfusions, a reduction in later bleeding or other mechanisms remains speculative.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 06/2014; 38(3). DOI:10.1007/s11239-013-1045-2 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that females presenting for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are at a higher risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and that age and gender interact to influence this risk. Retrospective observational study. Tertiary university hospital. Eight hundred-ninety-five adult patients undergoing CABG surgery. None. Baseline diastolic function was graded according to a predefined Doppler-based algorithm, which defined LVDD as a binary variable (grades 2 and 3 only) and as a continuous variable (E/e' ratio). The authors found that women were more likely to present with LVDD in 2 multivariate regression models using both LVDD definitions (odds ratio = 2.7; p<0.0001 for logistic model, and parameter estimate (PE) = 2.8; p<0.0001 for the linear model). In addition, there was a significant age and gender interaction on the risk of LVDD in the linear model (PE = 0.08; p = 0.01). A restricted cubic splines analysis revealed a progressively higher risk of LVDD (predicted E/e' ratio) among older women. The authors confirmed that women undergoing CABG surgery are at higher risk of LVDD compared to men with a significant age-gender interaction suggesting a possible age-related differential effect on LVDD between the genders, a phenomenon previously demonstrated in preclinical studies. Therapies aimed at amelioration of diastolic dysfunction additionally should consider the higher risk in females, especially within the older subset of the patient population.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 03/2014; 28(3). DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2013.11.010 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) occurs as a consequence of left ventricular remodeling and is an independent predictor of adverse outcome. FMR is assessed qualitatively with two-dimensional echocardiography, but accurate quantitation of the actual degree of mitral valve (MV) coaptation is not possible with this method. We evaluated a novel three-dimensional (3D) approach to quantify the MV coaptation zone in patients with FMR. We hypothesized that measuring the 3D MV coaptation zone is feasible and would correlate with FMR severity when indexed to MV area. Data were gathered on 25 patients with FMR undergoing cardiac operations, and included a comprehensive two-dimensional and 3D examination with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Using available 3D MV quantification software, offline analysis of end-systolic MV coaptation zone and MV area was performed. A novel MV coaptation index was calculated by the following formula: [3D end-systolic MV coaptation zone/3D MV area]. FMR severity was described as trace, mild, moderate, and severe using the integrative approach recommended by official guidelines. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the coaptation index was associated with the severity of FMR (F = 20.5, r(2) = 0.75, p < 0.0001). There was also a correlation between 2D vena contracta and the coaptation index (r = -0.74, p < 0.0003). We describe a novel 3D approach to direct assessment of the MV coaptation zone. When indexed to the MV area, the 3D MV coaptation zone is closely associated with FMR severity. Assessment of the mitral coaptation may be a potentially powerful tool in the perioperative evaluation of the competency of the MV.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2014; 97(6). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.01.015 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and devastating form of cerebrovascular disease. In ICH, gender differences in outcomes remain relatively understudied but have been examined in other neurological emergencies. Further, a potential effect of age and gender on outcomes after ICH has not been explored. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that age and gender interact to modify neurological outcomes after ICH. Adult patients admitted with spontaneous primary supratentorial ICH from July 2007 through April 2010 were assessed via retrospective analysis of an existing stroke database at Duke University. Univariate analysis of collected variables was used to compare gender and outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined as discharge to hospice or death. Using multivariate regression, the combined effect of age and gender on outcome after ICH was analyzed. In this study population, women were younger (61.1+14.5 versus 65.8+17.3 years, p=0.03) and more likely to have a history of substance abuse (35% versus 8.9%, p<0.0001) compared to men. Multivariable models demonstrated that advancing age had a greater effect on predicting discharge outcome in women compared to men (p=0.02). For younger patients, female sex was protective; however, at ages greater than 60 years, female sex was a risk factor for discharge to hospice or death. While independently associated with discharge to hospice or death after ICH, the interaction effect between gender and age demonstrated significantly stronger correlation with early outcome after ICH in a single center cohort. Prospective study is required to verify these findings.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81664. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081664 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common serious consequence of cardiac surgery. One recent study found higher AKI rates when anemia and hypotension occurred during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) relative to anemia alone. To revalidate this post hoc observation we analyzed detailed data from a large cardiac surgery cohort. Patient, procedural, and outcome data were collected for nonemergent aortocoronary bypass and valve surgeries between July 2001 and September 2012. The occurrence of AKI (as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria) was analyzed relative to known renal risk factors, and CPB hematocrit and blood pressure determinations in univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. In our 3,963-patient cohort, we did not observe different AKI rates with the co-occurrence of anemia and hypotension relative to anemia alone (41.6% versus 44.3%; p = 0.39). Secondary analyses using linear definitions for AKI, CPB anemia, and hypotensive burden, and assessing for coincident timing also did not demonstrate significant association of anemia and hypotension with AKI risk relative to anemia alone. In a large cohort of cardiac surgery patients, we did not confirm any association of cardiac surgery-related AKI risk with the co-occurrence of hypotension and anemia during CPB relative to anemia alone. More detailed analyses also failed to support an anemia-hypotension interaction. Additional studies are required to better understand the relationship among anemia, hypotension during CPB, and postoperative AKI, but existing evidence is insufficient to support changes in clinical practice.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2013; 97(3). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.09.060 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high mortality and substantial cost after aortocoronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We tested the hypothesis that intraoperative systolic blood pressure variation is associated with postoperative AKI. Methods. We gathered demographic, procedural, blood pressure, and renal outcome data for 7,247 CABG surgeries at a single institution between 1996 and 2005. A development/validation cohort methodology was randomly divided (66% and 33%, resp.). Peak postoperative serum creatinine rise relative to baseline (%ΔCr) was the primary AKI outcome variable. Markers reflective of intraoperative systolic blood pressure variation were derived for each patient including (1) peak and nadir values (absolute and relative to baseline) and (2) excursion episodes beyond selected thresholds (by duration, frequency, and duration × degree). Each marker of systolic blood pressure variation was then separately evaluated for association with AKI using linear regression models with adjustment for several known risk factors (age, aprotinin use, congestive heart failure, previous myocardial infarction, baseline creatinine, bypass time, diabetes, weight, concomitant valve surgery, gender, and preoperative pulse pressure). Results. An association was identified between systolic blood pressure relative to baseline and postoperative AKI (P < 0.006). Conclusions. In CABG surgery patients, intraoperative systolic blood pressure decrease relative to baseline systolic blood pressure is independently associated with postoperative AKI.
    Anesthesiology Research and Practice 11/2013; 2013:174091. DOI:10.1155/2013/174091
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial ventriculitis (BV) may develop in patients requiring external ventricular drains (EVDs). The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of EVD-associated BV onset. A retrospective review of Duke University Hospital patients with EVD device placement between January 2005 and May 2010 was conducted. Subject data were captured for predefined variables. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and neurologic status at discharge. In 410 subjects with 420 EVDs, the BV rate was 10.2%. Univariate analysis indicated that age, sex, positive blood culture, duration of EVD placement, and the number of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken were associated with BV. Of these, the number of CSF samples and sex retained significance in multivariable modeling (female: odds ratio, 0.47 [confidence interval, 0.23-0.97]; CSF samples: odds ratio, 1.08 [confidence interval 1.01-1.17]; P = .04; c index = 0.69). In this model, each CSF sample taken expanded the likelihood of BV by 8.3%. The most common pathogens were Staphylococcus or proprioniobacter (n = 26). Bacterial ventriculitis was associated with an increase in hospital length of stay (33 ± 22.9 days vs 24.6 ± 20.4 days; P = .04) but not mortality. An association exists between CSF sampling frequency and the development of EVD-associated BV. Larger prospective studies should be aimed at identifying causal relationships between these variables.
    Journal of critical care 10/2013; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.08.012 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perioperative transesophageal echocardiography is essential for decision-making for mitral valve surgery. While two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography represents the standard of care, tracking of dynamic changes using three-dimensional imaging permits assessment of morphologic and functional characteristics of the mitral valve. The authors hypothesized that quantitative three-dimensional analysis would reveal distinct differences among diseased, repaired, and normal mitral valves. Case-control observational clinical study. Tertiary care hospital. Using novel mitral valve quantification software, the authors retrospectively analyzed 80 datasets of cardiac surgery patients who underwent intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic imaging. Twenty patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation were evaluated before and after mitral valve repair. Twenty patients had functional mitral regurgitation, and 20 patients had no mitral valve disease. Primary outcome measures of dynamic mitral valve function were: 1) three-dimensional annulus area, 2) annular displacement distance, 3) annular displacement velocity, and 4) annular area fraction. Other mitral annular tracking indices, in addition to intraobserver reliability and interobserver agreement, also were reported. Annulus area was enlarged in degenerative and functional mitral regurgitation. Annular displacement distance was decreased in functional mitral regurgitation and repaired valves. Annular displacement velocity was decreased in functional mitral regurgitation. Annular area fraction was decreased in functional mitral regurgitation and repaired valves. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver agreement were high for all 4 analyzed indices. Normal, functional regurgitant, degenerative, and repaired mitral valves have distinctly different dynamic signatures of anatomy and function as reliably determined by perioperative echocardiographic tracking.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 09/2013; 28(1). DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2013.03.024 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of arterial normobaric hyperoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on postoperative neurocognitive function. The authors hypothesized that arterial hyperoxia during CPB is associated with neurocognitive decline at 6 weeks after cardiac surgery. Retrospective study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. A university hospital. One thousand eighteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or CABG + valve surgery with CPB who previously had been enrolled in prospective cognitive trials. A battery of neurocognitive measures was administered at baseline and 6 weeks after surgery. Anesthetic and surgical care was managed as clinically indicated. Arterial hyperoxia was assessed primarily as the area under the curve (AUC) for the duration that PaO2 exceeded 200 mmHg during CPB and secondarily as the mean PaO2 during bypass, as a PaO2 = 300 mmHg at any point and as AUC>150 mmHg. Cognitive change was assessed both as a continuous change score and a dichotomous deficit rate. Multivariate regression accounting for age, years of education, baseline cognition, date of surgery, baseline postintubation PaO2, duration of CPB, and percent change in hematocrit level from baseline to lowest level during CPB revealed no significant association between hyperoxia during CPB and postoperative neurocognitive function. Arterial hyperoxia during CPB was not associated with neurocognitive decline after 6 weeks in cardiac surgical patients.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 08/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2013.03.034 · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Melanie C Wright · Noa Segall · Gene Hobbs · Barbara Phillips-Bute · Laura Maynard · Jeffrey M Taekman ·
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    ABSTRACT: The authors developed a Standardized Assessment for Evaluation of Team Skills (SAFE-TeamS) in which actors portray health care team members in simulated challenging teamwork scenarios. Participants are scored on scenario-specific ideal behaviors associated with assistance, conflict resolution, communication, assertion, and situation assessment. This research sought to provide evidence of the validity and feasibility of SAFE-TeamS as a tool to support the advancement of science related to team skills training. Thirty-eight medical and nursing students were assessed using SAFE-TeamS before and after team skills training. The SAFE-TeamS pretraining and posttraining scores were compared, and participants were surveyed. Generalizability analysis was used to estimate the variance in scores associated with the following: examinee, scenario, rater, pretraining/posttraining, examinee type, rater type (actor-live vs. external rater-videotape), actor team, and scenario order. The SAFE-TeamS scores reflected improvement after training and were sensitive to individual differences. Score variance due to rater was low. Variance due to scenario was moderate. Estimates of relative reliability for 2 raters and 8 scenarios ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. With fixed scenarios and raters, 2 raters and 2 scenarios, reliability is greater than 0.8. Raters believed SAFE-TeamS assessed relevant team skills. Examinees' responses were mixed. The SAFE-TeamS was sensitive to individual differences and team skill training, providing evidence for validity. It is not clear whether different scenarios measure different skills and whether the scenarios cover the necessary breadth of skills. Use of multiple scenarios will support assessment across a broader range of skills. Future research is required to determine whether assessments using SAFE-TeamS will translate to performance in clinical practice.
    Simulation in healthcare: journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare 07/2013; 8(5). DOI:10.1097/SIH.0b013e318290a022 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Mw Ouyang · David L McDonagh · Barbara Phillips-Bute · Michael L James · Allan H Friedman · Tong J Gan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The presence of midline shift on neuroradiologic studies in brain tumor patients represents mass effect from the tumor and surrounding edema. We hypothesized that baseline cerebral edema as measured by midline shift would increase postoperative nausea (PON). We studied the incidence of PON in brain tumor patients, with and without midline shift on preoperative magnetic resonance (MRI) or computed tomographic (CT) imaging, undergoing awake craniotomy. Methods: After IRB approval, we retrospectively extracted data from perioperative records between January 2005 and December 2010. Post-craniotomy nausea and pain scores were collected. Intraoperative anti-emetic, anesthetic, and analgesic regimens were assessed. Both the rescue anti-emetic and cumulative postoperative analgesic requirements were collected up to 12 hours postoperatively. The amount of midline shift on preoperative neuroimaging was gathered from radiology reports. Univariate comparisons between groups (no midline shift vs. midline shift) were made with t-tests for continuous variables, and chi-square tests for categorical variables. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of postoperative nausea. Limitations of this study include the retrospective design and the inability to gather accurate data regarding vomiting from the medical record. Results: Data from 386 patients were available for analysis. Patients were divided into two groups: no midline shift (n = 283) and midline shift (n = 103). The mean midline shift distance was 5.96 mm (95% CI [5.32, 6.59]). There was no difference in the incidence of nausea or pain scores between the two groups. More malignant brain tumor patients were in the midline shift group, as determined by the postoperative histopathological diagnosis (P < 0.05). Patients in the midline shift group also had longer anesthesia and surgical times (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In patients undergoing a standardized anesthetic for awake craniotomy for tumor resection, the presence of preoperative midline shift did not correlate with postoperative nausea.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2013; 29(9). DOI:10.1185/03007995.2013.811071 · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Mw Ouyang · David L McDonagh · Barbara Phillips-Bute · Michael L James · Allan H Friedman · Tong J Gan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Benign and malignant brain tumors have different histopathological characteristics, including different degrees of tissue infiltration and inflammatory response. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the incidence of postoperative nausea between the two categories of brain tumors in patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Methods: After IRB approval, we retrospectively extracted data from perioperative records between January 2005 and December 2010. Patients were divided based on the postoperative histopathological diagnosis into two groups, benign and malignant. The incidence of nausea, rescue anti-emetics, pain scores and postoperative analgesic requirements were compared between the two groups up to 12 hours postoperatively. Intraoperative anti-emetic, anesthetic, and analgesic regimens were also assessed. Limitations of this study include the retrospective design, the arbitrary dichotomization of tumors as benign or malignant, and the inability to gather accurate data regarding vomiting from the medical record. Results: Data from 415 patients were available for analysis, with 115 patients in the benign group and 300 patients in the malignant tumor group. A higher postoperative mean pain score was found in the benign brain tumor group compared to the malignant brain tumor group (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the incidence of nausea between the two groups. Conclusion: The different histopathological characteristics of brain tumors have no association with postoperative nausea in patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Patients with benign brain tumors experience more pain than patients with malignant brain tumors. This difference in postoperative pain may be due to the younger age of the patients in the benign group.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2013; 29(9). DOI:10.1185/03007995.2013.811070 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cooling to electrocerebral inactivity (ECI) by electroencephalography (EEG) remains the gold standard to maximize cerebral and systemic organ protection during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). We sought to determine predictors of ECI to help guide cooling protocols when EEG monitoring is unavailable. Methods: Between July 2005 and July 2011, 396 patients underwent thoracic aortic operation with DHCA; EEG monitoring was used in 325 (82%) of these patients to guide the cooling strategy, and constituted the study cohort. Electroencephalographic monitoring was used for all elective cases and, when available, for nonelective cases. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess predictors of the nasopharyngeal temperature and cooling time required to achieve ECI. Results: Cooling to a nasopharyngeal temperature of 12.7°C or for a duration of 97 minutes was required to achieve ECI in >95% of patients. Only 7% and 11% of patients achieved ECI by 18°C or 50 minutes of cooling, respectively. No independent predictors of nasopharyngeal temperature at ECI were identified. Independent predictors of cooling time included body surface area (18 minutes/m(2)), white race (7 minutes), and starting nasopharyngeal temperature (3 minutes/°C). Low complication rates were observed (ischemic stroke, 1.5%; permanent paraparesis/paraplegia, 1.5%; new-onset dialysis, 2.2%; and 30-day/in-hospital mortality, 4.3%). Conclusions: Cooling to a nasopharyngeal temperature of 12.7°C or for a duration of 97 minutes achieved ECI in >95% of patients in our study population. However, patient-specific factors were poorly predictive of the temperature or cooling time required to achieve ECI, necessitating EEG monitoring for precise ECI detection.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 04/2013; 147(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.03.022 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Postoperative neurocognitive decline occurs frequently. Although predictors of cognitive injury have been well examined, factors that modulate recovery have not. We sought to determine the predictors of cognitive recovery after initial injury following cardiac surgery. Methods: Two hundred eighty-one patients previously enrolled in cognitive studies who experienced cognitive decline 6 weeks after cardiac surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Eligible patients completed a battery of neurocognitive measures and quality-of-life assessments at baseline, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. Factor analysis was conducted to calculate the cognitive index (CI), a unified, continuous measure of cognitive function. Cognitive recovery was defined as 1-year CI greater than baseline CI. Potential predictors of cognitive recovery including patient characteristics, quality-of-life factors, comorbidities, medications, and intraoperative variables were assessed with multivariable regression modeling; P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 229 patients in our final data set, 103 (45%) demonstrated cognitive recovery after initial decline in CI at 6 weeks. Multivariable analyses revealed that more education (odds ratio [OR] 1.332 [1.131-1.569], P<0.001), baseline CI (OR 0.987 [0.976-0.998], P=0.02), less decline in CI at 6 weeks (OR 1.044 [1.014-1.075], P=0.004), and greater activities of daily living at 6 weeks (OR 0.891 [0.810-0.981], P=0.02) were significant predictors of cognitive recovery. Conclusion: Cognitive recovery occurred in approximately one half of the cardiac surgical patients experiencing early decline. The association between cognitive recovery and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at 6 weeks merits further investigation as it is the only potentially modifiable predictor of recovery.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 01/2013; 116(2). DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e318273f37e · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Wei Sun · Amanda Peacock · Jane Becker · Barbara Phillips-Bute · Daniel T Laskowitz · Michael L James ·
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating and common admitting diagnosis to intensive care units in the USA. Despite advances in critical care, patients with ICH often experience early neurological deterioration (END) in the first 72 hours after admission due to a variety of factors, including hematoma and cerebral edema evolution. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with END after ICH. Using the Duke University Hospital Neuroscience Critical Care Unit Database, we retrospectively identified patients with an admitting diagnosis of supratentorial ICH from January to December 2010, verified by CT imaging. END was defined as a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale score of ≥3 or death within the first 72 hours after hemorrhage. The chi-squared or t-test analysis was used to compare the groups, as appropriate. Multiple logistical regression modeling was performed to test for associations between likely predictors of END. Of the 89 subjects admitted with supratentorial ICH, we included 83 in the analysis based on complete datasets. Of these, 31 experienced END within 72 hours after onset of symptoms. ICH score, presence of midline shift on imaging, and white blood cell (WBC) count were used in a regression model for predicting END. WBC count demonstrated the greatest association with END. Patients with ICH are prone to END within the first few days after hemorrhage. Elevated WBC count appears predictive of deterioration. These data demonstrate that heightened inflammatory state after ICH may be related to early deterioration after injury.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 06/2012; 19(8):1096-100. DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2011.11.020 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In high-risk cardiac procedures, dynamic analysis of right ventricular (RV) performance is desirable, but the geometric complexity of the RV limits the applicability of current two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the perioperative assessment of RV function and dimensions. Patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures with complete TEE examinations were identified and reviewed according to current guidelines to exclude patients with significant coexisting valvular regurgitation. Full-volume, three-dimensional datasets were analyzed by two independent investigators using stand-alone software, and left ventricular and RV dimensions were recorded. Datasets from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures were evaluated for this study. The mean RV volume was 111.7 mL (range, 37.5 to 349.7 mL) at end diastole and 67.6 mL (range, 25.5 to 274.4 mL) at end systole. Intraobserver reliability was 0.93 and 0.90 for end diastolic and 0.77 and 0.87 for end systolic volumes. The interobserver reliability for RV volumes was 0.83 at end diastole and 0.86 at end systole. The mean stroke volume was 43.6 mL (range, 12 to 111.2 mL) for the RV and 49.1 mL (range, 19.9 to 102.8 mL) for the left ventricle; the correlation coefficient between the two was 0.85. Three-dimensional TEE volumetric measurements were reproducible across a wide range of RV dimensions. As postulated by the continuity principle, stroke volume measurements between both ventricles correlated well, supporting the validity of this approach. Therefore, our work provides preliminary evidence that three-dimensional TEE offers reproducible information about RV function and size in the dynamic and complex perioperative setting of cardiac surgical procedures.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2012; 94(2):468-74. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.03.073 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • Ian J Welsby · Barbara Phillips-Bute ·

    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2012; 93(3):883. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.11.045 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative sternal wound complications are a significant problem in high-risk patients. In addition to closure with conventional wires, several systems involving rigid fixation with metal plates are currently available. The rapid sternal closure system (Talon) is approved for stabilization and fixation of the anterior chest wall. Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of the Talon may result in improved postoperative recovery. Fifty-one cardiac surgical patients at higher risk for sternal wound complications were enrolled at two sites. Subjects were randomized to insertion of Talons (n = 28) or wires only (control, n = 23) for sternal closure. The primary endpoint was a comparison between study groups of the percent of baseline incentive spirometry volume through postoperative day 7. Secondary endpoints included other measures of quality of recovery, sternal wound infection, and nonunion. The percentage of preoperative incentive spirometry volume achieved was higher in the Talon arm (67% ± 32%) versus control (58% ± 24%); however, this was not statistically significant (P = 0.41). Use of the Talon was associated with decreased use of opiates (21.3 ± 11.8 vs. 25.4 ± 21.6 mg, P = 0.44), increased ability to ambulate 1000 ft on postoperative day 5 (25% vs. 13%, P = 0.28), and decreased duration of mechanical ventilation (median 0.5 vs 1.0 days, P = 0.24) and hospital length of stay (4.5 ± 3.2 vs. 5.3 ± 4.0 days, P = 0.40). One superficial sternal wound infection was observed in each study arm. There were no cases of nonunion. In this pilot study, the primary endpoint was not statistically different between the treatment groups. Use of the Talon was associated with trends toward benefit in endpoints consistent with enhanced postoperative recovery, highlighting a need for additional data from larger randomized trials.
    Innovations Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery 11/2011; 6(6):382-8. DOI:10.1097/IMI.0b013e318248fbda

Publication Stats

5k Citations
619.64 Total Impact Points


  • 1998-2015
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1999-2014
    • Duke University
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • North Carolina Clinical Research
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada