[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inclusion of a potent TLR4 immune potentiator to a recombinant antigen vaccine formulation enhances both the magnitude and the breadth of the engendered immune response. One such immune potentiator (TLR4 agonist E6020) was evaluated with recombinant Men B antigens delivered in MF59 sub-micron adjuvant emulsion. The ability of this formulation to enhance serum antibody and bactercidal titers was investigated. The co-delivery of E6020 within MF59 enhanced both the serum and bactericidal titers for Men B antigens and for Men B antigens combined with Men ACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine. The delivery of TLR4 agonist within MF59 emulsion oil droplets leads to a more potent response in comparison to the TLR4 when admixed with MF59 emulsion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeThe effectiveness of vaccines depends on the age and immunocompetence of the vaccinee. Conventional non-adjuvanted influenza
vaccines are suboptimal in the elderly and vaccines with improved ability to prevent influenza are required. The TLR4 agonist
E6020, either given alone or co-delivered with MF59, was evaluated and compared to MF59 and the TLR9 agonist CpG. Its ability
to enhance antibody titres and to modulate the quality of the immune response to a subunit influenza vaccine was investigated.
MethodsMice were immunized with either antigens alone, with MF59 or with the TLR agonists alone, or with a combination thereof. Serum
samples were assayed for IgG antibody titres and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres. Th1/Th2 type responses were determined
by titrating IgG subclasses in serum samples and by T-cell cytokine responses in splenocytes.
ResultsMF59 was the best single adjuvant inducing HI and T-cell responses in comparison to all alternatives. The co-delivery of E6020
or CpG with MF59 did not further increase antibody titres however shifted towards a more Th1 based immune response.
ConclusionCombining adjuvants like E6020 and MF59 allowed a finer tuning of the immune response towards a particular Th bias, thus have
significant implications for the development of improved influenza vaccines.
Pharmaceutical Research 06/2009; 26(6):1477-1485. DOI:10.1007/s11095-009-9859-5 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination strategies that can block or limit heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions to local and systemic tissues are the goal of much research effort. Herein, in a mouse model, we aimed to determine whether the enhancement of antibody responses through mucosal and systemic immunizations, previously observed with protein-based vaccines, applies to immunizations with DNA- or RNA-based vectors. Intranasal (i.n.) followed by intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations (i.n./i.m.) with polylactide-coglycolide (PLG)-DNA microparticles encoding HIV-gag (PLG-DNA-gag) significantly enhanced serum antibody responses, compared with i.m., i.n. or i.m. followed by i.n. (i.m./i.n.) immunizations. Moreover, while i.n./i.m., i.n. or i.m./i.n. immunizations with PLG-DNA-gag resulted in genital tract antibody responses, i.m. immunizations alone failed to do so. Importantly, beta7-deficient mice developed local and systemic antibody responses following i.n./i.m. immunization, or immunization via any other route, similar to those of wild-type mice. To compare the DNA with an RNA delivery system, immunizations were performed with VEE/SIN-gag replicon particles, composed of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon RNA and Sindbis surface structure (SIN). i.n./i.m., compared with any other immunizations, i.n./i.m. immunization with VEE/SIN-gag resulted in enhanced genital tract but not serum antibody responses. These data show for the first time that mucosal followed by systemic immunizations with gene delivery systems enhance B-cell responses independent of the mucosal homing receptors alpha4beta7 and alphaEbeta7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of the surface of anionic PLG microparticles before and after adsorption of vaccine antigens was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The interfacial distributions of components will reflect underlying interactions that govern properties such as adsorption, release, and stability of proteins in microparticle vaccine delivery systems. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles were prepared by a w/o/w emulsification method in the presence of the anionic surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS). Ovalbumin, lysozyme, a recombinant HIV envelope glyocoprotein and a Neisseria meningitidis B protein were adsorbed to the PLG microparticles, with XPS and time-of-flight secondary mass used to analyze elemental and molecular distributions of components of the surface of lyophilized products. Protein (antigen) binding to PLG microparticles was measured directly by distinct elemental and molecular spectroscopic signatures consistent with amino acids and excipient species. The surface sensitive composition of proteins also included counter ions that support the importance of electrostatic interactions being crucial in the mechanism of adsorptions. The protein binding capacity was consistent with the available surface area and the interpretation of previous electron and atomic force microscope images strengthened by the quantification possible by XPS and the qualitative identification possible with TOF-SIMS. Protein antigens were detected and quantified on the surface of anionic PLG microparticles with varying degrees of efficiency under different adsorption conditions such as surfactant level, pH, and ionic strength. Observable changes in elemental and molecular composition suggest an efficient electrostatic interaction creating a composite surface layer that mediates antigen binding and release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza is controlled by protective titres of neutralizing antibodies, induced with the help of CD4 T-cells, and by antiviral T-cell effector function. Adjuvants are essential for the efficient vaccination of a naïve population against avian influenza. We evaluated a range of adjuvants for their ability to enhance, in naïve mice, protective hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres, which represent the generally accepted correlate of protection, virus-neutralizing titres and T-cell responses to a new generation influenza vaccine produced in cell culture. The selected adjuvants include alum, calcium phosphate (CAP), MF59, the delivery system poly-(lactide co-glycolide) (PLG) and the immune potentiator CpG. MF59 was clearly the most potent single adjuvant and induced significantly enhanced, long-lasting HI and neutralizing titres and T-cell responses in comparison to all alternatives. The combination of alum, MF59, CAP or PLG with CpG generally induced slightly more potent titres. The addition of CpG to MF59 also induced a more potent Th1 cellular immune response, represented by higher IgG2a titres and the induction of a strongly enhanced IFN-gamma response in splenocytes from immunized mice. These observations have significant implications for the development of new and improved flu vaccines against pandemic and inter-pandemic influenza virus strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to conduct an in vivo comparison of nanoparticles and microparticles as vaccine delivery systems. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymers were used to create nanoparticles size 110 nm and microparticles of size 800-900 nm. Protein antigens were then adsorbed to these particles. The efficacy of these delivery systems was tested with two protein antigens. A recombinant antigen from Neisseria meningitides type B (MenB) was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitonealy (i.p.). An antigen from HIV-1, env glycoprotein gp140 was administered intranasally (i.n.) followed by an i.m. boost. From three studies, there were no differences between the nanoparticles and micro-particles formulations. Both particles led to comparable immune responses in mice. The immune responses for MenB (serum bactericidal activity and antibody titers) were equivalent to the control of aluminum hydroxide. For the gp140, the LTK63 was necessary for high titers. Both nanoparticles and microparticles are promising delivery systems.
Human vaccines 01/2008; 4(1):44-9. DOI:10.4161/hv.4.1.4886 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that cationic polylactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles can be effectively used to adsorb DNA and generate potent immune responses in vivo. We now describe a modified and easier process containing a single lyophilization step to prepare these cationic PLG microparticles with adsorbed DNA. Cationic PLG microparticle formulations with adsorbed DNA were prepared using a modified solvent evaporation technique. Formulations with a fixed CTAB content and DNA load were prepared. The loading efficiency and 24h DNA release was evaluated for each formulation and compared to the earlier method of preparation. Select formulations were tested in vivo. The modified cationic PLG microparticle preparation method with a single lyophilization step, showed comparable physico-chemical behaviour to the two lyophilization steps process and induced comparable immune. The modified process with a single lyophilization step is a more practical process and can be utlized to prepare cationic PLG microparticles with adsorbed DNA on a large scale.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 01/2007; 327(1-2):1-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.07.033 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to obtain a nanoparticle formulation that could be sterile filtered, lyophilized, and resuspended to the initial size with excipients appropriate for use as a vaccine formulation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymers were used to create nanoparticles ranging in size from 110 to 230 nm. Protein antigens were adsorbed to the particles; the protein-nanoparticles were then lyophilized with the excipients. Vaccine compatible excipient combinations of sugars alone, surfactants alone, and sugars and surfactants were tested to find conditions where initial particle size was recovered. Sterile filtration of smaller nanoparticles led to minimal PLG losses and allowed the particle preparation to be a nonaseptic process. We found that the smaller nanoparticles of size approximately 120 nm required higher surfactant concentration to resuspend postlyophilization than slightly larger ( approximately 220 nm) particles. To resuspend 120 nm nanoparticles formulations of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with sucrose/mannitol or dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS) with trehalose/mannitol were sufficient. The protein-nanoparticles resuspension with the same excipients was dependent on the protein and protein loading level. The nanoparticle formulations in vivo were either similar or had enhanced immunogenicity compared to aluminum hydroxide formulations. A lyophilized nanoparticle formulation with adsorbed protein antigen and minimal excipients is an effective vaccine delivery system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although approximately 3 % of the world's population is infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), there is no prophylactic vaccine available. This study reports the design, cloning and purification of a single polyprotein comprising the HCV core protein and non-structural proteins NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5a and NS5b. The immunogenicity of this polyprotein, which was formulated in alum, oil-in-water emulsion MF59 or poly(dl-lactide co-glycolide) in the presence or absence of CpG adjuvant, was then determined in a murine model for induction of B- and T-cell responses. The addition of adjuvants or a delivery system to the HCV polyprotein enhanced serum antibody and T-cell proliferative responses, as well as IFN-gamma responses, by CD4+ T cells. The antibody responses were mainly against the NS3 and NS5 components of the polyprotein and relatively poor responses were elicited against NS4 and the core components. IFN-gamma responses, however, were induced against all of the individual components of the polyprotein. These data suggest that the HCV polyprotein delivered with adjuvants induces broad B- and T-cell responses and could be a vaccine candidate against HCV.
Journal of General Virology 09/2006; 87(Pt 8):2253-62. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.81849-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although alum is the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, it has some limitations for use with the next generation recombinant antigens. We explored the use of alternative adjuvant formulations (poly lactide co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles, MF59 emulsion, CAP and l-tyrosine suspension) in comparison with five different vaccine antigens—namely, diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT), HBsAg, Men C conjugate and MB1. The results indicated that although alum was optimal for bacterial toxoid based vaccines, it was not highly potent for MB1, Men C or HBsAg antigens. MF59 emulsion stood out as a good alternative to alum for TT, HBsAg, MB1 and Men C vaccines. On the other hand l-tyrosine suspension and CAP did not enhance immune responses over alum with most antigens. PLG microparticles were comparable or better than alum with both MB1 and Men C conjugate vaccine. The study indicates that it is possible to replace alum with other adjuvant formulations like MF59 and PLG and maintain and/or improve immune responses with some vaccine antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the synthetic LPS mimetic RC529, encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles, were evaluated as immune potentiators in the presence of either HIV-1 gp120 protein or antigen from Neisseria meningitidis serotype B (Men B). The immunogenicity of these formulations was evaluated in mice and compared to CpG containing oligonucleotide. This work was done as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the potency of vaccine candidates against HIV and Men B.
Microparticles were made by a solvent evaporation method. Blank microparticles as well as microparticles with encapsulated MPL or RC529 were made using the PLG polymer RG503 and the ionic surfactant Dioctylsulfosuccinate by the water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique. Antigens from HIV-1 and Men B were adsorbed on the surface of these anionic microparticles and the final formulations characterized for protein loading, release, and integrity. The formulations were then tested in mice for their ability to elicit antibodies and bactericidal activity in comparison with CpG containing oligonucleotide.
We have found that adding soluble immune potentiators to Men B antigen formulated on PLG microparticles significantly enhanced the immune response to a level comparable to that obtained using CpG. In a separate study, we found that encapsulating MPL or RC529 in PLG microparticles further enhanced the response in comparison to soluble CpG, which is our control group. Similarly, adding soluble immune potentiators to gp120 antigen formulated on PLG microparticles resulted in a significant enhancement of the immune response. Moreover, delivering MPL or RC529 encapsulated in PLG microparticles with gp120 adsorbed on PLG microparticles, resulted in even further enhancement of serum titers over those obtained with soluble immune potentiators. These titers were comparable to or greater than those obtained with soluble CpG, the control group. This effect was observed for both antigens regardless of whether or not the immune potentiator and the antigen were used with the same or with separate particles. In conclusion, the advantages of encapsulating MPL and RC529 lie not only in the enhanced immune response they elicit, but also in the convenience of handling these relatively insoluble compounds, and flexibility in vaccine design. The fact that MPL and RC529 are readily soluble in methylene chloride used for the manufacturing of PLG microparticles makes it easy to avoid solubility issues. Moreover, formulating antigen and immune potentiator with the same particle offers an attractive approach to vaccine delivery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several groups have shown that vaccine antigens can be encapsulated within polymeric microparticles and can serve as potent antigen delivery systems. We have recently shown that an alternative approach involving charged polylactide co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles with surface adsorbed antigen(s) can also be used to deliver antigen into antigen presenting cell (APC). We have described the preparation of cationic and anionic PLG microparticles which have been used to adsorb a variety of agents, which include plasmid DNA, recombinant proteins and adjuvant active oligonucleotides. These PLG microparticles were prepared using a w/o/w solvent evaporation process in the presence of the anionic surfactants, including DSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) or cationic surfactants, including CTAB (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide). Antigen binding to the charged PLG microparticles was influenced by several factors including electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These microparticle based formulations resulted in the induction of significantly enhanced immune responses in comparison to alum. The surface adsorbed microparticle formulation offers an alternative and novel way of delivering antigens in a vaccine formulation.
Current Drug Delivery 02/2006; 3(1):115-20. DOI:10.2174/156720106775197565 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work examines physico-chemical properties influencing protein adsorption to anionic PLG microparticles and demonstrates the ability to bind and release vaccine antigens over a range of loads, pH values, and ionic strengths. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles were synthesized by a w/o/w emulsification method in the presence of the anionic surfactant DSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate). Ovalbumin (OVA), carbonic anhydrase (CAN), lysozyme (LYZ), lactic acid dehydrogenase, bovine serum albumin (BSA), an HIV envelope glyocoprotein, and a Neisseria meningitidis B protein were adsorbed to the PLG microparticles, with binding efficiency, initial release and zeta potentials measured. Protein (antigen) binding to PLG microparticles was influenced by both electrostatic interaction and other mechanisms such as van der Waals forces. The protein binding capacity was directly proportional to the available surface area and may have a practical upper limit imposed by the formation of a complete protein monolayer as suggested by AFM images. The protein affinity for the PLG surface depended strongly on the isoelectric point (pI) and electrostatic forces, but also showed contributions from nonCoulombic interactions. Protein antigens were adsorbed on anionic PLG microparticles with varying degrees of efficiency under different conditions such as pH and ionic strength. Observable changes in zeta potentials and morphology suggest the formation of a surface monolayer. Antigen binding and release occur through a combination of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions occurring at the polymer-solution interface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines have been used widely in experimental primate models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their effectiveness has been limited. In this study, we evaluated three technologies for increasing the potency of DNA vaccines in rhesus macaques. These included DNA encoding Sindbis virus RNA replicons (pSINCP), cationic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles for DNA delivery, and recombinant protein boosting. The DNA-based pSINCP replicon vaccines encoding HIV Gag and Env were approximately equal in potency to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-driven conventional DNA vaccines (pCMV). The PLG microparticle DNA delivery system was particularly effective at enhancing antibody responses induced by both pCMV and pSINCP vaccines and had less effect on T cells. Recombinant Gag and Env protein boosting elicited rapid and strong recall responses, in some cases to levels exceeding those seen after DNA or DNA/PLG priming. Of note, Env protein boosting induced serum-neutralizing antibodies and increased frequencies of gamma interferon-producing CD4 T cells severalfold. Thus, PLG microparticles are an effective means of delivering DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates, as demonstrated for two different types of DNA vaccines encoding two different antigens, and are compatible for use with DNA prime-protein boost regimens.
Journal of Virology 08/2005; 79(13):8189-200. DOI:10.1128/JVI.79.13.8189-8200.2005 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to develop vaccines that can elicit immunological memory responses against HIV. Using the rhesus macaque model and a combination of intranasal (IN) and parenteral immunizations with DNA or protein adsorbed to microparticles or mixed with mucosal adjuvants we sought to induce anti-HIV memory-type immune responses in both the mucosal and systemic compartments. Prime/boost immunizations were performed through five IN immunizations alone with HIV-env oligomeric gp140 (Ogp140) or HIV-gag-p24 mixed with Escherichia coli heat labile-derived mutant adjuvants or two parenteral immunizations with DNA encoding HIV-env or -gag adsorbed to microparticles followed by three IN immunizations with p24 gag protein and the mutant adjuvants. Both modes of immunizations induced anti-gp140 plasma and vaginal IgG and IgA as well as interferon (IFN)-gamma secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after HIV-env and -gag peptide restimulation. After a resting period of 4 months, when the levels of humoral and cellular responses had decreased, intramuscular (IM) booster immunizations with p55-gag protein adsorbed to microparticles and Ogp140 in MF59 oil in water emulsion significantly enhanced anti-HIV plasma and vaginal antibody, as well as peripheral blood IFN-gamma responses in all groups of vaccinated macaques. Importantly, plasma neutralization activity against both homologous and heterologous HIV strains was observed in all groups following the IM booster immunizations with protein. These findings show that IN priming alone or combinations of parenteral and IN immunizations followed by IM booster immunizations hold promise to significantly enhance mucosal and systemic memory-type immune responses against HIV-1 antigens.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 12/2004; 20(11):1269-81. DOI:10.1089/0889222042544974 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose.To evaluate the delivery of a novel HIV-1 antigen (gp120dV2 SF162) by surface adsorption or encapsulation within polylactide-co-glycolide microparticles and to compare both the formulations for their ability to preserve functional activity as measured by binding to soluble CD4.Methods.Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles were synthesized by a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsification method in the presence of the anionic surfactant dioctylsulfosuccinate (DSS) or polyvinyl alcohol. The HIV envelope glyocoprotein was adsorbed and encapsulated in the PLG particles. Binding efficiency and burst release measured to determine adsorption characteristics. The ability to bind CD4 was assayed to measure the functional integrity of gp120dV2 following different formulation processes.Results.Protein (antigen) binding to PLG microparticles was influenced by both electrostatic interaction and other mechanisms such as hydrophobic attraction and structural accommodation of the polymer and biomolecule. The functional activity as measured by the ability of gp120dV2 to bind CD4 was maintained by adsorption onto anionic microparticles but drastically reduced by encapsulation.Conclusions.The antigen on the adsorbed PLG formulation maintained its binding ability to soluble CD4 in comparison to encapsulation, demonstrating the feasibility of using these novel anionic microparticles as a potential vaccine delivery system.
Pharmaceutical Research 11/2004; 21(12):2148-2152. DOI:10.1007/s11095-004-7666-6 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymeric microparticles with encapsulated antigens have become well-established in the last decade as potent antigen delivery systems and adjuvants, with experience being reported from many groups. However, the authors have recently shown that an alternative approach involving charged polylactide co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles with surface adsorbed antigen(s) can also be used to deliver antigen into antigen-presenting cell populations. The authors have described the preparation of cationic and anionic PLG microparticles that have been used to adsorb a variety of agents, to include plasmid DNA, recombinant proteins and adjuvant active oligonucleotides. These novel PLG microparticles were prepared using a w/o/w solvent evaporation process in the presence of the anionic surfactants, such as dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, or cationic surfactants, such as hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Antigen binding to the charged PLG microparticles was influenced by both electrostatic interaction and other mechanisms, including hydrophobic interactions. Adsorption of antigens to microparticles resulted in the induction of significantly enhanced immune responses in comparison with alternative approaches. The surface adsorbed microparticle formulation offers an alternative way of delivering antigens as a vaccine formulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the mechanisms involved in maintaining long-term immunological memory following mucosal immunizations, we determined the quality of serum hapten-specific immunoglobulins (Ig) and localized Ig-secreting cells (SC) of various isotypes in acute, persistent/resting memory and effector memory phases following oral versus intra-muscular (IM) immunizations. In the acute phase, both oral and IM immunizations induced high avidity Ig. However, in the persistent/resting memory phase, oral immunizations induced low avidity Ig while IM immunizations induced high avidity Ig. Following oral immunizations, in the persistent/resting memory phase, hapten-specific IgM titers in serum and IgM-SC in bone marrow (BM) dominated the immune response, suggesting an important role for IgM in the maintenance of memory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adsorption behavior of model proteins onto anionic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles was evaluated. PLG microparticles were prepared by a w/o/w solvent evaporation process in the presence of the anionic surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS). The effect of surfactant concentration and adsorption conditions on the adsorption efficiency and release rates in vitro was also studied. Subsequently, the microparticle formulation was tested to evaluate the efficacy of anionic microparticles as delivery systems for recombinant antigens from Neisseria meningitides type B (Men B), with and without CpG adjuvant. Protein (antigen) binding to anionic PLG microparticles was influenced by both electrostatic interaction and by other mechanisms, including hydrophobic attraction. The Men B antigens adsorbed efficiently onto anionic PLG microparticles and, following immunization in mice, induced potent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum bactericidal activity in comparison to alum-adsorbed formulations. These Men B antigens represent an attractive approach for vaccine development.