[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an evolutionar-ily conserved chromosomal protein that binds to lysine 9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me), a hall-mark of heterochromatin. Although HP1 phospho-rylation has been described in several organisms, the biological implications of this modification re-main largely elusive. Here we show that HP1's phos-phorylation has a critical effect on its nucleosome binding properties. By in vitro phosphorylation as-says and conventional chromatography, we demon-strated that casein kinase II (CK2) is the kinase primarily responsible for phosphorylating the N-terminus of human HP1␣. Pull-down assays using in vitro-reconstituted nucleosomes showed that un-modified HP1␣ bound H3K9-methylated and H3K9-unmethylated nucleosomes with comparable affin-ity, whereas CK2-phosphorylated HP1␣ showed a high specificity for H3K9me3-modified nucleosomes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that CK2-mediated phosphorylation diminished HP1␣'s intrinsic DNA binding, which contributed to its H3K9me-independent nucleosome binding. CK2-mediated phosphorylation had a similar effect on the nucleosome-binding specificity of fly HP1a and S. pombe Swi6. These results suggested that HP1 phos-phorylation has an evolutionarily conserved role in HP1's recognition of H3K9me-marked nucleosomes.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleosomes are extremely stable histone-DNA complexes that form the building blocks of chromatin, which accommodates genomic DNA within the nucleus. The dynamic properties of chromatin play essential roles in regulating genomic DNA functions, such as DNA replication, recombination, repair, and transcription. Histones are the protein components of nucleosomes, and their diverse modifications and variants increase the versatility of nucleosome structures and their dynamics in chromatin. Therefore, a technique to evaluate the physical properties of nucleosomes would facilitate functional studies of the various nucleosomes. In this report, we describe a convenient assay for evaluating the thermal stability of nucleosomes in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleosomes containing a human histone variant, H2A.B, in an aqueous solution were analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering utilizing a contrast variation technique. Comparisons with the canonical H2A nucleosome structure revealed that the DNA termini of the H2A.B nucleosome are detached from the histone core surface, and flexibly expanded toward the solvent. In contrast, the histone tails are compacted in H2A.B nucleosomes compared to those in canonical H2A nucleosomes, suggesting that they bind to the surface of the histone core and/or DNA. Therefore, the histone tail dynamics may function to regulate the flexibility of the DNA termini in the nucleosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is critically involved in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and the suppression of carcinogenesis. A key FA protein, FANCD2, is monoubiquitinated and accumulates in chromatin in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), where it coordinates DNA repair through mechanisms that are still poorly understood. Here, we report that CtIP protein directly interacts with FANCD2. A region spanning amino acids 166 to 273 of CtIP and monoubiquitination of FANCD2 are both essential for the FANCD2-CtIP interaction and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced CtIP foci. Remarkably, both FANCD2 and CtIP are critical for MMC-induced RPA2 hyperphosphorylation, an event that accompanies end resection of double-strand breaks. Collectively, our results reveal a role of monoubiquitinated FANCD2 in end resection that depends on its binding to CtIP during ICL repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human histone H2B variant TSH2B is highly expressed in testis and may function in the chromatin transition during spermatogenesis. In the present study, the crystal structure of the human testis-specific nucleosome containing TSH2B was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. A local structural difference between TSH2B and canonical H2B in nucleosomes was detected around the TSH2B-specific amino-acid residue Ser85. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, but in the canonical nucleosome the H2B Asn84 residue (corresponding to the TSH2B Ser85 residue) forms water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the H4 Arg78 residue. In contrast, the other TSH2B-specific amino-acid residues did not induce any significant local structural changes in the TSH2B nucleosome. These findings may provide important information for understanding how testis-specific histone variants form nucleosomes during spermatogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centromeres are essential for ensuring proper chromosome segregation in eukaryotes. Their definition relies on the presence of a centromere-specific H3 histone variant CenH3, known as CENP-A in mammals. Its overexpression in aggressive cancers raises questions concerning its effect on chromatin dynamics and contribution to tumorigenesis. We find that CenH3 overexpression in human cells leads to ectopic enrichment at sites of active histone turnover involving a heterotypic tetramer containing CenH3-H4 with H3.3-H4. Ectopic localization of this particle depends on the H3.3 chaperone DAXX rather than the dedicated CenH3 chaperone HJURP. This aberrant nucleosome occludes CTCF binding and has a minor effect on gene expression. Cells overexpressing CenH3 are more tolerant of DNA damage. Both the survival advantage and CTCF occlusion in these cells are dependent on DAXX. Our findings illustrate how changes in histone variant levels can disrupt chromatin dynamics and suggests a possible mechanism for cell resistance to anticancer treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) is an extremely deleterious DNA lesion that covalently crosslinks complementary strands and prevents the strand-separation reaction. In higher eukaryotes, the Fanconi anemia proteins, FANCI and FANCD2, form a heterodimer and play essential roles in ICL repair. Human FANCI and FANCD2 are large proteins with molecular masses of 149 kDa and 164 kDa, respectively, and were reportedly purified using a baculovirus expression system with insect cells. We have established a novel expression and purification procedure for human FANCD2 and FANCI, using Escherichia coli cells. The human FANCD2 and FANCI proteins purified by this bacterial expression method formed a stable heterodimer, and exhibited DNA binding and histone chaperone activities, as previously reported for the proteins purified by the baculovirus system. Therefore, these purification methods for human FANCI and FANCD2 provide novel procedures to facilitate structural and biochemical studies of human FANCI and FANCD2.
Protein Expression and Purification 01/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination plays essential roles in mitotic DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and meiotic genetic recombination. In eukaryotes, RAD51 promotes the central homologous-pairing step during homologous recombination, but is not sufficient to overcome the reaction barrier imposed by nucleosomes. RAD54, a member of the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor family, is required to promote the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in nucleosomal DNA. In higher eukaryotes, most nucleosomes form higher-ordered chromatin containing the linker histone H1. However, the mechanism by which RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing occurs in higher-ordered chromatin has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that a histone chaperone, Nap1, accumulates on DSB sites in human cells, and DSB repair is substantially decreased in Nap1-knockdown cells. We determined that Nap1 binds to RAD54, enhances the RAD54-mediated nucleosome remodeling by evicting histone H1, and eventually stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab) fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph) and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac). These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye∶protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green), Cy3 (red), and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red).
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106271. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), which are members of the actin family, are essential components of many of these remodeling complexes. Actin, Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8 are found to be evolutionarily conserved components of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. A recent report showed that Arp8 forms a module in the INO80 complex and this module can directly capture a nucleosome. In the present study, we showed that recombinant human Arp8 binds to DNAs, and preferentially binds to single-stranded DNA. Analysis of the binding of adenine nucleotides to Arp8 mutants suggested that the ATP-binding pocket, located in the evolutionarily conserved actin fold, plays a regulatory role in the binding of Arp8 to DNA. To determine the cellular function of Arp8, we derived tetracycline-inducible Arp8 knockout cells from a cultured human cell line. Analysis of results obtained after treating these cells with aphidicolin and camptothecin revealed that Arp8 is involved in DNA repair. Together with the previous observation that Arp8, but not γ-H2AX, is indispensable for recruiting INO80 complex to DSB in human, results of our study suggest an individual role for Arp8 in DNA repair.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e108354. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During meiosis, homologous recombination (HR) is essential to repair programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and a dedicated protein machinery ensures that the homologous chromosome is favored over the nearby sister chromatid as a repair template. The HOMOLOGOUS-PAIRING PROTEIN2/MEIOTIC NUCLEAR DIVISION PROTEIN1 (HOP2/MND1) protein complex has been identified as a crucial factor of meiotic HR in Arabidopsis thaliana, since loss of either MND1 or HOP2 results in failure of DNA repair. We isolated two mutant alleles of HOP2 (hop2-2 and hop2-3) that retained the capacity to repair meiotic DSBs via the sister chromatid but failed to use the homologous chromosome. We show that in these alleles, the recombinases RADIATION SENSITIVE51 (RAD51) and DISRUPTED MEIOTIC cDNA1 (DMC1) are loaded, but only the intersister DNA repair pathway is activated. The hop2-2 phenotype is correlated with a decrease in HOP2/MND1 complex abundance. In hop2-3, a truncated HOP2 protein is produced that retains its ability to bind to DMC1 and DNA but forms less stable complexes with MND1 and fails to efficiently stimulate DMC1-driven D-loop formation. Genetic analyses demonstrated that in the absence of DMC1, HOP2/MND1 is dispensable for RAD51-mediated intersister DNA repair, while in the presence of DMC1, a minimal amount of functional HOP2/MND1 is essential to drive intersister DNA repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histone H2A.Z variant is widely conserved among eukaryotes. Two isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, have been identified in vertebrates and may have distinct functions in cell growth and gene expression. However, no structural differences between H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 have been reported. In the present study, the crystal structures of nucleosomes containing human H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 were determined. The structures of the L1 loop regions were found to clearly differ between H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, although their amino-acid sequences in this region are identical. This structural polymorphism may have been induced by a substitution that evolutionally occurred at the position of amino acid 38 and by the flexible nature of the L1 loops of H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2. It was also found that in living cells nucleosomal H2A.Z.1 exchanges more rapidly than H2A.Z.2. A mutational analysis revealed that the amino-acid difference at position 38 is at least partially responsible for the distinctive dynamics of H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2. These findings provide important new information for understanding the differences in the regulation and functions of H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 in cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 are key players in cellular tolerance to chemotherapeutic agents including camptothecin, cisplatin and poly[ADP ribose]polymerase inhibitor. The N-terminal segment of BRCA2 interacts with PALB2, thus contributing to the formation of the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex. To understand the role played by BRCA2 in this complex, we deleted its N-terminal segment and generated BRCA2N mutant cells. Although previous studies have suggested that BRCA1-PALB2 plays a role in the recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA-damage sites, BRCA2N mutant cells displayed a considerably milder phenotype than did BRCA2-/- null-deficient cells. We hypothesized that the DNA-binding domain of BRCA2 might compensate for a defect in BRCA2N that prevented stable interaction with PALB2. To test this hypothesis, we disrupted the DNA-binding domain of BRCA2 in wild-type and BRCA2N cells. Remarkably, although the resulting BRCA2DBD cells displayed a moderate phenotype, the BRCA2N+DBD cells displayed a very severe phenotype, as did the BRCA2-/- cells, suggesting that the N-terminal segment and the DNA-binding domain play a substantially overlapping role in the functionality of BRCA2. We also showed that the formation of both the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex and the DNA-binding domain is required for efficient recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA-damage sites. Our study revealed the essential role played by both the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex and the DNA-binding domain in the functionality of BRCA2, as each can compensate for the other in the recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA-damage sites. This knowledge adds to our ability to accurately predict the efficacy of anti-malignant therapies for patients carrying mutations in the BRCA2 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The centromere is a specific genomic region upon which the kinetochore is formed to attach to spindle microtubules for faithful chromosome segregation. To distinguish this chromosomal region from other genomic loci, the centromere contains a specific chromatin structure including specialized nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A. In addition to CENP-A nucleosomes, we have found that centromeres contain a nucleosome-like structure comprised of the histone-fold CENP-T-W-S-X complex. However, it is unclear how the CENP-T-W-S-X complex associates with centromere chromatin. Here, we demonstrate that the CENP-T-W-S-X complex binds preferentially to ∼100 bp of linker DNA rather than nucleosome-bound DNA. In addition, we find that the CENP-T-W-S-X complex primarily binds to DNA as a (CENP-T-W-S-X)2 structure. Interestingly, in contrast to canonical nucleosomes that negatively supercoil DNA, the CENP-T-W-S-X complex induces positive DNA supercoils. We found that the DNA-binding regions in CENP-T or CENP-W, but not CENP-S or CENP-X, are required for this positive supercoiling activity and the kinetochore targeting of the CENP-T-W-S-X complex. In summary, our work reveals the structural features and properties of the CENP-T-W-S-X complex for its localization to centromeres.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomeric DNAs consist of tandem repeats of G-clusters such as TTAGGG and TG1-3, which are the human and yeast repeat sequences, respectively. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the telomeric repeats are non-nucleosomal, whereas in humans, they are organized in tightly packaged nucleosomes. However, previous in vitro studies revealed that the binding affinities of human and yeast telomeric repeat sequences to histone octamers in vitro were similar, which is apparently inconsistent with the differences in the human and yeast telomeric chromatin structures. To further investigate the relationship between telomeric sequences and chromatin structure, we examined the effect of telomeric repeats on the formation of positioned nucleosomes in vivo by indirect end-label mapping, primer extension mapping and nucleosome repeat analyses, using a defined minichromosome in yeast cells. We found that the human and yeast telomeric repeat sequences both disfavour nucleosome assembly and alter nucleosome positioning in the yeast minichromosome. We further demonstrated that the G-clusters in the telomeric repeats are required for the nucleosome-disfavouring properties. Thus, our results suggest that this inherent structural feature of the telomeric repeat sequences is involved in the functional dynamics of the telomeric chromatin structure.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein is essential for efficient homologous recombination (HR). An important role of Rad52 in HR is the loading of Rad51 onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is referred to as the recombination mediator activity. In vitro, Rad52 displays additional activities, including self-association, DNA binding and ssDNA annealing. Although Rad52 has been a subject of extensive genetic, biochemical and structural studies, the mechanisms by which these activities are coordinated in the various roles of Rad52 in HR remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that an isolated C-terminal half of Rad52 disrupted the Rad51 oligomer and formed a heterodimeric complex with Rad51. The Rad52 fragment inhibited the binding of Rad51 to double-stranded DNA, but not to ssDNA. The phenylalanine-349 and tyrosine-409 residues present in the C-terminal half of Rad52 were critical for the interaction with Rad51, the disruption of Rad51 oligomers, the mediator activity of the full-length protein and for DNA repair in vivo in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate. Our studies suggested that phenylalanine-349 and tyrosine-409 are key residues in the C-terminal half of Rad52 and probably play an important role in the mediator activity.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic information encoded in chromosomal DNA is challenged by intrinsic and exogenous sources of DNA damage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are extremely dangerous DNA lesions. RAD51 plays a central role in homologous recombinational DSB repair, by facilitating the recombination of damaged DNA with intact DNA in eukaryotes. RAD51 accumulates at sites containing DNA damage to form nuclear foci. However, the mechanism of RAD51 accumulation at sites of DNA damage is still unclear. Posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, play a role in the regulation of protein localization and dynamics. Recently, the covalent binding of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to target proteins, termed SUMOylation, at sites containing DNA damage has been determined to play a role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. Here we show that the SUMOylation E2, UBC9, and E3, PIAS1 and PIAS4 enzymes are required for RAD51 accretion at sites containing DNA damage in human cells. Moreover, we identified a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) in RAD51, which is necessary for RAD51 accumulation at sites of DNA damage. These findings suggest that the SUMO-SIM system plays an important role in DNA repair, through the regulation of RAD51 dynamics.
Journal of Cell Science 09/2013; · 5.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-translational histone modifications play key roles in gene regulation, development, and differentiation, but their dynamics in living organisms remain almost completely unknown. To address this problem, we developed a genetically encoded system for tracking histone modifications by generating fluorescent modification-specific intracellular antibodies (mintbodies) that can be expressed in vivo. To demonstrate, an H3 lysine 9 acetylation specific mintbody (H3K9ac-mintbody) was engineered and stably expressed in human cells. In good agreement with the localization of its target acetylation, H3K9ac-mintbody was enriched in euchromatin, and its kinetics measurably changed upon treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We also generated transgenic fruit fly and zebrafish stably expressing H3K9ac-mintbody for in vivo tracking. Dramatic changes in H3K9ac-mintbody localization during Drosophila embryogenesis could highlight enhanced acetylation at the start of zygotic transcription around mitotic cycle 7. Together, this work demonstrates the broad potential of mintbody and lays the foundation for epigenetic analysis in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the hexasome, in which one of the H2A/H2B dimers is depleted from the canonical nucleosome core particle (NCP), is an essential intermediate during NCP assembly and disassembly, but little structural evidence for this exists. In this study, reconstituted products in a conventional NCP preparation were analyzed by native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and it was found that the hexasome, which migrated almost identically to the octasome NCP in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was produced simultaneously with the octasome NCP. This result might contribute to understanding the assembly and disassembly mechanism of NCPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome is episomally maintained in latently infected cells. The viral protein EBNA1 is a bridging molecule that tethers EBV episomes to host mitotic chromosomes as well as to interphase chromatin. EBNA1 localizes to cellular chromosomes (chromatin) via its chromosome binding domains (CBDs), which are rich in glycine and arginine residues. However, the molecular mechanism by which the CBDs of EBNA1 attach to cellular chromatin is still under debate. Mutation analyses revealed that stepwise substitution of arginine residues within the CBD1 [amino acids (a.a.) 40-54] and CBD2 [a.a. 328-377] regions with alanines progressively impaired chromosome binding activity of EBNA1. The complete arginine-to-alanine substitutions within the CBD1 and 2 regions abolished the ability of EBNA1 to stably maintain EBV-derived oriP plasmids in dividing cells. Importantly, replacing the same arginines with lysines had minimal effect, if any, on chromosome binding of EBNA1 as well as on its ability to stably maintain oriP plasmids. Furthermore, a glycine-arginine rich peptide derived from the CBD1 region bound to reconstituted nucleosome core particles in vitro, as did a glycine-lysine rich peptide, while a glycine-alanine rich peptide did not. These results support the idea that the chromosome binding of EBNA1 is mediated by electrostatic interactions between the basic amino acids within the CBDs and negatively charged cellular chromatin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor