[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UV-DDB, an initiation factor for the nucleotide excision repair pathway, recognizes 6-4PP lesions through a base flipping mechanism. As genomic DNA is almost entirely accommodated within nucleosomes, the flipping of the 6-4PP bases is supposed to be extremely difficult if the lesion occurs in a nucleosome, especially on the strand directly contacting the histone surface. Here we report that UV-DDB binds efficiently to nucleosomal 6-4PPs that are rotationally positioned on the solvent accessible or occluded surface. We determined the crystal structures of nucleosomes containing 6-4PPs in these rotational positions, and found that the 6-4PP DNA regions were flexibly disordered, especially in the strand exposed to the solvent. This characteristic of 6-4PP may facilitate UV-DDB binding to the damaged nucleosome. We present the first atomic-resolution pictures of the detrimental DNA cross-links of neighboring pyrimidine bases within the nucleosome, and provide the mechanistic framework for lesion recognition by UV-DDB in chromatin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in the coherent x-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. The apparatus allows us to collect diffraction data for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K and provides an experimental environment to easily transfer frozen-hydrated specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage for x-ray exposure. Since 2012, the apparatus has been used in the single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline biological cells and cellular components with dimensions from micrometer to submicrometer using x-ray free electron lasers at SACLA. Here we report on the performance of the KOTOBUKI-1 diffraction apparatus and some structure analyses of biological cells and cellular components. Based on the present results, we also discuss the future developments of diffraction apparatus for more efficient data collection.
Journal of Physics B Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics 09/2015; 48(18). DOI:10.1088/0953-4075/48/18/184003 · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RizA is an L-amino-acid ligase from
that participates in the biosynthesis of rhizocticin, an oligopeptide antibiotic. The substrate-free form of RizA has been crystallized and the structure was solved at 2.8 Å resolution. The amino-acid-binding site appears to be capable of accommodating multiple amino acids, consistent with previous biochemical studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solution structures of nucleosomes containing a human histone variant, H2A.Z.1, were measured by small-angle X-ray and neutron scatterings (SAXS and SANS). SAXS revealed that the outer shape, reflecting the DNA shape, of the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome is almost the same as that of the canonical H2A nucleosome. In contrast, SANS employing a contrast variation technique revealed that the histone octamer of the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome is smaller than that of the canonical nucleosome. The DNA within the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome was more susceptible to micrococcal nuclease than that within the canonical nucleosome. These results suggested that the DNA is loosely wrapped around the histone core in the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dynamics of nucleosomes containing either canonical H3 or its centromere-specific variant CENP-A were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations showed that the histone cores were structurally stable during simulation periods of 100 ns and 50 ns, while DNA was highly flexible at the entry and exit regions and partially dissociated from the histone core. In particular, approximately 20-25 bp of DNA at the entry and exit regions of the CENP-A nucleosome exhibited larger fluctuations than DNA at the entry and exit regions of the H3 nucleosome. Our detailed analysis clarified that this difference in dynamics was attributable to a difference in two basic amino acids in the αN helix; two arginine (Arg) residues in H3 were substituted by lysine (Lys) residues at the corresponding sites in CENP-A. The difference in the ability to form hydrogen bonds with DNA of these two residues regulated the flexibility of nucleosomal DNA at the entry and exit regions. Our exonuclease III assay consistently revealed that replacement of these two Arg residues in the H3 nucleosome by Lys enhanced endonuclease susceptibility, suggesting that the DNA ends of the CENP-A nucleosome are more flexible than those of the H3 nucleosome. This difference in the dynamics between the two types of nucleosomes may be important for forming higher order structures in different phases.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120635. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120635 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear autoantigenic sperm proteins (NASPs) are members of the acidic histone chaperones, which promote nucleosome assembly. In humans, two splicing variants proposed for the somatic and testicular isoforms, sNASP and tNASP, respectively, have been found, and the shorter form, sNASP, reportedly promotes nucleosome assembly with the histone H3 isoforms, H3.1, H3.2, and H3.3. However, the biochemical properties of the longer form, tNASP, have not been reported. tNASP is considered to exist specifically in the testis. Our present results revealed that the tNASP protein is ubiquitously produced in various human tissues, in addition to testis. Unexpectedly, we found that the nucleosome assembly activity of purified tNASP was extremely low with the canonical histone H3.1 or H3.2, but was substantially detected with the replacement histone H3.3 variant. A mutational analysis revealed that the H3.3 Ile89 residue, corresponding to the H3.1 Val89 residue, is responsible for the tNASP-mediated nucleosome assembly with H3.3. A histone deposition assay showed that the H3.3-H4 complex is more efficiently deposited onto DNA by tNASP than the H3.1-H4 complex. These results provide evidence that tNASP is ubiquitously produced in various types of human tissues, and promotes in vitro nucleosome assembly with H3 variant specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histone H2A/H2B dimer is a component of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The structure of the dimer at the atomic level has not yet been revealed. A possible reason for this is that the dimer has three intrinsically disordered tail regions: the N- and C-termini of H2A and the N-terminus of H2B. To investigate the role of the tail regions of the H2A/H2B dimer structure, we characterized behaviors of the H2A/H2B mutant dimers, in which these functionally important disordered regions were depleted, using mass spectrometry (MS). After verifying that the acetylation of Lys residues in the tail regions had little effect on the gas-phase conformations of the wild-type dimer, we prepared two histone H2A/H2B dimer mutants: an H2A/H2B dimer depleted of both N-termini (dN-H2A/dN-H2B) and a dimer with the N- and C-termini of H2A and the N-terminus of H2B depleted (dNC-H2A/dN-H2B). We analyzed these mutants using IM-MS and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). With IM-MS, reduced structural diversity was observed for each of the tail-truncated H2A/H2B mutants. In addition, global HDX-MS proved that the dimer mutant dNC-H2A/dN-H2B was susceptible to deuteration, suggesting that its structure in solution was somewhat loosened. A partial relaxation of the mutant's structure was demonstrated also by IM-MS. In this study, we characterized the relationship between the tail lengths and the conformations of the H2A/H2B dimer in solution and gas phases, and demonstrated using mass spectrometry that disordered tail regions play an important role in stabilizing the conformation of the core region of the dimer in both phases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, and are essential for chromosome stability and maintenance. In most organisms, telomeres consist of tandemly repeated sequences of guanine-clusters. In higher eukaryotes, most of the telomeric repeat regions are tightly packaged into nucleosomes, even though telomeric repeats act as nucleosome-disfavoring sequences. Although telomeres were considered to be condensed heterochromatin structures, recent studies revealed that the chromatin structures in telomeres are actually dynamic. The dynamic properties of telomeric chromatin are considered to be important for the structural changes between the euchromatic and heterochromatic states during the cell cycle and in cellular differentiation. We propose that the nucleosome-disfavoring property of telomeric repeats is a crucial determinant for the lability of telomeric nucleosomes, and provides a platform for chromatin dynamics in telomeres. Furthermore, we discuss the influences of telomeric components on the nucleosome organization and chromatin dynamics in telomeres.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FANCD2 is a product of one of the genes associated with Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal malformations, developmental defects, and cancer predisposition. FANCD2 forms a complex with FANCI (ID complex) and is monoubiquitinated, which facilitates the downstream interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair steps, such as ICL unhooking and nucleolytic end resection. In the present study, we focused on the chicken FANCD2 (cFANCD2) mutant harboring the Leu234 to Arg (L234R) substitution. cFANCD2 L234R corresponds to the human FANCD2 L231R mutation identified in an FA patient. We found that cFANCD2 L234R did not complement the defective ICL repair in FANCD2-/- DT40 cells. Purified cFANCD2 L234R did not bind to chicken FANCI, and its monoubiquitination was significantly deficient, probably due to the abnormal ID complex formation. In addition, the histone chaperone activity of cFANCD2 L234R was also defective. These findings may explain some aspects of Fanconi anemia pathogenesis by a FANCD2 missense mutation.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114752. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114752 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENP-A, is overexpressed in particular aggressive cancer cells, where it can be mislocalized ectopically in the form of heterotypic nucleosomes containing H3.3. In the present study, we report the crystal structure of the heterotypic CENP-A/H3.3 particle and reveal its "hybrid structure", in which the physical characteristics of CENP-A and H3.3 are conserved independently within the same particle. The CENP-A/H3.3 nucleosome forms an unexpectedly stable structure as compared to the CENP-A nucleosome, and allows the binding of the essential centromeric protein, CENP-C, which is ectopically mislocalized in the chromosomes of CENP-A overexpressing cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) is an extremely deleterious DNA lesion that covalently crosslinks complementary strands and prevents the strand-separation reaction. In higher eukaryotes, the Fanconi anemia proteins, FANCI and FANCD2, form a heterodimer and play essential roles in ICL repair. Human FANCI and FANCD2 are large proteins with molecular masses of 149 kDa and 164 kDa, respectively, and were reportedly purified using a baculovirus expression system with insect cells. We have established a novel expression and purification procedure for human FANCD2 and FANCI, using Escherichia coli cells. The human FANCD2 and FANCI proteins purified by this bacterial expression method formed a stable heterodimer, and exhibited DNA binding and histone chaperone activities, as previously reported for the proteins purified by the baculovirus system. Therefore, these purification methods for human FANCI and FANCD2 provide novel procedures to facilitate structural and biochemical studies of human FANCI and FANCD2.
Protein Expression and Purification 11/2014; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.pep.2014.08.012 · 1.70 Impact Factor