[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cationic derivatives of dextran (Dex) and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) were studied as potential alternatives of protamine sulfate (PS) used in the reversal of anticoagulant activity of heparin. The modification was performed by the attachment of cationic groups to the Dex main chain or by grafting short side chains of a polycation onto HPC. The cationic derivatives of these polysaccharides were found to bind heparin with the efficiency increasing with growing degree of cationic modification. The degree of cationic modification and consequently the ζ potential of the polymers do not have to be high to achieve effective heparin binding. The size of the complexes of cationic Dex with unfractionated heparin (UFH) is a few micrometers. For complexes of cationic HPC and UFH the size is much below 1 μm, both below and above the lower critical solution temperature of HPC. None of the cationic polysaccharides studied caused hemolysis. The concentrations of the polymers inducing the aggregation of human erythrocytes in vitro were determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of cancer is associated with high oxidative stress and at the same time with immune system activation. Tumors develop efficient mechanisms of protection against the immune response, which allow them to escape the immune surveillance. Simultaneously, key events in the process of carcinogenesis are related to oxidative stress. The relationship between the two remains unknown. Novel understanding of oxidative stress shows that discrete changes of activities of certain enzyme systems such as NADPH oxidases or nitric oxide synthases may be more important than the overall balance of production and removal of reactive oxygen species. Such imbalance of nitric oxide and superoxide production could modify inflammation and immune regulation. We studied superoxide anion production (by lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence - 5 microM), NADPH oxidase activity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) dysfunction. In parallel mRNA expression of immunomodulatory markers such as FoxP3 (T regulatory cell marker), CCR6 (mucosal homing effector T cell marker) and CD85j (NK cell/CD8 T cell Ig-like MHC class I inhibitory receptor) was determined. Basal superoxide production and NADPH oxidase activity are increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor superoxide production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and by NOS inhibitor L-NAME. This indicates, for the first time, that oral squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by dysregulated nitric oxide synthase, which apart from increased NADPH oxidase activity contributes to oxidative stress and may be related to the immuno-pathology of these tumors. Studied tumors were infiltrated by CCR6+, but showed lower expression of both CD85j and FoxP3 mRNA. Finally, the CD85j mRNA expression was inversely correlated to oxidative stress parameters. These preliminary studies indicate that tumor oxidative stress, related to NADPH oxidase activity and NOS activity could be related to immune responses to cancer, thus therapeutic modification of oxidative stress, which could include the correction of NOS dysfunction, could facilitate immune surveillance.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 04/2008; 59(1):139-52. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Here, we assess whether hypercholesterolemia induces endothelial dysfunction in rats with pre-existing hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive controls (WKY) were fed with a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks, and endothelial function was assessed in isolated thoracic aortic rings. In SHR and WKY rats, the hypercholesterolemic diet resulted in the elevation of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels by approximately 2.5- and 4.5-fold, respectively. However, in aorta, the basal nitric oxide (NO) production--as assessed by the magnitude of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester-induced vasoconstriction as well as the NO-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine or histamine--were not diminished either in SHR or in WKY rats fed with the hypercholesterolemic diet. Interestingly, prostacyclin (PGI2) production in aortic rings from SHR rats was higher than in the aorta from WKY rats. However, the hypercholesterolemic diet had no further effects on PGI2 production in the aorta either of SHR or WKY rats. The monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 level in plasma was slightly elevated in SHR and WKY rats fed with the hypercholesterolemic diet compared with their normocholesterolemic counterparts. In summary, even in the presence of pre-existing hypertension, hypercholesterolemia fails to modify NO-dependent and PGI2-dependent endothelial function in SHR rats; it also does not induce a robust inflammatory response. Both are prerequisites for the development of atherosclerosis.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2006; 317(3):1019-26. DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.098798 · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide plays a fundamental role in the regulation of blood flow. Here we analyzed compensatory mechanisms for the genetic eNOS deficiency in aorta and in coronary circulation. Vasodilation induced by acetylcholine, bradykinin, adenosine, and ADP as well as by S-nitroso-penicillamine (SNAP) was assessed in isolated aorta and in isolated mouse hearts from eNOS-/- and age-matched eNOS+/+ mice. In aorta from eNOS+/+ mice acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was entirely dependent on NO, and this response was absent in aorta from eNOS-/- mice. In eNOS+/+ mouse hearts responses induced by bradykinin, adenosine and ADP were partially dependent on NO, but not on PGI2, cytochrome P450-dependent metabolites, or H2O2. On the other hand, vasodilation induced by acetylcholine involved NO, but not PGI2, in its immediate, short-lasting phase, whereas PGI2 and NO mediated delayed, longer-lasting phase of this response. In eNOS-/- mouse hearts coronary vasodilator function was compensated. Responses induced by acetylcholine and adenosine, but not by bradykinin or ADP, were in part compensated by NO, most likely derived from nNOS. However, the major mechanisms compensating for the loss of eNOS in the coronary circulation did not rely on NO, PGI2, cytochrome P450-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid or on H2O2. Deficiency of eNOS is largely compensated in coronary circulation but not in aorta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we studied direct vasodilation induced by statins in isolated bovine coronary arteries. In rings of coronary bovine arteries preconstricted with prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (3 x 10(-8) - 10(-5)), lovastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin (3-30 microM) but not pravastatin induced concentration-dependent vasodilation. Removal of endothelium diminished response to simvastatin, cerivastatin and atorvastatin (30 microM) (67.4+/-4.56 vs. 22.7+/-8.14%, 96.9+/-2.27% vs. 54.5+/-6.86%, 67.4+/-4.01% vs. 34.6+/-5.66%, respectively). In presence of L-NAME (300 microM) or indomethacin (5 microM) responses to simvastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin, were also partially diminished. In contrast, lovastatin-induced vasorelaxation was not significantly affected by removal of endothelium (35.6+/-4.19% vs. 28.8+/-5.24%) or by pretreatment with L-NAME or indomethacin. In summary, with the exception of pravastatin, statins act as coronary vasodilators. Simvastatin, cerivastatin and atorvastatin but not lovastatin induced vasodilation displayed endothelium dependent- and endothelium-independent components. The endothelium-dependent effect of statins was mediated by NO and PGI(2), while the mechanism of smooth muscle cells-dependent component remains to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia induce endothelial dysfunction and therefore lead to atherosclerosis. In contrast, rats are resistant to atherosclerosis. Here we analyze whether rats respond to hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia by developing of endothelial dysfunction. To induce hypercholesterolemiaWistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rats were fed for 12 weeks with AIN93 diet supplemented with cholesterol (1%) and butter (20%). To induce hypertriglyceridemiaWistar were fed for 8 weeks with AIN93 diet supplemented with 60% fructose. In all experimental groups nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and prostacyclin (PGI(2))-dependent function was assessed in the isolated aorta. Additionally in hypertriglyceridemic rats endothelial function in the isolated mesenteric resistance artery was analyzed. NO-dependent vasodilation induced by acetylcholine or histamine in aorta of SHR and WKY rats was modestly impaired. Hypercholesterolemic diet fed to WKY and SHR rats induced a rise in total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol by 2.5 and 4.5 fold, respectively, but did not further impair NO-dependent vasodilation. Although basal production of PGI(2) in aortic rings from SHR rats was five fold higher than in aortic rings from WKY rats, the hypercholesterolemic diet did not further affect aortic PGI(2) production in either rat strain. Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by SNAP remained also unchanged. On the other hand, the hypertriglyceridemic diet given to Wistar rats led to a selective 1.5-2 fold elevation of triglycerides that was associated with the impairment of NO-dependent relaxation in aorta as well as in the mesenteric resistance artery. Interestingly, the basal production PGI(2) by aortic rings was not modified by hypertriglyceridemic diet. Again endothelium-independent relaxation induced by S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicilamine (SNAP) was not affected. In summary, although in humans both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are associated with endothelial dysfunction, in rats hypertriglyceridemia only led to the impairment of NO-dependent vasodilation. Hypercholesterolemia did not modify endothelial function even in hypertensive rats that display pre-existing alterations in vasodilator function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophils have long been considered to play solely crucial role in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma, however increasing evidence suggest that the bronchial epithelium is also involved in the initiation and maintenance of allergic inflammation. Epithelial cells and eosinophils retained within airways interact reciprocally to mount and sustain inflammatory response. Recently, we have shown that eosinophil-epithelial cell interactions are capable of amplifying the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs). The aim of this study was to investigate if there is any influence of aspirin (ASA) on Cys-LTs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production in the model of co-cultured human epithelial cells (line BEAS-2B) and human eosinophils. Synthesis of Cys-LTs in eosinophils was increased after incubation with ASA. At the same time the production of PGE(2) was decreased by aspirin (n=32). BEAS-2B cells barely formed Cys-LTs; addition of ASA increased this production, while production of PGE(2) was inhibited by aspirin (n=32). Synthesis of Cys-LTs by eosinophils co-incubated with BEAS-2B was nearly 7-fold higher than that of activated eosinophils alone (1631.5 pg/ml +/- 154 vs. 258 pg/ml +/- 31; p<0.05; n=32). Surprisingly, in the eosinophil-epithelial cell co-culture, aspirin inhibited both augmentation of Cys-LTs synthesis (from 1631.5 pg/ml +/- 154 to 1458 pg/ml +/- 137; p<0.05; n=32) and the production of PGE2 (from 2640 pg/ml +/- 231 to 319 pg/ml +/- 27; p<0.05; n=32). In summary, we have demonstrated that interactions between non-atopic eosinophils and epithelial cells result in augmentation of Cys-LTs production, and this augmentation could be inhibited by aspirin.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 01/2005; 55(4):765-72. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophils accumulation in the airways and sustained eosinophil-derived cysteinyl leukotrienes production represent key elements of the inflammatory response seen in asthma. However, it is not known whether activated epithelial cells influence cysteinyl leukotrienes production by eosinophils from healthy valunteers. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse the effects of interactions between non-atopic eosinophils and epithelial cells on cysteinyl leukotrienes production in vitro. We measured cysteinyl leukotrienes released by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) -activated human eosinophils or epithelial cells (human bronchial epithelial cell line -BEAS-2B) cultured alone or together. While activated BEAS-2B cells barely formed leukotrienes (1.39 pg/ml +/- 0.2) (n=32), activated eosinophils produced considerable amount of them (62.25 pg/ml +/- 10.29) (n=32). Interestingly, when activated eosinophils and epithelial cells were co-incubated, production of cysteinyl leukotrienes increased substantially (571.1 pg/ml +/- 80.9) (n=32). Thus, eosinophil-epithelial cell interactions, when occur, are associated with increased biosythesis of cysteinyl leukotrienes.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 04/2002; 53(1):127-32. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we have shown that some HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) induce immediate pleiotropic effects in vascular endothelium both in vivo and in vitro, to mention only PGI2-mediated thrombolysis in rats and NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in guinea pig coronary circulation. Here we look whether immediate endothelial effect of statins is associated with mobilization of intracellular calcium ions [Ca2+]i in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We analyzed the effects of various statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin at concentration of 10-30 microM) on [Ca2+]i in BAEC in comparison to responses induced by bradykinin (Bk) (10 nM), adenosine diphosphate (1 microM), acetylcholine (100 nM), adrenaline (10 microM), serotonin (10 microM) or calcium ionophore A 23187 (0.1 microM) using FURA-2 according to fluorimetric method of Grynkiewicz et al. Basal [Ca2+]i level in BAEC was between 60 and 100 nM. Bk was the most potent to induce [Ca2+]i response. Delta[Ca2+]i induced by Bk was 331.9 +/- 19.49 nM (n = 36). Delta[Ca2+]i induced by statins (30 microM), i.e. atorvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin were 66.4 +/- 7.38% (n = 6), 54.8 +/- 10.12% (n = 5), 58.8 +/- 13.9% (n = 8), 27.7 +/- 7.19% (n = 5) and 0% (n = 5) of the response induced by Bk (10 nM), respectively. In summary, all statins tested, except pravastatin, induce immediate increase in [Ca2+]i in endothelium. This pleiotropic activity of statins in endothelium, most likely not related to the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, may represent an intracellular correlate for the immediate release of NO and PGI2 by these drugs that was reported by us previously.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate critically the potential of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as models for diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia and the hypercholesterolaemia-induced atherosclerosis. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as control animals. Twelve-months-old SHR (n=22) and WKY (n=17) male rats, were randomly divided into two groups each and fed one of the following diets for 12 consecutive weeks: the control diet i.e. the basal AIN-93M diet and the hypercholesterolaemic diet (g/100g: cholesterol 1, cholic acid 0.5 and butter 20). The hypercholesterolaemic diet increased highly significantly (P