Sang-Kyung Lee

Hanyang University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (23)218.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs) derived from the CRISPR/Cas system represent an efficient tool for genome editing. RGENs consist of two components: Cas9 protein and guide RNA. Plasmid-mediated delivery of these components into cells can result in uncontrolled integration of the plasmid sequence into the host genome and unwanted immune responses and potential safety problems that can be caused by the bacterial sequences, and requires transfection tools for mediating the delivery. Here we show that simple treatment with cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-conjugated recombinant Cas9 protein and CPP-complexed guide RNAs lead to endogenous gene disruptions in human cell lines. The Cas9 protein was conjugated to CPP via a thioether bond, whereas the guide RNA was complexed with CPP, forming condensed, positively charged nanoparticles. Simultaneous and sequential treatment of human cells, including embryonic stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, HEK293T cells, HeLa cells, and embryonic carcinoma cells, with the modified Cas9 and guide RNA leads to efficient gene disruptions with reduced off-target mutations relative to plasmid transfections, resulting in the generation of clones containing RGEN-induced mutations. Our CPP-mediated RGEN delivery process provides a plasmid-free and additional transfection reagent-free way to use this tool with reduced off-target effects. We envision that our method will facilitate RGEN-directed genome editing.
    Genome Research 04/2014; · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective delivery of DNA or siRNA into primary cells demands an efficient delivery system. However, the significant differences in physical and molecular characteristics of the two molecules generally necessitate distinct delivery systems or considerable differences in carrier formulation protocols for effective transfection. Arginine-grafted bioreducible poly (disulfide amine) (ABP) is a redox-sensitive, bioreducible, positively charged polymer which complexes with siRNA and DNA via charge interactions to form nanoplexes. ABP effectively mediates cytoplasmic delivery of both DNA and siRNA into multiple cell types, including primary cells like myoblast, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and primary rat aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) eliciting functional activity. In this chapter, we provide the detailed protocols for the synthesis of ABP as well as transfection of both siRNA and DNA using ABP.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1176:115-26. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperones, protect heart muscle from ischemic injury and offer a potential approach to therapy. Here we describe preparation of an injectable form of heat shock protein 27, fused with a protein transduction domain (TAT-HSP27) and contained in a hybrid system of poly(.,.-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere and alginate hydrogel. By varying the porous structure of the microspheres, the release of TAT-HSP27 from the hybrid system was sustained for two weeks in vitro. The hybrid system containing TAT-HSP27 was intramyocardially injected into a murine myocardial infarction model, and its therapeutic effect was evaluated in vivo. The sustained delivery of TAT-HSP27 substantially suppressed apoptosis in the infarcted site, and improved the ejection fraction, end-systolic volume and maximum pressure development in the heart. Local and sustained delivery of anti-apoptotic proteins such as HSP27 using a hybrid system may present a promising approach to the treatment of ischemic diseases.
    Journal of Drug Targeting 08/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular targeting and intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) remain a critical barrier to the clinical application of RNA interference. This chapter provides an overview of various delivery agents employing protein ligands mediating cell-specific delivery of siRNA. Specifically, the chapter details methodologies for the conjugation of antibody or peptide ligands to i) the cationic peptide-oligo-9-arginine (ii) the polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and (iii) a lipid-vesicle (liposome).
    Methods in enzymology 01/2012; 502:91-122. · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Controlled Release 11/2011; 152 Suppl 1:e9-10. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) represent an interesting class of developmental nucleic acid-based therapeutics. Cationic carriers for deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) are potential vehicles for siRNA delivery. However, in contrast to supercoiled plasmid DNA, the physical properties of siRNA molecules induces the formation of larger, loosely-packed complexes with most polycationic carriers, and consequently, poor target silencing. Here, we investigate a gene delivery agent, arginine-grafted bioreducible poly (disulfide amine) polymer (ABP) for siRNA delivery as it contains arginine residues with siRNA binding properties. ABP combines the attributes of polycations and poly disulfide-amines namely- excellent cell-penetrability and rapid release after disulphide bond reduction in the intracellular compartment. ABP bound siRNA, assembled into stable 150 nm sized nanoparticles and efficiently released complexed siRNA upon cellular entry. We investigated the utility of ABP in a combinatorial RNAi strategy for solid cancer therapy. Systemic administration of ABP-siRNA resulted in a preferential and enhanced accumulation of carrier-siRNA complexes in the tumor tissue. Two administrations of the formulation with a siRNA cocktail targeting Bcl-2, VEGF and Myc at 0.3 mg total siRNA/kg body weight could effectively regress advanced stage tumors. Our results establish the promise of ABP as a common systemic delivery platform for both siRNA and DNA therapeutics.
    Biomaterials 11/2011; 33(5):1640-50. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a common arthropod-borne flaviviral infection in the tropics, for which there is no vaccine or specific antiviral drug. The infection is often associated with serious complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS), in which both viral and host factors have been implicated. RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent antiviral strategy and a potential therapeutic option for dengue if a feasible strategy can be developed for delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, the major in vivo targets of the virus and also the source of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we show that a dendritic cell-targeting 12-mer peptide (DC3) fused to nona-D-arginine (9dR) residues (DC3-9dR) delivers siRNA and knocks down endogenous gene expression in heterogenous DC subsets, (monocyte-derived DCs [MDDCs], CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cell [HSC])-derived Langerhans DCs, and peripheral blood DCs). Moreover, DC3-9dR-mediated delivery of siRNA targeting a highly conserved sequence in the dengue virus envelope gene (siFvE(D)) effectively suppressed dengue virus replication in MDDCs and macrophages. In addition, DC-specific delivery of siRNA targeting the acute-phase cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a major role in dengue pathogenesis, either alone or in combination with an antiviral siRNA, significantly reduced virus-induced production of the cytokine in MDDCs. Finally to validate the strategy in vivo, we tested the ability of the peptide to target human DCs in the NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgamma(-/-) mouse model engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HuHSC mice). Treatment of mice by intravenous (i.v.) injection of DC3-9dR-complexed siRNA targeting TNF-alpha effectively suppressed poly(I:C)-induced TNF-alpha production by DCs. Thus, DC3-9dR can deliver siRNA to DCs both in vitro and in vivo, and this delivery approach holds promise as a therapeutic strategy to simultaneously suppress virus replication and curb virus-induced detrimental host immune responses in dengue infection.
    Journal of Virology 12/2009; 84(5):2490-501. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a molecular chaperone protein which regulates cell apoptosis by interacting directly with the caspase activation components in the apoptotic pathways. With the assistance of the Tat protein transduction domain we directly delivered the Hsp27 into the myocardial cell line, H9c2 and demonstrate that this protein can reverse hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cells. In order to characterize the contribution of Hsp27 in blocking the two major apoptotic pathways operational within cells, we exposed H9c2 cells to staurosporine and cobalt chloride, agents that induce mitochondria-dependent (intrinsic) and -independent (extrinsic) pathways of apoptosis in cells respectively. The Tat-Hsp27 fusion protein showed a greater propensity to inhibit the effect induced by the cobalt chloride treatment. These data suggest that the Hsp27 predominantly exerts its protective effect by interfering with the components of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
    Molecules and Cells 06/2009; 27(5):533-8. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a molecular chaperone protein which regulates cell apoptosis by interacting directly with the caspase activation components in the apoptotic pathways. With the assistance of the Tat protein transduction domain we directly delivered the Hsp27 into the myocardial cell line, H9c2 and demonstrate that this protein can reverse hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cells. In order to characterize the contribution of Hsp27 in blocking the two major apoptotic pathways operational within cells, we exposed H9c2 cells to staurosporine and cobalt chloride, agents that induce mitochondria-dependent (intrinsic) and -independent (extrinsic) pathways of apoptosis in cells respectively. The Tat-Hsp27 fusion protein showed a greater propensity to inhibit the effect induced by the cobalt chloride treatment. These data suggest that the Hsp27 predominantly exerts its protective effect by interfering with the components of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
    Molecules and Cells 06/2009; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction causes a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones have been attractive targets for protecting cardiomyoblasts under environmental stimuli. In this study, in order to enhance the penetration of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) across cell membranes, we fused HSP27 with transcriptional activator (TAT) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a protein transduction domain (PTD). We loaded the fusion protein (TAT-HSP27) into microsphere/hydrogel combination delivery systems to control the release behavior for prolonged time periods. We found that the release behavior of TAT-HSP27 was able to be controlled by varying the ratio of PLGA microspheres and alginate hydrogels. Indeed, the released fusion protein maintained its bioactivity and could recover the proliferation of cardiomyoblasts cultured under hypoxic conditions. This approach to controlling the release behavior of TAT-HSP27 using microsphere/hydrogel combination delivery systems may be useful for treating myocardial infarction in a minimally invasive manner.
    Journal of Controlled Release 05/2009; 137(3):196-202. · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Sang-Kyung Lee, Priti Kumar
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential to permit the downregulation of virtually any gene. While transgenic RNAi enables stable propagation of the resulting phenotype to progeny, the dominant nature of RNAi limits its use to applications where the continued suppression of gene expression does not disturb normal cell functioning. This is of particular importance when the target gene product is essential for cell survival, development or differentiation. It is therefore desirable that knockdown be externally regulatable. This review is aimed at providing an overview of the approaches for conditional RNAi in mammalian systems, with a special mention of studies employing these approaches to target therapeutically/biologically relevant molecules, their advantages and disadvantages, and a pointer towards approaches best suited for RNAi-based gene therapy.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 05/2009; 61(7-8):650-64. · 11.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of RNAi for HIV infection has been hampered by the challenges of siRNA delivery and lack of suitable animal models. Using a delivery method for T cells, we show that siRNA treatment can dramatically suppress HIV infection. A CD7-specific single-chain antibody was conjugated to oligo-9-arginine peptide (scFvCD7-9R) for T cell-specific siRNA delivery in NOD/SCIDIL2rgamma-/- mice reconstituted with human lymphocytes (Hu-PBL) or CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (Hu-HSC). In HIV-infected Hu-PBL mice, treatment with anti-CCR5 (viral coreceptor) and antiviral siRNAs complexed to scFvCD7-9R controlled viral replication and prevented the disease-associated CD4 T cell loss. This treatment also suppressed endogenous virus and restored CD4 T cell counts in mice reconstituted with HIV+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, scFvCD7-9R could deliver antiviral siRNAs to naive T cells in Hu-HSC mice and effectively suppress viremia in infected mice. Thus, siRNA therapy for HIV infection appears to be feasible in a preclinical animal model.
    Cell 09/2008; 134(4):577-86. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high genetic diversity and mutability of HIV pose a major problem for RNAi-mediated antiviral therapy. Simultaneous targeting of multiple highly conserved viral sequences has been suggested for durable cross-clade inhibition. Here we validate the approach of co-targeting two conserved sequences in the Tat and Vif genes. When coexpressed as artificial microRNA from a PolII driven miR-155-based vector, the sequences together mediated effective and sustained inhibition of HIV replication without virus breakout. To understand the nature of this efficient control, we analyzed genome sequences of 625 HIV-1 isolates in the Los Alamos Sequence database. Interestingly most natural variants were capable of wobble binding with the Tat/Vif siRNAs. Efficient silencing of reporter luciferase constructs bearing these variants residues verified that the Tat/Vif sequences together tolerated wobble binding and mediated functional RNAi. We propose the rationale of targeting highly conserved HIV sequences where wobble substitutions permit functional RNAi for global HIV repression.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5), which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E) is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2007; 2(12):e130. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral heterogeneity is a major hurdle for potential therapeutic use of RNA interference (RNAi) against HIV-1. To determine the extent of RNAi tolerance to mutations, we tested 3 viral target sites with differing propensity for mutations: a highly variable rev sequence, a gag sequence conserved only among clade B isolates, and a vif sequence highly conserved across clades. Lentiviral expression of all 3 shRNAs inhibited replication of the homologous HIV(IIIB) strain. However, they differed in their ability to protect primary CD4 T cells against multiple isolates within and across HIV clades. The least conserved rev sequence inhibited only 2 of 5 clade B isolates. The gag sequence (conserved within clade B) protected 5 of 5 clade B isolates but not other clade viruses with 2 or 3 mutations in the central region. In contrast, the vif sequence, which was conserved across clades except for single mutations at positions 14 and 17, inhibited viruses from 5 different clades. Moreover, siRNAs with introduced mutations at sites of gag sequence polymorphisms showed reduced antiviral activity, whereas mutations in vif siRNA only modestly decreased silencing. Thus, although 1 or 2 mutations at peripheral sites are tolerated, mutations in the central target cleavage region abolish RNAi activity.
    Blood 09/2005; 106(3):818-26. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into cells is a key obstacle to their therapeutic application. We designed a protamine-antibody fusion protein to deliver siRNA to HIV-infected or envelope-transfected cells. The fusion protein (F105-P) was designed with the protamine coding sequence linked to the C terminus of the heavy chain Fab fragment of an HIV-1 envelope antibody. siRNAs bound to F105-P induced silencing only in cells expressing HIV-1 envelope. Additionally, siRNAs targeted against the HIV-1 capsid gene gag, inhibited HIV replication in hard-to-transfect, HIV-infected primary T cells. Intratumoral or intravenous injection of F105-P-complexed siRNAs into mice targeted HIV envelope-expressing B16 melanoma cells, but not normal tissue or envelope-negative B16 cells; injection of F105-P with siRNAs targeting c-myc, MDM2 and VEGF inhibited envelope-expressing subcutaneous B16 tumors. Furthermore, an ErbB2 single-chain antibody fused with protamine delivered siRNAs specifically into ErbB2-expressing cancer cells. This study demonstrates the potential for systemic, cell-type specific, antibody-mediated siRNA delivery.
    Nature Biotechnology 07/2005; 23(6):709-17. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV variation presents an obstacle to a global AIDS vaccine. Viral diversity and host variations in MHC expression both affect vaccine responses. Whether CD8 T cells from HIV-infected donors in 1 part of the world cross-recognize isolates from other regions will provide guidance about whether country-specific vaccines are needed. We compared recognition of HIV(IIIB) and representative B' (Thai B) and recombinant C/B' virus strains endemic in China by CD8 T cells from 7 HIV-infected North American donors and 4 Chinese donors. IFN-gamma production in response to HIV(IIIB) or the Chinese viruses was comparable. Although 1.6 +/- 0.8% of American donor CD8 T cells produced IFN-gamma above the background level in response to IIIB virus, 1.5 +/- 0.8% responded to B' virus, and 1.4 +/- 0.7% responded to C/B' virus. Responses to adherent cells infected with vaccinia viruses expressing B' and C/B' virus gag and env were also comparable in magnitude with responses to IIIB virus. Cytolysis of CD4 T cells infected with B' virus was comparable with lysis of cells infected with IIIB virus, but lysis of the more divergent C/B' virus was somewhat reduced. T cells, selected for IFN-gamma production to IIIB virus, also efficiently lysed cells infected with Chinese viruses. Therefore, cross-clade CD8 T-cell responses to IIIB virus and prevalent Chinese viral strains are common.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 01/2005; 37(4):1435-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether inhibitory natural killer cell receptor (iNKR) expression contributes to impaired antigen-specific cytotoxicity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by CD8 T cells during chronic infection. iNKR immunoglobulin-like transcript-2 (ILT2/CD85j) is expressed on 40-55% of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8 T cells in both healthy and HIV-infected donors. Other iNKRs (CD158a, b1, e1/e2, k, CD94/NKG2A) are expressed on only a small minority of CD8 T cells and are not preferentially expressed on tetramer-staining virus-specific cells. In normal donors, ILT2 is expressed largely on perforin(+) CD27(-) effector cells. However, in HIV-infected donors, only a third of ILT2(+) cells are also perforin(+). In both normal and HIV-infected donors, ILT2(+) cells are prone to spontaneous apoptosis. Therefore, ILT2 is normally expressed during effector cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) differentiation, but can also be expressed when effector maturation is incomplete, as in HIV infection. The effect of ILT2 on CD8 cell function was assessed by preincubating effector cells with ILT2 antibody. While blocking ILT2 engagement has no appreciable effect on cytotoxicity, it increases antiviral IFN-gamma production by approximately threefold in both normal and HIV-infected donors. Thus, ILT2 expression, increased on antiviral CD8 cells in chronic infection, may interfere with protective CD8 T-cell function by suppressing IFN-gamma production.
    Immunology 09/2004; 112(4):531-42. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for silencing gene expression by targeted degradation of mRNA. Short double-stranded RNAs, known as small interfering RNAs (siRNA), are incorporated into an RNA-induced silencing complex that directs degradation of RNA containing a homologous sequence. RNAi has been shown to work in mammalian cells, and can inhibit viral infection and control tumor cell growth in vitro. Recently, it has been shown that intravenous injection of siRNA or of plasmids expressing sequences processed to siRNA can protect mice from autoimmune and viral hepatitis. RNAi could provide an exciting new therapeutic modality for treating infection, cancer, neurodegenerative disease and other illnesses.
    Trends in Molecular Medicine 10/2003; 9(9):397-403. · 9.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can induce potent gene silencing by degradation of cognate mRNA. However, in dividing cells, the silencing lasts only 3 to 7 days, presumably because of siRNA dilution with cell division. Here, we investigated if sustained siRNA-mediated silencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is possible in terminally differentiated macrophages, which constitute an important reservoir of HIV in vivo. CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor in macrophages, and the viral structural gene for p24 were targeted either singly or in combination. When transfected 2 days prior to infection, both CCR5 and p24 siRNAs effectively reduced HIV-1 infection for the entire 15-day period of observation, and combined targeting of both genes abolished infection. To investigate whether exogenously introduced siRNA is maintained stably in macrophages, we tested the kinetics of siRNA-mediated viral inhibition by initiating infections at various times (2 to 15 days) after transfection with CCR5 and p24 siRNAs. HIV suppression mediated by viral p24 siRNA progressively decreased and was lost by day 7 posttransfection. In contrast, viral inhibition by cellular CCR5 knockdown was sustained even when transfection preceded infection by 15 days, suggesting that the continued presence of target RNA may be needed for persistence of siRNA. The longer sustenance of CCR5 relative to p24 siRNA in uninfected macrophages was also confirmed by detection of internalized siRNA by modified Northern blot analysis. We also tested the potential of p24 siRNA to stably silence HIV in the setting of an established infection where the viral target gene is actively transcribed. Under these circumstances, long-term suppression of HIV replication could be achieved with p24 siRNA. Thus, siRNAs can induce potent and long-lasting HIV inhibition in nondividing cells such as macrophages.
    Journal of Virology 08/2003; 77(13):7174-81. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
218.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • Hanyang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Immune Disease Institute
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005
    • Boston Biomedical Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Center for AIDS Research
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States