Ben Shen

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States

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Publications (158)1053.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cells have evolved exquisite mechanisms to fine-tune the rate of protein synthesis in response to stress. Systemic mapping of start-codon positions and precise measurement of the corresponding initiation rate would transform our understanding of translational control. Here we present quantitative translation initiation sequencing (QTI-seq), with which the initiating ribosomes can be profiled in real time at single-nucleotide resolution. Resultant initiation maps not only delineated variations of start-codon selection but also highlighted a dynamic range of initiation rates in response to nutrient starvation. The integrated data set provided unique insights into principles of alternative translation and mechanisms controlling different aspects of translation initiation. With RiboTag mice, QTI-seq permitted tissue-specific profiling of initiating ribosomes in vivo. Liver cell-specific ribosome profiling uncovered a robust translational reprogramming of the proteasome system in fasted mice. Our findings illuminated the prevalence and dynamic nature of translational regulation pivotal to physiological adaptation in vivo.
    Nature Methods 12/2014; · 23.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactimidomycin (LTM, 1) and iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS, 2) belong to the glutarimide-containing polyketide family of natural products. We previously cloned and characterized the mgs biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993. The iso-MGS biosynthetic machinery featured an acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS) and three tailoring enzymes (MgsIJK). We now report cloning and characterization of the ltm biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces amphibiosporus ATCC 53964, which consists of nine genes that encode an AT-less type I PKS (LtmBCDEFGHL) and one tailoring enzyme (LtmK). Inactivation of ltmE or ltmH afforded the mutant strains SB15001 or SB15002 that abolished the production of 1, as well as the three co-metabolites 8,9-dihydro-LTM (14), 8,9-dihydro-8S-hydroxy-LTM (15), and 8,9-dihydro-9R-hydroxy-LTM (13). Inactivation of ltmK yielded the mutant strain SB15003 that abolished the production of 1, 13, and 15 but accumulated 14. Complementation of the ΔltmK mutation in SB15003 by expressing ltmK in trans restored the production of 1, as well as 13 and 15. These results support the model for 1 biosynthesis, featuring an AT-less type I PKS that synthesizes 14 as the nascent polyketide intermediate and a cytochrome P450 desaturase that converts 14 to 1, with 13 and 15 as minor co-metabolites. Comparative analysis of the LTM and iso-MGS AT-less type I PKSs revealed several unusual features that deviate from the collinear type I PKS model. Exploitation of the tailoring enzymes for 1 and 2 biosynthesis afforded two analogues 8,9-dihydro-8R-hydroxy-LTM (16) and 8,9-dihydro-8R-methoxy-LTM (17) that provided new insights into the structure-activity-relationship of 1 and 2. While 12-membered macrolides, featuring a combination of a hydroxyl group at C-17 and a double bond at C-8/C-9 as found in 1, exhibit the most potent activity, analogues with a single hydroxyl or methoxy group at C-8 or C-9 retain most of the activity whereas analogues with double substitutions at C-8/C-9 lose significant activity.
    Biochemistry 11/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bleomycin (BLM) family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consists of BLMs, tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycins (PLMs), and zorbamycin (ZBM). The self-resistant elements BlmB and TlmB, discovered from the BLM- and TLM-producing orgranisms Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, respectively, are N-acetyltransferases that provide resistance to the producers by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotics required for activity. Although each member of the BLM family of antibiotics possesses a conserved metal-binding domain, the structural differences between each member, namely the bithiazole moiety and C-terminal amine of BLMs, have been suggested to instill substrate specificity within BlmB. Here we report that BlmB and TlmB readily accept and acetylate BLMs, TLMs, PLMs, and ZBM in vitro but only in the metal-free forms. Kinetic analysis of BlmB and TlmB reveals there is no strong preference or rate enhancement for specific substrates, indicating that the structural differences between each member of the BLM family play a negligible role in substrate recognition, binding, or catalysis. Intriguingly, the zbm gene cluster from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892 does not contain an N-acetyltransferase, yet ZBM is readily acetylated by BlmB and TlmB. We subsequently established that S. flavoviridis lacks the homologue of BlmB and TlmB, and ZbmA, the ZBM binding protein, alone is sufficient to provide ZBM resistance. We further confirmed that BlmB can indeed confer resistance to ZBM in vivo in S. flavoviridis, introduction of which into the wild-type S. flavoviridis further increases the level of resistance.
    Biochemistry 10/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural products offer unmatched chemical and structural diversity compared to other small-molecule libraries, but traditional natural product discovery programs are not sustainable, demanding too much time, effort, and resources. Here we report a strain prioritization method for natural product discovery. Central to the method is the application of real-time PCR, targeting genes characteristic to the biosynthetic machinery of natural products with distinct scaffolds in a high-throughput format. The practicality and effectiveness of the method were showcased by prioritizing 1911 actinomycete strains for diterpenoid discovery. A total of 488 potential diterpenoid producers were identified, among which six were confirmed as platensimycin and platencin dual producers and one as a viguiepinol and oxaloterpin producer. While the method as described is most appropriate to prioritize strains for discovering specific natural products, variations of this method should be applicable to the discovery of other classes of natural products. Applications of genome sequencing and genome mining to the high-priority strains could essentially eliminate the chance elements from traditional discovery programs and fundamentally change how natural products are discovered.
    Journal of natural products. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation transcriptome sequencing is increasingly integrated with mass spectrometry to enhance MS-based protein and peptide identification. Recently, a breakthrough in transcriptome analysis was achieved with the development of ribosome profiling (ribo-seq). This technology is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments, thereby enabling the direct observation of in vivo protein synthesis at the transcript level. In order to explore the impact of a ribo-seq-derived protein sequence search space on MS/MS spectrum identification, we performed a comprehensive proteome study on a human cancer cell line, using both shotgun and N-terminal proteomics, next to ribosome profiling, which was used to delineate (alternative) translational reading-frames. By including protein-level evidence of sample-specific genetic variation and alternative translation, this strategy improved the identification score of 69 proteins and identified 22 new proteins in the shotgun experiment. Furthermore, we discovered 18 new alternative translation start sites in the N-terminal proteomics data and observed a correlation between the quantitative measures of ribo-seq and shotgun proteomics with a Pearson correlation coefficient ranging from 0.483 to 0.664. Overall, this study demonstrated the benefits of ribosome profiling for MS-based protein and peptide identification and we believe this approach could develop into a common practice for next-generation proteomics.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Proteomics 08/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PKSE biosynthesizes an enediyne core precursor from decarboxylative condensation of eight malonyl-CoAs. The KR domain of PKSE is responsible for iterative β-ketoreduction in each round of polyketide chain elongation. KRs from selected PKSEs were investigated in vitro with β-ketoacyl-SNACs as substrate mimics. Each of the KRs reduced the β-ketoacyl-SNACs stereoselectively, all affording the corresponding β-d-hydroxyacyl-SNACs, and the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM) of the KRs increased significantly as the chain length of the β-ketoacyl-SNAC substrate increases.
    Organic Letters 07/2014; · 6.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of the radiomimetic anti-tumor enediyne C-1027 to induce DNA inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs), in addition to the expected DNA strand breaks, is unique among traditional DNA targeted cancer therapies. Importantly, radiation therapy and most radiomimetic drugs have diminished effect in hypoxic environments due to decreased induction of DNA strand breaks, which is an oxygen requiring process. However, C-1027's induction of ICLs is enhanced under hypoxia and it is actually more potent against hypoxic cells, overcoming this common tumor resistance mechanism. In this study, an analog of C-1027, 20'-deschloro-C-1027 was examined for its ability to induce DNA ICLs under hypoxic conditions. Deschloro-induced ICLs were detected under hypoxic cell-free conditions, with a concomitant reduction in the induction of DNA strand breaks. In cells deschloro behaved similarly, inducing cellular ICLs under hypoxic conditions with a reduction in DNA breaks. The cytotoxicity of deschloro treatment was similar in normoxic and hypoxic cells, suggesting that the ICL induction allows deschloro to retain its cytotoxic activity under hypoxia. It appears that rational engineering of the C-1027 family of radiomimetics holds promise toward overcoming the radioresistance associated with the hypoxic environment associated with solid tumors.
    DNA Repair 06/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cycloheximide (1) and actiphenol (2) have been isolated from numerous Streptomyces species. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of a gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. YIM65141 now establish that 1 and 2 production is governed by single biosynthetic machinery. Biosynthesis of 1 features an acyltransferase-less type I polyketide synthase to construct its carbon backbone but may proceed via 2 as a key intermediate, invoking a provocative reduction of a phenol to a cyclohexanone moiety in natural product biosynthesis.
    Organic Letters 05/2014; · 6.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent inhibitors of bacterial fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising antibacterial drug leads. We previously characterized the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in the Streptomyces platensis producers. We now identify two mechanisms for PTM and PTN resistance in the S. platensis producers-the ptmP3 or ptnP3 gene within the PTM-PTN or PTN biosynthetic cluster and the fabF gene within the fatty acid synthase locus. PtmP3/PtnP3 and FabF confer PTM and PTN resistance by target replacement and target modification, respectively. PtmP3/PtnP3 also represents an unprecedented mechanism for fatty acid biosynthesis in which FabH and FabF are functionally replaced by a single condensing enzyme. These findings challenge the current paradigm for fatty acid biosynthesis and should be considered in future development of effective therapeutics targeting fatty acid synthase.
    Chemistry & biology 02/2014; · 6.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural products remain the best sources of drugs and drug leads and serve as outstanding small-molecule probes to dissect fundamental biological processes. A great challenge for the natural product community is to discover novel natural products efficiently and cost effectively. Here we report the development of a practical method to survey biosynthetic potential in microorganisms, thereby identifying the most promising strains and prioritizing them for natural product discovery. Central to our approach is the innovative preparation, by a two-tiered PCR method, of a pool of pathway-specific probes, thereby allowing the survey of all variants of the biosynthetic machineries for the targeted class of natural products. The utility of the method was demonstrated by surveying 100 strains, randomly selected from our actinomycete collection, for their biosynthetic potential of four classes of natural products, aromatic polyketides, reduced polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and diterpenoids, identifying 16 talented strains. One of the talented strains, Streptomyces griseus CB00830, was finally chosen to showcase the discovery of the targeted classes of natural products, resulting in the isolation of three diterpenoids, six nonribosomal peptides and related metabolites, and three polyketides. Variations of this method should be applicable to the discovery of other classes of natural products.
    Journal of Natural Products 01/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carrier proteins (CPs) play a critical role in the biosynthesis of various natural products, especially in nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymology, where the CPs are referred to as peptidyl-carrier-proteins (PCPs) or acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), respectively. CPs can either be a domain in large multifunctional polypeptides or stand-alone proteins, termed type I and type II, respectively. There have been many biochemical studies of the type I PKS and NRPS CPs, and of type II ACPs. However, recently a number of type II PCPs have been found and biochemically characterized. In order to understand the possible interaction surfaces for combinatorial biosynthetic efforts we crystallized the first characterized and representative type II PCP member, BlmI, from the bleomycin biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC 15003. The structure is similar to CPs in general, but most closely resembles PCPs. Comparisons with previously determined PCP structures in complex with catalytic domains reveals a common interaction surface. This surface is highly variable in charge and shape, which likely confers specificity for interactions. Previous NMR analysis of a prototypical type I PCP excised from the multimodular context revealed three conformational states. Comparison of the states with the structure of BlmI and other PCPs reveals that only one of the NMR states is found in other studies, suggesting the other two states may not be relevant. The state represented by the BlmI crystal structure can therefore serve as a model for both type I and type II PCPs. © Proteins 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 11/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics C-1027, neocarzinostatin (NCS), and kedarcidin (KED) possess enediyne cores to which activity-modulating peripheral moieties are attached via (R)- or (S)-vicinal diols. We have previously shown that this stereochemical difference arises from hydrolysis of epoxide precursors by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) with different regioselectivities - the "inverting" EH, such as SgcF, hydrolyzes an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (R)-diol in C-1027 biosynthesis, while the "retaining" EHs, such as NcsF2 and KedF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (S)-diol in NCS and KED biosynthesis. We now report the characterization of a series of EH mutants and provide a predictive model for EH regioselectivity in the biosynthesis of the 9-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics. A W236Y mutation in SgcF increased the retaining activity towards (S)-styrene oxide 3-fold, and a W236Y/Q237M double mutation in SgcF, mimicking NcsF2 and KedF, resulted in a 20-fold increase in the retaining activity. To test the predictive utility of these mutations, two putative enediyne biosynthesis-associated EHs were identified by genome mining and confirmed as inverting enzymes - SpoF from Salinospora tropica CNB-440 and SgrF (SGR_625) from Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of EHs revealed a familial classification according to inverting versus retaining activity. Taken together, these results provide a predictive model for the vicinal diol stereochemistry in enediyne biosynthesis and set the stage for further elucidating the origins of EH regioselectivity.
    Biochemistry 07/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently isolated tirandamycin (TAM) B from Streptomyces sp. 17944 as a Brugia malayi AsnRS (BmAsnRS) inhibitor that efficiently kills the adult B. malayi parasites and does not exhibit general cytotoxicity to human hepatic cells. We now report (i) the comparison of metabolite profiles of S. sp. 17944 in six different media, (ii) identification of a medium enabling the production of TAM B as essentially the sole metabolite, and with improved titer, and (iii) isolation and structural elucidation of three new TAM congeners. These findings shed new insights into the structure-activity relationship of TAM B as a BmAsnRS inhibitor, highlighting the δ-hydroxymethyl-α,β-epoxyketone moiety as the critical pharmacophore, and should greatly facilitate the production and isolation of sufficient quantities of TAM B for further mechanistic and preclinical studies to advance the candidacy of TAM B as an antifilarial drug lead. The current study also serves as an excellent reminder that traditional medium and fermentation optimization should continue to be very effective in improving metabolite flux and titer.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 29 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ja.2013.50.
    The Journal of Antibiotics 05/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 4-Methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO)-containing aminomutases catalyze the conversion of l-α-amino acids to β-amino acids with either an (R) or an (S) configuration. l-Phenylalanine and l-tyrosine are the only two natural substrates identified to date. The enediyne chromophore of the chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic kedarcidin (KED) harbors an (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine moiety reminiscent of the (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-β-tyrosine moiety of the C-1027 enediyne chromophore, the biosynthesis of which uncovered the first known MIO-containing aminomutase, SgcC4. Comparative analysis of the KED and C-1027 biosynthetic gene clusters inspired the proposal for (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine biosynthesis starting from 2-aza-l-tyrosine, featuring KedY4 as a putative MIO-containing aminomutase. Here we report the biochemical characterization of KedY4, confirming its proposed role in KED biosynthesis. KedY4 is an MIO-containing aminomutase that stereospecifically catalyzes the conversion of 2-aza-l-tyrosine to (R)-2-aza-β-tyrosine, exhibiting no detectable activity toward 2-aza-l-phenylalanine or l-tyrosine as an alternative substrate. In contrast, SgcC4, which stereospecifically catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine to (S)-β-tyrosine in C-1027 biosynthesis, exhibits minimal activity with 2-aza-l-tyrosine as an alternative substrate but generating (S)-2-aza-β-tyrosine, a product with the opposite stereochemistry of KedY4. This report of KedY4 broadens the scope of known substrates for the MIO-containing aminomutase family, and comparative studies of KedY4 and SgcC4 provide an outstanding opportunity to examine how MIO-containing aminomutases control substrate specificity and product enantioselectivity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993 consists of 11 genes, featuring an acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS) and three tailoring enzymes MgsIJK. Systematic inactivation of mgsIJK in S. platensis enabled us to (i) identify two nascent products (10 and 13) of the iso-MGS AT-less type I PKS, establishing an unprecedented novel feature for AT-less type I PKSs, and (ii) account for the formation of all known post-PKS biosynthetic intermediates (10-17) generated by the three tailoring enzymes MgsIJK, which possessed significant substrate promiscuities.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2013; · 11.44 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Antibiotics 01/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enediyne natural product biosynthesis is characterized by a convergence of multiple pathways, generating unique peripheral moieties that are appended onto the distinctive enediyne core. Kedarcidin (KED) possesses two unique peripheral moieties, a (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and an iso-propoxy-bearing 2-naphthonate moiety, as well as two deoxysugars. The appendage pattern of these peripheral moieties to the enediyne core in KED differs from the other enediynes studied to date with respect to stereochemical configuration. To investigate the biosynthesis of these moieties and expand our understanding of enediyne core formation, the biosynthetic gene cluster for KED was cloned from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis of the ked cluster revealed the presence of the conserved genes encoding for enediyne core biosynthesis, type I and type II polyketide synthase loci likely responsible for 2-aza-l-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthonate formation, and enzymes known for deoxysugar biosynthesis. Genes homologous to those responsible for the biosynthesis, activation, and coupling of the l-tyrosine-derived moieties from C-1027 and maduropeptin and of the naphthonate moiety from neocarzinostatin are present in the ked cluster, supporting 2-aza-l-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as precursors, respectively, for the (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and the 2-naphthonate moieties in KED biosynthesis.
    Molecular BioSystems 01/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The -branched C3 unit in leinamycin biosynthesis is installed by a set of four proteins, LnmFKLM. In vitro biochemical investigation confirmed that LnmK is a bifunctional acyltransferase/decarboxylase (AT/DC) that catalyzes first self-acylation using methylmalonyl-CoA as a substrate and subsequently trans-acylation of the methylmalonyl group to the phosphopantetheinyl group of the LnmL acyl carrier protein [Liu, T., Huang, Y., and Shen, B. (2009), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6900-6901]. LnmK shows no sequence homology to proteins of known function, representing a new family of AT/DC enzymes. Here we report the X-ray structure of LnmK. LnmK is homodimer with each of the monomers adopting a double-hot-dog fold. Co-crystallization of LnmK with methylmalonyl-CoA revealed an active site tunnel terminated by residues from the dimer interface. In contrast to canonical AT and ketosynthase enzymes that employ Ser, Thr, or Cys as an active site residue, none of these residues are found in the vicinity of the LnmK active site. Instead, three tyrosines were identified, one of which, Tyr62, was established, by site-directed mutagenesis, to be the most likely active site residue for the AT activity of LnmK. LnmK represents the first AT enzyme that employs a Tyr as an active site residue and the first member of double-hot-dog fold enzymes that displays an AT activity known to date. The LnmK structure sets the stage to probe the DC activity of LnmK through site-directed mutagenesis. These findings highlight natural product biosynthetic machinery as a rich source of novel enzyme activities, mechanisms, and structures.
    Biochemistry 01/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome was sequenced 20 years ago. However, like those of other complex viruses, our understanding of its protein coding potential is far from complete. We used ribosome profiling and transcript analysis to experimentally define the HCMV translation products and follow their temporal expression. We identified hundreds of previously unidentified open reading frames and confirmed a fraction by means of mass spectrometry. We found that regulated use of alternative transcript start sites plays a broad role in enabling tight temporal control of HCMV protein expression and allowing multiple distinct polypeptides to be generated from a single genomic locus. Our results reveal an unanticipated complexity to the HCMV coding capacity and illustrate the role of regulated changes in transcript start sites in generating this complexity.
    Science 11/2012; 338(6110):1088-93. · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising drug leads for both antibacterial and antidiabetic therapies. We have previously cloned and sequenced the PTM-PTN dual biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces platensis MA7327 and the PTN biosynthetic gene cluster from S. platensis MA7339, the latter of which is composed of 31 genes encoding PTN biosynthesis, regulation, and resistance. We have also demonstrated that PTM or PTN production can be significantly improved upon inactivation of the pathway-specific regulator ptmR1 or ptnR1 in S. platensis MA7327 or MA7339, respectively. We now report engineered production of PTN and congeners in a heterologous Streptomyces host. Expression constructs containing the ptn biosynthetic gene cluster were engineered from SuperCos 1 library clones and introduced into five model Streptomyces hosts, and PTN production was achieved in Streptomyces lividans K4-114. Inactivation of ptnR1 was crucial for expression of the ptn biosynthetic gene cluster, thereby PTN production, in S. lividans K4-114. Six PTN congeners, five of which were new, were also isolated from the recombinant strain S. lividans SB12606, revealing new insights into PTN biosynthesis. Production of PTN in a model Streptomyces host provides new opportunities to apply combinatorial biosynthetic strategies to the PTN biosynthetic machinery for structural diversity.
    Journal of Natural Products 11/2012; · 3.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,053.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Chemistry
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • • Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • School of Pharmacy
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • • State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism
      • • School of Life Science and Biotechnology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • University of Wisconsin - Stout
      • Department of Chemistry
      Menominee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2011
    • Yunnan University
      Yün-nan, Yunnan, China
  • 2009–2011
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic and Natural Products Chemistry
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
      • Department of Chemistry
      Oshkosh, Wisconsin, United States
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 2010
    • Zhejiang Sci-Tech University
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Zhejiang University
      • Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
      Hangzhou, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Shanghai University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Lexington, KY, United States
  • 2007
    • Boston College, USA
      • Chemistry Department
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Chemistry
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Chemistry
      Lincoln, NE, United States