Allan F McRae

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Publications (52)385.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Replying to A. R. Wood et al. 514, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13691 (2014).We thank Wood et al. for their interesting observations and although their proposed mechanism does not explain all our reported results, we acknowledge that alternative mechanisms could be behind the observation of epistatic signals. Although we replicate our results in large, independent samples, 19/30 of our reported interactions (Table 1 in ref. 2), Wood et al. do not replicate in the InCHIANTI data set (n = 450) at a type-I error rate of 0.05/30 = 0.002, including none of our reported cis-trans interactions. Having insufficient data to replicate the discovery interactions makes it problematic to draw firm conclusions on the reported cis-trans effects.
    Nature 10/2014; 514(7520):E5-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm) are essential for regulation of gene expression. DNAm is dynamic, influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic drift is the divergence of the epigenome as a function of age due to stochastic changes in methylation. Here we show that epigenetic drift may be constrained at many CpGs across the human genome by DNA sequence variation and by lifetime environmental exposures. We estimate repeatability of DNAm at 234,811 autosomal CpGs in whole blood using longitudinal data (2-3 repeated measurements) on 478 older people from two Scottish birth cohorts - the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936. Median age was 79yrs and 70yrs, and the follow-up period was ~10yrs and ~6yrs, respectively. We compare this to methylation heritability estimated in the Brisbane Systems Genomics Study, a cross-sectional study of 117 families (offspring median age 13yrs; parent median age 46yrs). CpG repeatability in older people was highly correlated (0.68) with heritability estimated in younger people. Highly heritable sites had strong underlying cis-genetic effects. 37 and 1687 autosomal CpGs were associated with smoking and sex, respectively. Both sets were strongly enriched for high repeatability. Sex-associated CpGs were also strongly enriched for high heritability. Our results show that a large number of CpGs across the genome, as a result of environmental and/or genetic constraints, have stable DNAm variation over the human life-time. Moreover, at a number of CpGs, most variation in the population is due to genetic factors, despite some sites being highly modifiable by the environment.
    Genome research. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the important role DNA methylation plays in transcriptional regulation, the transgenerational inheritance of DNA methylation is not well understood. The genetic heritability of DNA methylation has been estimated using twin pairs, although concern has been expressed whether the underlying assumption of equal common environmental effects are applicable due to intrauterine differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. We estimate the heritability of DNA methylation on peripheral blood leukocytes using Illumina HumanMethylation450 array using a family based sample of 614 people from 117 families, allowing comparison both within and across generations.
    Genome biology. 05/2014; 15(5):R73.
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    ABSTRACT: Epistasis is the phenomenon whereby one polymorphism's effect on a trait depends on other polymorphisms present in the genome. The extent to which epistasis influences complex traits and contributes to their variation is a fundamental question in evolution and human genetics. Although often demonstrated in artificial gene manipulation studies in model organisms, and some examples have been reported in other species, few examples exist for epistasis among natural polymorphisms in human traits. Its absence from empirical findings may simply be due to low incidence in the genetic control of complex traits, but an alternative view is that it has previously been too technically challenging to detect owing to statistical and computational issues. Here we show, using advanced computation and a gene expression study design, that many instances of epistasis are found between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In a cohort of 846 individuals with 7,339 gene expression levels measured in peripheral blood, we found 501 significant pairwise interactions between common SNPs influencing the expression of 238 genes (P < 2.91 × 10(-16)). Replication of these interactions in two independent data sets showed both concordance of direction of epistatic effects (P = 5.56 × 10(-31)) and enrichment of interaction P values, with 30 being significant at a conservative threshold of P < 9.98 × 10(-5). Forty-four of the genetic interactions are located within 5 megabases of regions of known physical chromosome interactions (P = 1.8 × 10(-10)). Epistatic networks of three SNPs or more influence the expression levels of 129 genes, whereby one cis-acting SNP is modulated by several trans-acting SNPs. For example, MBNL1 is influenced by an additive effect at rs13069559, which itself is masked by trans-SNPs on 14 different chromosomes, with nearly identical genotype-phenotype maps for each cis-trans interaction. This study presents the first evidence, to our knowledge, for many instances of segregating common polymorphisms interacting to influence human traits.
    Nature 02/2014; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to play a role in schizophrenia and intellectual disability. We compared the CNV burden in 66 patients with intellectual disability and no symptoms of psychosis (ID-only) with the burden in 64 patients with intellectual disability and schizophrenia (ID + SCZ). Samples were genotyped on three plates by the Broad Institute using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. For CNVs larger than 100 kb, there was no difference in the CNV burden of ID-only and ID + SCZ. In contrast, the number of duplications larger than 1 Mb was increased in ID + SCZ compared to ID-only. We detected seven large duplications and two large deletions at chromosome 15q11.2 (18.5-20.1 Mb) which were all present in patients with ID + SCZ. The involvement of this region in schizophrenia was confirmed in Scottish samples from the ISC study (N = 2,114; 1,130 cases and 984 controls). Finally, one of the patients with schizophrenia and low IQ carrying a duplication at 15q11.2, is a member of a previously described pedigree with multiple cases of mild intellectual disability, schizophrenia, hearing impairment, retinitis pigmentosa and cataracts. DNA samples were available for 11 members of this family and the duplication was present in all 10 affected individuals and was absent in an unaffected individual. Duplications at 15q11.2 (18.5-20.1 Mb) are highly prevalent in a severe group of patients characterized by intellectual disability and comorbid schizophrenia. It is also associated with a phenotype that includes schizophrenia, low IQ, hearing and visual impairments resembling the spectrum of symptoms described in "ciliopathies." © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 09/2013; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Principal components analysis has been employed in gene expression studies to correct for population substructure, batch and environmental effects. This method typically involves the removal of variation contained in as many as 50 principal components (PCs), which can constitute a large proportion of total variation present in the data. Each PC, however, can detect many sources of variation including gene expression networks and genetic variation influencing transcript levels. We demonstrate that PCs generated from gene expression data can simultaneously contain both genetic and non-genetic factors. From heritability estimates we show that all PCs contain a considerable portion of genetic variation whilst non-genetic artifacts such as batch effects were associated to varying degrees with the first 60 PCs. These PCs demonstrate an enrichment of biological pathways including core immune function and metabolic pathways. The use of PC correction in two independent datasets resulted in a reduction in the number of cis- and trans-eQTLs detected. Comparisons of PC and linear model correction revealed that PC correction was not as efficient at removing known batch effects and had a higher penalty on genetic variation. Therefore, this study highlights the danger of eliminating biologically relevant data when employing PC correction in gene expression data.
    Genetics 09/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that heritable variation in gene expression underlies genetic variation in susceptibility to disease. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the similarity between relatives for transcript variation is warranted-in particular, dissection of phenotypic variation into additive and non-additive genetic factors and shared environmental effects. We conducted a gene expression study in blood samples of 862 individuals from 312 nuclear families containing MZ or DZ twin pairs using both pedigree and genotype information. From a pedigree analysis we show that the vast majority of genetic variation across 17,994 probes is additive, although non-additive genetic variation is identified for 960 transcripts. For 180 of the 960 transcripts with non-additive genetic variation, we identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) with dominance effects in a sample of 339 unrelated individuals and replicate 31% of these associations in an independent sample of 139 unrelated individuals. Over-dominance was detected and replicated for a trans association between rs12313805 and ETV6, located 4MB apart on chromosome 12. Surprisingly, only 17 probes exhibit significant levels of common environmental effects, suggesting that environmental and lifestyle factors common to a family do not affect expression variation for most transcripts, at least those measured in blood. Consistent with the genetic architecture of common diseases, gene expression is predominantly additive, but a minority of transcripts display non-additive effects.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2013; 9(5):e1003502. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence for the role of rare copy-number variation (CNV) in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. It is likely that such variants also have an effect on the variation of cognition in what is considered the "normal" phenotypic range. The role of rare CNV (>20 KB in length; frequency <5 %) on general cognitive ability is investigated in a sample of 800 individuals (mean age = 16.5, SD = 1.2) using copy-number variants called from the Illumina 610K SNP genotyping array with the software QuantiSNP. We assessed three measures of CNV burden-total CNV length, number of CNV and average CNV length-for both deletions and duplications in combination and separately. No correlation was found between any of the measures of CNV burden and IQ, or when comparing the top and bottom 10 % of the sample for IQ, both on a genome-wide scale and at individual positions across the genome.
    Behavior Genetics 02/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of major depressive disorder (MDD) has focused on the influence of genetic variation and environmental risk factors. Growing evidence suggests the additional role of epigenetic mechanisms influencing susceptibility for complex traits. DNA sequence within discordant monozygotic twin (MZT) pairs is virtually identical; thus, they represent a powerful design for studying the contribution of epigenetic factors to disease liability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific methylation profiles in white blood cells could contribute to the aetiology of MDD. Participants were drawn from the Queensland Twin Registry and comprised 12 MZT pairs discordant for MDD and 12 MZT pairs concordant for no MDD and low neuroticism. Bisulphite treatment and genome-wide interrogation of differentially methylated CpG sites using the Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip were performed in WBC-derived DNA. No overall difference in mean global methylation between cases and their unaffected co-twins was found; however, the differences in females was significant (P=0.005). The difference in variance across all probes between affected and unaffected twins was highly significant (P<2.2 × 10(-16)), with 52.4% of probes having higher variance in cases (binomial P-value<2.2 × 10(-16)). No significant differences in methylation were observed between discordant MZT pairs and their matched concordant MZT (permutation minimum P=0.11) at any individual probe. Larger samples are likely to be needed to identify true associations between methylation differences at specific CpG sites.
    Translational psychiatry. 01/2013; 3:e269.
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    ABSTRACT: While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying a large number of variants associated with disease, the challenge of locating the underlying causal loci remains. Sequencing of case and control DNA pools provides an inexpensive method for assessing all variation in a genomic region surrounding a significant GWAS result. However, individual variants need to be ranked in terms of the strength of their association to disease in order to prioritise follow-up by individual genotyping. A simple method for testing for case-control association in sequence data from DNA pools is presented that allows the partitioning of the variance in allele frequency estimates into components due to the sampling of chromosomes from the pool during sequencing, sampling individuals from the population and unequal contribution from individuals during pool construction. The utility of this method is demonstrated on a sequence from the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene cluster on a case-control sample for heavy alcohol consumption.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65410. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify common genetic variants that predispose to caffeine-induced insomnia and to test whether genes whose expression changes in the presence of caffeine are enriched for association with caffeine-induced insomnia. A hypothesis-free, genome-wide association study. Community-based sample of Australian twins from the Australian Twin Registry. After removal of individuals who said that they do not drink coffee, a total of 2,402 individuals from 1,470 families in the Australian Twin Registry provided both phenotype and genotype information. A dichotomized scale based on whether participants reported ever or never experiencing caffeine-induced insomnia. A factor score based on responses to a number of questions regarding normal sleep habits was included as a covariate in the analysis. More than 2 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with caffeine-induced insomnia. No SNPs reached the genome-wide significance threshold. In the analysis that did not include the insomnia factor score as a covariate, the most significant SNP identified was an intronic SNP in the PRIMA1 gene (P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶, odds ratio = 0.68 [0.53 - 0.89]). An intergenic SNP near the GBP4 gene on chromosome 1 was the most significant upon inclusion of the insomnia factor score into the model (P = 1.9 × 10⁻⁶, odds ratio = 0.70 [0.62 - 0.78]). A previously identified association with a polymorphism in the ADORA2A gene was replicated. Several genes have been identified in the study as potentially influencing caffeine-induced insomnia. They will require replication in another sample. The results may have implications for understanding the biologic mechanisms underlying insomnia.
    Sleep 01/2012; 35(7):967-75. · 5.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that genetic risk factors for common disease are caused by hereditary changes of gene regulation acting in complex pathways. Clearly understanding the molecular genetic relationships between genetic control of gene expression and its effect on complex diseases is essential. Here we describe the Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (BSGS), a family-based study that will be used to elucidate the genetic factors affecting gene expression and the role of gene regulation in mediating endophenotypes and complex diseases.BSGS comprises of a total of 962 individuals from 314 families, for which we have high-density genotype, gene expression and phenotypic data. Families consist of combinations of both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, their siblings, and, for 72 families, both parents. A significant advantage of the inclusion of parents is improved power to disentangle environmental, additive genetic and non-additive genetic effects of gene expression and measured phenotypes. Furthermore, it allows for the estimation of parent-of-origin effects, something that has not previously been systematically investigated in human genetical genomics studies. Measured phenotypes available within the BSGS include blood phenotypes and biochemical traits measured from components of the tissue sample in which transcription levels are determined, providing an ideal test case for systems genetics approaches.We report results from an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis using 862 individuals from BSGS to test for associations between expression levels of 17,926 probes and 528,509 SNP genotypes. At a study wide significance level approximately 15,000 associations were observed between expression levels and SNP genotypes. These associations corresponded to a total of 2,081 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) involving 1,503 probes. The majority of identified eQTL (87%) were located within cis-regions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35430. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The degree to which the level of genetic variation for gene expression is shared across multiple tissues has important implications for research investigating the role of expression on the etiology of complex human traits and diseases. In the last few years, several studies have been published reporting the extent of overlap in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified in multiple tissues or cell types. Although these studies provide important information on the regulatory control of genes across tissues, their limited power means that they can typically only explain a small proportion of genetic variation for gene expression. Here, using expression data from monozygotic twins (MZ), we investigate the genetic control of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and whole blood (WB). We estimate the genetic correlation that represents the combined effects of all causal loci across the whole genome and is a measure of the level of common genetic control of gene expression between the two RNA sources. Our results show that, when averaged across the genome, mean levels of genetic correlation for gene expression in LCL and WB samples are close to zero. We support our results with evidence from gene expression in an independent sample of LCL, T-cells, and fibroblasts. In addition, we provide evidence that housekeeping genes, which maintain basic cellular functions, are more likely to have high genetic correlations between the RNA sources than non-housekeeping genes, implying a relationship between the transcript function and the degree to which a gene has tissue-specific genetic regulatory control.
    Genome Research 12/2011; 22(3):456-66. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between personality and life span is not well understood, and no study to date has examined genetic influences underlying this relationship. The present study aimed to explore the phenotypic and genetic relationship between personality and life span, as well as genetic influences on all-cause mortality. Prospective community-based study including 3752 twin individuals older than 50 years. Neuroticism, psychoticism, extraversion, and social desirability and pessimism/optimism were measured at baseline using the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Revised Life Orientation Test, respectively. Information on age at death was obtained 16 years after the initial assessment of personality. Extraversion was inversely related to mortality with the risk of death decreasing 3% per unit increase of the extraversion score. Psychoticism and pessimism were positively related to mortality with a 36% and 39% increase in risk of death per unit increase in the respective personality score. Heritability of life span was 7%. Cross-twin cross-trait hazard ratios (HRs) were only significant for optimism/pessimism in monozygotic (MZ) twins with no significant differences in HRs between MZ and dizygotic twins in all traits; however, there was a trend for slightly higher HRs in MZ compared with dizygotic twins in psychoticism and optimism/pessimism. Extraversion, psychoticism, and optimism/pessimism are significant predictors of longevity; extraversion is associated with a reduction, and pessimism and psychoticism are associated with an increase in mortality risk. Genetic influences on longevity in Australian twins are very low (7%). Our data also suggest a small, albeit nonsignificant, genetic influence on the relationship of pessimism and psychoticism with life span.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 12/2011; 74(1):16-22. · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies followed by replication provide a powerful approach to map genetic risk factors for asthma. We sought to search for new variants associated with asthma and attempt to replicate the association with four loci reported previously (ORMDL3, PDE4D, DENND1B and IL1RL1). Genome-wide association analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rare copy number variants (CNVs) and overall CNV burden were carried out in 986 asthma cases and 1846 asthma-free controls from Australia. The most-associated locus in the SNP analysis was ORMDL3 (rs6503525, P=4.8 × 10−7). Five other loci were associated with P
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 10/2011; 19(10):1109. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genes in the TGF9 signaling pathway play important roles in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation rate. Mutations in three genes in this pathway, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and the bone morphogenetic protein receptor B 1 (BMPRB1), influence dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates in sheep. To date, only variants in GDF9 and BMP15, but not their receptors transforming growth factor ß receptor 1 (TGFBR1), bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) and BMPR1B, have been investigated with respect to their roles in human DZ twinning. We screened for rare and novel variants in TGFBR1, BMPR2 and BMPR1B in mothers of dizygotic twins (MODZT) from twin-dense families, and assessed association between genotyped and imputed variants and DZ twinning in another large sample of MODZT. Three novel variants were found: a deep intronic variant in BMPR2, and one intronic and one non-synonymous exonic variant in BMPRB1 which would result in the replacement of glutamine by glutamic acid at amino acid position 294 (p.Gln294Glu). None of these variants were predicted to have major impacts on gene function. However, the p.Gln294Glu variant changes the same amino acid as a sheep BMPR1B functional variant and may have functional consequences. Six BMPR1B variants were marginally associated with DZ twinning in the larger case-control sample, but these were no longer significant once multiple testing was taken into account. Our results suggest that variation in the TGF9 signaling pathway type II receptors has limited effects on DZ twinning rates in humans.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 10/2011; 14(5):408-16. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human iris patterns are highly variable. The origins of this variation are of interest in the study of iris-related eye diseases and forensics, as well as from an embryological developmental perspective, with regard to their possible relationship to fundamental processes of neurodevelopment. We have performed genome-wide association scans on four iris characteristics (crypt frequency, furrow contractions, presence of peripupillary pigmented ring, and number of nevi) in three Australian samples of European descent. Both the discovery (n = 2121) and replication (n = 499 and 73) samples showed evidence for association between (1) crypt frequency and variants in the axonal guidance gene SEMA3A (p = 6.6 × 10(-11)), (2) furrow contractions and variants within the cytoskeleton gene TRAF3IP1 (p = 2.3 × 10(-12)), and (3) the pigmented ring and variants in the well-known pigmentation gene SLC24A4 (p = 7.6 × 10(-21)). These replicated findings individually accounted for around 1.5%-3% of the variance for these iris characteristics. Because both SEMA3A and TRAFIP1 are implicated in pathways that control neurogenesis, neural migration, and synaptogenesis, we also examined the evidence of enhancement among such genes, finding enrichment for crypts and furrows. These findings suggest that genes involved in normal neuronal pattern development may also influence tissue structures in the human iris.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 89(2):334-43. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current models of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder implicate multiple genes, however their biological relationships remain elusive. To test the genetic role of glutamate receptors and their interacting scaffold proteins, the exons of ten glutamatergic 'hub' genes in 1304 individuals were re-sequenced in case and control samples. No significant difference in the overall number of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) was observed between cases and controls. However, cluster analysis of nsSNPs identified two exons encoding the cysteine-rich domain and first transmembrane helix of GRM1 as a risk locus with five mutations highly enriched within these domains. A new splice variant lacking the transmembrane GPCR domain of GRM1 was discovered in the human brain and the GRM1 mutation cluster could perturb the regulation of this variant. The predicted effect on individuals harbouring multiple mutations distributed in their ten hub genes was also examined. Diseased individuals possessed an increased load of deleteriousness from multiple concurrent rare and common coding variants. Together, these data suggest a disease model in which the interplay of compound genetic coding variants, distributed among glutamate receptors and their interacting proteins, contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e19011. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies followed by replication provide a powerful approach to map genetic risk factors for asthma. We sought to search for new variants associated with asthma and attempt to replicate the association with four loci reported previously (ORMDL3, PDE4D, DENND1B and IL1RL1). Genome-wide association analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rare copy number variants (CNVs) and overall CNV burden were carried out in 986 asthma cases and 1846 asthma-free controls from Australia. The most-associated locus in the SNP analysis was ORMDL3 (rs6503525, P = 4.8 × 10⁻⁷). Five other loci were associated with P < 10⁻⁵, most notably the chemokine CXC motif ligand 14 (CXCL14) gene (rs31263, P = 7.8 × 10⁻⁶). We found no evidence for association with the specific risk variants reported recently for PDE4D, DENND1B and ILR1L1. However, a variant in IL1RL1 that is in low linkage disequilibrium with that reported previously was associated with asthma risk after accounting for all variants tested (rs10197862, gene wide P = 0.01). This association replicated convincingly in an independent cohort (P = 2.4 × 10⁻⁴). A 300-kb deletion on chromosome 17q21 was associated with asthma risk, but this did not reach experiment-wide significance. Asthma cases and controls had comparable CNV rates, length and number of genes affected by deletions or duplications. In conclusion, we confirm the association between asthma risk and variants in ORMDL3 and identify a novel risk variant in IL1RL1. Follow-up of the 17q21 deletion in larger cohorts is warranted.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 12/2010; 19(4):458-64. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have derived a versatile gene-based test for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our approach, called VEGAS (versatile gene-based association study), is applicable to all GWAS designs, including family-based GWAS, meta-analyses of GWAS on the basis of summary data, and DNA-pooling-based GWAS, where existing approaches based on permutation are not possible, as well as singleton data, where they are. The test incorporates information from a full set of markers (or a defined subset) within a gene and accounts for linkage disequilibrium between markers by using simulations from the multivariate normal distribution. We show that for an association study using singletons, our approach produces results equivalent to those obtained via permutation in a fraction of the computation time. We demonstrate proof-of-principle by using the gene-based test to replicate several genes known to be associated on the basis of results from a family-based GWAS for height in 11,536 individuals and a DNA-pooling-based GWAS for melanoma in approximately 1300 cases and controls. Our method has the potential to identify novel associated genes; provide a basis for selecting SNPs for replication; and be directly used in network (pathway) approaches that require per-gene association test statistics. We have implemented the approach in both an easy-to-use web interface, which only requires the uploading of markers with their association p-values, and a separate downloadable application.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2010; 87(1):139-45. · 11.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
385.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of Queensland
      • • Queensland Brain Institute
      • • School of Psychology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2007–2013
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      • • Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory
      • • Statistical Genetics laboratory
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2008–2011
    • Royal Brisbane Hospital
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Queensland University of Technology
      • School of Mathematical Sciences
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2007–2010
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Animal and Plant Sciences
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute of Evolutionary Biology
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • AgResearch
      Hamilton City, Waikato, New Zealand