[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusions:
Persistent geotropic nystagmus indicates a condition of a light cupula, which is accompanied by vestibular disability and a high incidence of pathological findings in the vestibular tests. The prevalence of migraine is high.
To examine subjective symptoms and characteristics of nystagmus in patients with persistent geotropic nystagmus using vestibular tests, as well as possible correlations to migraine in this group.
We enrolled 20 patients with a mean age of 53 years. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the geotropic nystagmus and the nystagmus with the patient's head in the supine (S) and prone (P) positions was recorded. All patients completed caloric tests, subjective visual horizontal (SVH), and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). All tests were repeated at follow-up (FU).
SPV of the geotropic nystagmus directed to the left was 5.5°/s and that to the right was 3.5°/s. In 72% of patients, nystagmus in the P position was opposite to that in the S position. The vestibular tests were pathologic in about 60% of patients. At FU geotropic nystagmus was found in 40% of patients, but was significantly less intense. The vestibular test results remained at the same level at FU. Recurrent vertigo was reported in 78% of the patients. In all, 40% of the patients suffered from migraine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusion:
A positional nystagmus pattern compatible with a condition of a heavy cupula (cupulolithiasis) in the lateral semicircular canal could be reproduced in hemi-labyrinthectomized subjects during positional alcohol nystagmus 2 (PAN 2). The nystagmus pattern was opposite to that found in the same subjects during PAN 1. The affected side could not be judged by applying Ewald's second law.
To mimic the condition of a heavy cupula in the lateral semicircular canal by using unilaterally deafferented subjects during PAN 2 and compare (a) results reported in the literature with those of patients with cupulolithiasis, and (b) the nystagmus findings in the same subjects during PAN 1.
Five hemi-labyrinthectomized subjects were studied during PAN 2 when they kept their heads pointed straight forward or turned sideways in the prone and supine positions, respectively.
When the subjects were examined with their heads turned in the supine or prone positions, the alcohol-induced nystagmus pattern was compatible with that of cupulolithiasis. When the head was pointed straight forward in the prone and supine positions, the nystagmus directions were opposite to those found during PAN 1. Directional preponderance was not seen for the apogeotropic nystagmus for either ampullofugal or ampullopetal deviation of the cupula.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A positional nystagmus pattern compatible with a condition of a light cupula in the lateral semicircular canal seen in clinical patients could be reproduced only partially in hemi-labyrinthectomized subjects during the stage of positional alcohol nystagmus 1 (PAN 1).
To mimic the condition of a light cupula in the lateral semicircular canal by using unilaterally deafferented subjects during the stage of PAN 1 and compare the results with those of patients with a light cupula.
Five hemi-labyrinthectomized subjects were studied during PAN 1 with videonystagmography when they kept their heads straight forward or turned sideways in the prone and supine positions, respectively. A zero zone, indicating a cupula dysfunction, in which the geotropic nystagmus changed direction during slow head turn in the supine position, was also looked for.
When the subjects were examined with their heads turned left or right in the supine or prone positions, the alcohol-induced nystagmus pattern was compatible with that of a light cupula. However, the nystagmus directions at the head straight forward in the prone and supine positions, as well as localization of the zero zones, deviated from the pattern seen in patients with a light cupula.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study tested the hypothesis that vestibular patients (n=14) with chronic unsteadiness caused by a documented peripheral unilateral vestibular dysfunction would display differences in muscular activation and movement pattern during gait initiation compared to age-, gender- and body-size-matched healthy Controls (n=14). The displacements of the whole body Center of Pressure (CoP) during the preparatory phase before the swing leg is lifted, were markedly different in vestibular patients. The backward shift during this phase was significantly smaller than in Controls, coupled with a larger secondary corrective forward shift of the CoP. Conversely, the CoP-shift in the M-L direction towards the stance leg was larger in the vestibular patients. Most vestibular patients lacked the anticipatory tibialis anterior (TA) burst, which normally is a prerequisite for the backward displacement of the CoP that precedes the forward movement. The vestibular patients displayed more pronounced TA-Gastrocnemius coactivation in the stance leg when the swing leg was lifted. The duration of the preparatory phase was significantly longer in vestibular patients than in Controls, with no time differences in the later gait initiation events. The vestibular patients started from a more symmetrical stance and with less M-L variation than the Controls. It is concluded that chronically impaired vestibular function leads to a different strategy to create forward momentum to the body. In addition, there is evidence that vestibular patients have diminished postural stability, or alternatively a more cautious behaviour, when initiating the second step.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides spontaneous attacks of vertigo or unsteadiness, other symptoms, i.e. drop attacks, lateropulsion, illusions that the room or body is tilted, 'walking on pillows' or 'stepping into a hole', occur without precipitating head movement in almost 50% of patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunctions. The sensation of static tilt was closely connected to migraine and Meniere's disease (MD).
To record the prevalence of the different symptoms with respect to vestibular diagnosis and its relation to migraine.
Data from 100 patients with MD, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), or unilateral peripheral vestibular impairment (UPVI) were analyzed with respect to vestibular diagnosis and migraine as a secondary diagnosis.
Spontaneous attacks of vertigo or unsteadiness occurred in 74% and 48% of patients, respectively. Vertigo was significantly more often reported in patients with MD and BPPV. In patients with BPPV, the duration of spontaneous vertigo was shorter than in patients with MD. The relative incidence of other symptoms were: unsteadiness, 48%; 'stepping into a hole', 46%; lateropulsion, 35%; 'walking on pillows', 21%; and drop attacks, 19%. Only the sensation of static tilt, which occurred in 8% of patients, was significantly correlated to MD or to migraine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of self-rated dizziness/unsteadiness and health as well as to estimate the proportion of participants with peripheral vestibular disorders.
Altogether, 2547 participants (66%) participated in an epidemiological cross-sectional study, including self-rated questions about dizziness/unsteadiness, concomitant auditory symptoms and self-rated general, psychosocial and mental health.
The overall prevalence of dizziness was 21% and higher among women (27%) than men (14%) (p< 0.001). Dizziness, provoked by the movement of lying-down (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo), was noted in 5% of the participants with the symptom occurring more often in women than in men (p< 0.001). Twenty-four percent of the men and 21% of the women with dizziness simultaneously experienced a sense of rotation and loss of hearing and tinnitus. Fifteen percent reported falls because of dizziness. Both men and women suffering from dizziness symptoms perceived worse self-rated health generally, psychosocially and mentally than those without symptoms of dizziness (p< 0.001).
Dizziness-related symptoms are common in all age groups and may manifest worse self-rated health. About 50% of the participants had symptoms indicating origin of peripheral vestibular disorders. Self-rated questions seem capable of identifying patients for referral to clinical examinations and subsequently those who can be successfully treated.
Journal of Vestibular Research 01/2010; 20(5):391-8. DOI:10.3233/VES-2010-0370 · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe symptoms during an episode of dizziness in a sample of patients suffering from peripheral vestibular disorders and to compare them with the items in the Vertigo Symptom Scale.
A descriptive study from a sample of patients with peripheral vestibular disorders.
Patients visiting a department of audiology at a university hospital.
Twenty patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. The inclusion criteria were that the patient had had at least three spontaneous attacks of vertigo and/or was constantly unsteady during the last 3 months for at least 75% of the time when awake.
Patients were instructed to complete a diary where they recorded symptoms that arose during an episode of dizziness. These symptoms were compared with the content of the Vertigo Symptom Scale.
The most frequent symptoms as mentioned by the patients in their diaries were a feeling that things are spinning or moving around, nausea, feeling unsteady/about to lose one's balance, fatigue, headache, a feeling as if the ground you walk on is distant and ear-related such as tinnitus and a feeling of pressure in the ear. Pain in the heart or chest region, a heavy feeling in the arms or legs, pain in the lower part of the back and excessive sweating were not mentioned at all or by very few patients. Analysis showed that some of the symptoms included in the Vertigo Symptom Scale occurred less during an episode of dizziness than others in this sample of patients with peripheral vestibular disorders.
It was found that the Vertigo Symptom Scale is an adequate base but may need to be developed for use in patients diagnosed with peripheral vestibular symptoms to be able to evaluate care and treatment.
Clinical otolaryngology: official journal of ENT-UK; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery 01/2008; 32(6):440-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-4486.2007.01552.x · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The patient, a 45-year-old female with Ménière's disease, was submitted to endolymphatic sac surgery because of frequent spells of vertigo. The day after surgery she became dizzy and lost the hearing in the operated ear. She presented with a brisk nystagmus towards the healthy ear; however, a remaining vestibular function on the operated side was still present. The head impulse test was normal and in the positioning test, when turning to the operated ear, the spontaneous nystagmus was replaced by a transient horizontal nystagmus in the opposite direction. It is likely that this geotropic nystagmus was elicited from the operated ear because of debris that had accumulated in the lateral semicircular canal. Due to a suspicion of post surgical edema, the patient was treated with prednisolone, but the progression of the lesion could not be arrested. The signs of canalithiasis disappeared, but the head impulse test became pathologic as did the caloric reaction. The patient remained deaf in the operated ear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A persistent geotropic positional nystagmus indicates a dysfunction in the lateral semicircular canal with a cupula of less specific weight than the surrounding endolymph. It is possible to determine the side of the affected cupula by recording the nystagmus pattern in yaw and pitch plane.
To identify the clinical features in patients with a persistent geotropic positional nystagmus, establish lateralizing signs and relate the findings to a pathophysiologic mechanism.
Six patients with acute onset vertigo of a peripheral origin and persistent geotropic nystagmus were examined with videonystagmoscopy and the nystagmus characteristics in different positions of the head in yaw and pitch plane were studied.
Besides the persistent geotropic nystagmus, a zero zone was found with no nystagmus, beyond which the nystagmus changed direction when the head of the patient in supine position was gradually rotated from side to side. The zero zone was present when the head was turned slightly towards one side and is thought to represent a position where the affected cupula is aligned with the gravitational vertical. With the head bent forwards the nystagmus direction was to the non-affected side and when the head was bent backwards to the affected side.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Mefloquine (MQ) is an important antimalarial drug. Dizziness and other adverse neuropsychiatric reactions have however restricted its use.
Method: Ten healthy adult volunteers were given MQ (Lariam) 250 mg once weekly for 16 weeks. Measurement of postural sway (posturography), nystagmus recording, determinations of hearing thresholds (Bekesy audiometry), and determinations of drug concentrations were done before, after 4, 32, and 109 days of weekly MQ intake and 3 months after the last dose.
Results: All volunteers were able to continue their professional work and normal daily activities. Several mild symptoms were reported. In at least one of the volunteers, these symptoms were probably caused by the MQ intake. Hearing thresholds remained normal. No significant changes were noted in the nystagmus tests. The recorded values of sway index were within the normal range (99% confidence interval) in all volunteers in all test situations, and no differences were seen at the time of maximal drug concentrations (day 109) compared to before or after the study. There was no correlation between the plasma concentrations of MQ, the two MQ enantiomers (RS and SR), or the main mefloquine metabolite and the sway index.
Conclusion: Although no effect was seen on the vestibular system in the present study, further tests in a flight simulator will be needed before MQ can be recommended for pilots.
Journal of Travel Medicine 07/2006; 2(2):66 - 69. DOI:10.1111/j.1708-8305.1995.tb00629.x · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Menière's disease is defined as the presence of recurrent, spontaneous episodic vertigo, hearing loss (HL), aural fullness, and tinnitus. The occurrence of attacks is unpredictable. The etiology is still unknown, but the disease has a pathologic correlate in hydropic distension of the endolymphatic system. Earlier studies have shown increased incidence of stress on the same day as vertigo attacks, but it has not been determined whether stress occurring on the day of the vertiginous episode came before or after the onset of the vertigo.
A case-crossover study including 46 patients with active Menière's disease.
Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
During the study period, 153 Menière's attacks were reported. Twenty-four (52%) of the 46 patients reported attacks. Twelve of the 153 (8%) attacks occurred within 3 hours after exposure to emotional stress. The relative risk of having an attack was 5.10 (95% CI 2.37-10.98) during 3 hours after being exposed to emotional stress. Twenty-nine percent of the patients with attacks had at least one attack after exposure to emotional stress. For mental stress, the relative risk was 4.16 (95% CI 1.46-11.83) and the hazard period 1 hour, but only five attacks were exposed. No excess risk was found after physical stress.
Being exposed to emotional stress increases the risk of getting an attack of Menière's disease during the next hour, and the hazard period is possibly extended up to 3 hours.
The Laryngoscope 11/2004; 114(10):1843-8. DOI:10.1097/00005537-200410000-00031 · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study vestibular function in deaf children.
In 36 deaf children the function of the semicircular canals, saccules and utricles was measured by means of caloric testing, recordings of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and measurements of the subjective visual horizontal (SVH) at different body tilts, respectively.
In total, 30% of subjects had caloric hypo- or areflexia and 24% had a caloric asymmetry. VEMPs were weak or absent bilaterally in 22% of cases, and asymmetric in 19%. Regarding the utricle, 17% of subjects had a pathologically reduced perception of roll tilt to both sides and 25% had an asymmetry. In total, 30% of subjects were pathologic in all 3 tests and 30% were completely normal. Semicircular canal function correlated best with the function of the saccule. If hearing was better than 90 dB (pure-tone average of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz) vestibular function was often normal. For hearing levels of 100-120 dB, otolith function declined significantly.
Vestibular function tends to be preserved up to a point where hearing is nearly extinct. Hearing level correlates more closely with otolith function, especially that of the utricle, than with semicircular canal function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate self-reported quality of life in Ménière's disease patients by a multidimensional approach and to identify predictors of the results.
Tertiary referral hospital centers.
One hundred-twelve patients with Ménière's Disease.
Questionnaires concerning quality of life: Short Form 12 (SF-12) including the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), the Function Level Scale (FLS) from the American Association of Otology's criteria for reporting results of treatment of Ménière's Disease, Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), Hearing Disability Handicap scale (HDHS), Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire (TSQ), and Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale.
The Ménière's patients rated their quality of life significantly worse than did healthy reference groups in both the physical and the psychosocial dimensions. The SOC affected the results of the HAD, the MCS-12, and the psychosocial dimension of the SIP. The VSS affected the results of PCS-12, both dimensions of the SIP, and the FLS. The speech perception subscale of the HDHS affected the MCS-12, and tinnitus severity affected the HAD anxiety subscale. The results of the FLS correlated with the physical dimension of quality of life.
The Ménière's patients experienced a worse quality of life than did healthy subjects. Vertigo mainly influenced the physical dimension, whereas tinnitus and hearing loss influenced the psychosocial dimension. Sense of coherence had an impact on the psychosocial dimension. The FLS was not sensitive enough to serve as an outcome of treatment results but needed to be complemented by quality of life instruments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old man with incapacitating anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) was relieved of symptoms following anterior semicircular canal occlusion using a transmastoid approach. The preoperative symptoms were similar to those of posterior canal BPPV. The preoperative findings on Dix-Hallpike's maneuver were a paroxysmal torsional nystagmus with a down-beating component that increased when the patient's gaze was directed towards the affected ear. The most provoking head movement for the vertigo/nystagmus was Dix-Hallpike's maneuver with the affected ear lowermost.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the self-rated quality of life associated with vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus in Ménière's patients, and to identify potential relationships between these findings, treatment regimens, and sense of coherence in comparison to the classification of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO/HNS).
Tertiary referral hospital centers.
112 patients with Méniére's disease, who had undergone endolymphatic sac surgery or intratympanic gentamicin injections, or were surgically untreated.
Questionnaires concerning quality of life aspects and symptom-specific instruments: the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), the Hearing Disability Handicap scale (HDHS), the Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire (TSQ), the AAO/HNS criteria for reporting results of treatment of Ménière's disease, and the Sense of Coherence Scale.
A majority of the patients reported their quality of life in general as very good or good. There was no difference in general quality of life, present hearing loss, or tinnitus between the three treatment groups, but the gentamicin-treated patients had less vertigo than did the other groups. Sense of coherence showed a strong correlation to reported quality of life in all measurements.
Even though the gentamicin-treated patients had less vertigo, no difference in overall quality of life was found between the surgically treated and untreated patients. The sense of coherence seems to be an important factor in the patient's experience of quality of life. Quality of life instruments can measure both specific symptoms and related aspects on quality of life and may give complementary information to the AAO/HNS classification in evaluating the treatment of patients with Ménière's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral vestibular disorders may result in physical as well as psychosocial dysfunction. Such a situation demands a capacity to cope which lately has been discussed as an important factor in the health outcome. Antonovsky has described the concept of sense of coherence (SOC) as such a trait and has developed a questionnaire (the SOC Scale) to measure it. The aim of this study was to describe the patients' self-rated degree of SOC and to set this in relation to their perception of the self-rated quality of life. The results showed that patients with a strong SOC scored statistically less self-rated handicap, less emotional distress, less impact on working capacity and sleep and rest and less psychosocial dysfunction than those with weak SOC scores. It is suggested that the SOC Scale may serve as a tool to identify patients who are at risk of poorer quality of life and in need of supportive care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently Minor and co-workers described patients with sound- and pressure-induced vertigo due to dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal. Identifying patients with this 'new' vestibular entity is important, not only because the symptoms are sometimes very incapacitating, but also because they can be treated. We present symptoms and findings in eight such patients, all of whom reported pressure-induced vertigo that increased during periods of upper respiratory infections. Pulse-synchronous tinnitus and gaze instability during head movements were also common complaints. All patients lateralized Weber's test to the symptomatic ear. In some of the patients the audiogram also revealed a small conductive hearing loss. However, the stapedius reflexes were always normal. A vertical/torsional eye movement related to the superior semicircular canal was seen in most of the patients in response to pressure changes and/or sound stimulation. One patient also had superior canal-related positioning nystagmus. Testing vestibular evoked myogenic potentials revealed in all patients a vestibular hypersensitivity to sounds. In the coronal high-resolution 1-mm section CT scans the dehiscence was visible on 1 to 4 sections. Moreover, the skull base was rather thin in this area and cortical bone separating the middle ear and the antrum from the middle cranial fossa was absent in many of the patients. Two of the patients have undergone plugging of the superior semicircular canal using a transmastoid approach and both patients were relieved of the pressure-induced symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increased use of video systems for the detection of nystagmus is a new diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of patients with vestibular disorders. Small video cameras mounted in a light sealed mask visualize the eyes which are illuminated with infrared light. Compared to the well-established use of Frenzel glasses the patient has no visual references at all. This new technique requires standards for normal limits. Thirty subjects between 20 and 78 years of age with no history of vestibular disorders were examined with infrared video-oculoscopy with the gaze in primary position, after head-shake and in supine position with head torsion and Dix-Hallpike positions backward and forward according to a standardized procedure at our department. Two subjects had spontaneous nystagmus, but nystagmus after head-shake was not found in any. No subject had torsional nystagmus in the Dix-Hallpike positions. In the elderly subjects horizontal nystagmus in head hanging position was a frequent finding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe quality-of-life aspects in a group of patients (n = 99) suffering from peripheral vestibular disorder, using three different self-rated instruments, the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). The results showed that the type of dizziness that most influenced the quality-of-life aspects were: frequent short- or long-term dizziness, nausea, and the feeling that the ground was distant or as though the patient were walking on clouds. However, several of the impairments in daily life were neither related to the disease itself nor the demographic data. This verifies the necessity of investigating other factors such as personality and coping capacity. The results of this study also demonstrate the patients' need of psychosocial support. A comprehensive assessment and evaluation is important in order to identify each patient's needs.