E Elias

Christian Medical College Vellore, Velluru, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (267)1915.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with BCS and short stenosis of the hepatic vein or the upper IVC can be treated with recanalisation by percutaneous venoplasty ± hepatic vein stent insertion. Recent data suggests >60% failure rate (PMID 23389867). We studied the long-term outcomes of this approach in our institution.
    Gut 06/2014; 63(Suppl 1):A189-A190. · 10.73 Impact Factor
  • Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 05/2014; 39(10). · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) deficiency in noncirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) patients of European origin with preserved liver function. We aimed to study ADAMTS13-von Willebrand factor (vWF) imbalance in Indian patients with NCIPH. Twenty-nine cases with NCIPH [22 males; 29 years (13-58); Child's A, 23; B, 6], 22 disease controls with cryptogenic chronic liver disease [15 males; 46 years (18-74); Child's A, 9; B, 9; C, 4] and 17 healthy controls [14 males; 32 years (27-45)] were enrolled in the study. We measured ADAMTS13 antigen and activity (by collagen binding assay (CBA) and by fluorescence resonance energy transfer [FRET] assay), and vWF antigen levels in plasma of study patients. ADAMTS13 activity by CBA in NCIPH patients (32 %, 5 % to 100 %; median, range; p-value <0.001) and disease controls (36 %, 5 % to 144 %; p = 0.001) was significantly lower than in healthy controls (87 %; 60 % to 148 %). ADAMTS13 antigen and activity by FRET assay were also lower in cases and disease controls. ADAMTS13 activity (by CBA) to antigen ratio was lower in NCIPH and disease controls than in healthy controls. Of 29 NCIPH patients, 3 (all in Child's A) had severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (<10 % ADAMTS13 activity), and 8 (Child's A, 7; B, 1) had moderate ADAMTS13 deficiency (10 % to 25 % activity). Conversely, vWF antigen and vWF:ADAMTS13 ratio were higher in patients with NCIPH and in disease controls than in healthy controls. This study validates the finding of ADAMTS13 deficiency in NCIPH despite preserved liver functions in an Indian population suggesting its involvement in pathogenesis of NCIPH.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There have been encouraging reports on transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). Long-term data are lacking. To assess long-term outcomes and validate prognostic scores following TIPSS for BCS. A single centre retrospective study. Patients underwent TIPSS using bare or polytertrafluoroethane (PTFE)-covered stents. Sixty-seven patients received successful TIPSS between 1996 and 2012 using covered (n = 40) or bare (n = 27) stents. Patients included had a Male: Female ratio of 21:46, and were characterised (mean ± s.d.) by age 39.9 ± 14.3 years, Model of end stage liver disease (MELD) 16.1 ± 7.0 and Child's score 8.8 ± 2.0. Seventy-eight percent had haematological risk factors. Presenting symptoms were ascites (n = 61) and variceal bleeding (n = 6). Nine patients underwent hepatic vein dilatation or stenting prior to TIPSS. Mean follow-up was 82 months (range 0.5-184 months). Fifteen percent had post-TIPSS encephalopathy. Two have been transplanted. Primary patency rates (76% vs. 27%, P < 0.001) and shunt re-interventions (22% vs. 100%, P < 0.001) significantly favoured covered stents. Secondary patency was 99%. Six-, 12-, 24-, 60- and 120-month survival was 97%, 92%, 87%, 80% and 72% respectively. Six patients had liver related deaths. Two patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. The BCS TIPS PI independently predicted mortality in the whole cohort, but no prognostic score was a significant predictor of mortality after subgroup validation. Long-term outcomes following TIPSS for Budd-Chiari syndrome are very good. PTFE-covered stents have significantly better primary patency. The value of prognostic scores is controversial. TIPSS should be considered as first line therapy in symptomatic patients in whom hepatic vein patency cannot be restored.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 02/2014; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic microangiopathy of portal venules results in idiopathic non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH). Recent data suggest a role for vasoactive factors of portal venous origin in the pathogenesis of this ‘pure’ vasculopathy of the liver. Enteropathies (often silent), are an important ‘driver’ of this disease. NCIPH is under-recognized and often mis-labeled as cryptogenic cirrhosis. Liver biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of NCIPH. In these patients, with advancing disease and increased porto-systemic shunting, the portal venous vasoactive factors bypass the liver filter and contribute to the development of pulmonary vascular endothelial disorders—porto-pulmonary hypertension and hepato-pulmonary syndrome as well as mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. Prognosis in NCIPH patients is determined by presence, recognition and management of associated disorders. With better understanding of the pathogenesis of NCIPH, newer treatment options are being explored. Imbalance in ADAMTS 13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13): vWF (von-Willebrand factor) ratio is documented in NCIPH patients and may have a pathogenic role. Therapeutic interventions to correct this imbalance may prove to be important in the management of NCIPH.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: There are only a few studies on aetiology of portal hypertension among adults presenting to tertiary care centres in India; hence we conducted this study to assess the aetiological reasons for portal hypertension in adult patients attending a tertiary care centre in southern India. Methods: Causes of portal hypertension were studied in consecutive new adult patients with portal hypertension attending department of Hepatatology at a tertiary care centre in south India during July 2009 to July 2010. Results: A total of 583 adult patients (>18 yr old) were enrolled in the study. After non-invasive testing, commonest causes of portal hypertension were cryptogenic chronic liver disease (35%), chronic liver disease due to alcohol (29%), hepatitis B (17%) or hepatitis C (9%). Of the 203 patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease, 39 had liver biopsy - amongst the latter, idiopathic non cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) was seen in 16 patients (41%), while five patients had cirrhosis due to non alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fifty six (10%) adult patients with portal hypertension had vascular liver disorders. Predominant causes of portal hypertension in elderly (>60 yrs; n=83) were cryptogenic chronic liver disease (54%) and alcohol related chronic liver disease (16%). Interpretation & conclusions: Cryptogenic chronic liver disease was the commonest cause of portal hypertension in adults, followed by alcohol or hepatitis B related chronic liver disease. Of patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease who had liver biopsy, NCIPH was the commonest cause identified. Vascular liver disorders caused portal hypertension in 10 per cent of adult patients. Cryptogenic chronic liver disease was also the commonest cause in elderly patients.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 05/2013; 137(5):922-7. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS.: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare and life-threatening disease caused by obstruction of hepatic venous outflow. The aim of the study was to assess long-term outcome and identify prognostic factors in BCS patients managed by a step-wise approach using anticoagulation, angioplasty/thrombolysis, TIPS and liver transplant (OLT). PATIENTS AND METHODS.: We reviewed long-term data on 157 patients previously included by En-Vie, a multicenter prospective study of newly diagnosed BCS patients in 9 European countries. RESULTS.: Patients were followed for a median of 50 months (range, 0.1 to 74 months). During the study, 88 patients (56%) received at least one invasive intervention (22 patients angioplasty/thrombolysis, 62 TIPS, 20 OLT) and 36 patients (22.9%) died. Most interventions and/or deaths occurred in the first 2 years after diagnosis. The Rotterdam score was excellent in predicting intervention-free survival and no other variable could significantly improve its prognostic ability. Moreover, BCS-TIPS PI score (based on INR, bilirubin, and age) was strongly associated with survival and had a discriminative capacity which was superior to the Rotterdam Score. CONCLUSIONS.: The current study confirms, in a large cohort of patients with BCS recruited over a short period that a step-wise treatment approach provides good long-term survival. In addition, the study validates the Rotterdam Score for predicting intervention-free survival and BCS-TIPS PI score for predicting survival. (HEPATOLOGY 2013.).
    Hepatology 02/2013; · 12.00 Impact Factor
  • Hepatology 01/2013; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction and resulting hepatic dysfunction. Despite a lack of prospective randomized trials, much progress has been made in its management over the last 20 years. The main goals of treatment are to ameliorate hepatic congestion and prevent further thrombosis. The selective use of anticoagulation, vascular stents, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt and liver transplant has resulted in a significant increase in survival. The diagnosis, initial management and long-term follow-up of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome is reviewed. The concept of individualization of treatment and a stepwise approach to invasive procedures is also discussed.
    Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 12/2012; 6(6):731-44.
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    ABSTRACT: We propose that porto-pulmonary hypertension (PPH) may arise as a consequence of deficiency of ADAMTS13 (a plasma metalloprotease that regulates von Willebrand factor size and reduces its platelet adhesive activity) and provide a clinical case history to support our hypothesis A patient with non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH), ulcerative colitis and celiac disease developed symptoms of PPH which had advanced beyond levels which would have made her an eligible candidate for liver transplantation (mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 49 mm Hg). She was known to have severe ADAMTS13 deficiency, which we considered to be causative of, or contributory to her NCIPH. We postulated that increasing porto-systemic shunting associated with advancing portal hypertension would make the next encountered vascular bed, the lung, susceptible to the pathogenic process that was previously confined to the portal system, with pulmonary hypertension as its consequence. Her pulmonary artery pressures fell significantly during the next year on weekly replacement of plasma ADAMTS13 by infusions of fresh frozen plasma and conventional drug treatment of her pulmonary hypertension. Her pulmonary artery pressures had fallen to acceptable levels when, in response to platelet infusion, it rose precipitously and dangerously. The sequence strongly supports our hypothesis that PPH is a consequence of ADAMTS13 deficiency and is caused by platelet deposition in afferent pulmonary vessels.
    Journal of Hepatology 11/2012; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Idiopathic non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is often mis-diagnosed as cryptogenic cirrhosis. Serum vitamin B12 levels can be raised in cirrhosis, probably because of excess release or reduced clearance. Because NCIPH is characterised by long periods of preserved liver function, we examined whether serum B12 level could be used as a marker to differentiate NCIPH from cryptogenic cirrhosis. METHODS: We analysed serum B12 levels in 45 NCIPH and 43 cryptogenic cirrhosis patients from January 2009 to September 2011. RESULTS: Serum B12 levels were significantly lower in NCIPH patients than in cryptogenic cirrhosis patients (p < 0.001) and were useful in differentiating the two disorders (area under ROC: 0.84; 95 % C.I: 0.76-0.93). Low serum B12 level (≤250 pg/ml) was noted in 25/72 (35 %) healthy controls, 14/42 (33 %) NCIPH patients, and 1/38 (3 %) cryptogenic cirrhosis patients. In patients with intrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, serum B12 level ≤ 250 pg/ml was useful for diagnosing NCIPH (positive predictive value: 93 %, positive likelihood ratio 12.7), and serum B12 level >1,000 pg/ml was useful in ruling out NCIPH (negative predictive value: 86 %, negative likelihood ratio: 6.67). Low serum B12 levels (≤250 pg/ml) correlated with diagnosis of NCIPH after adjusting for possible confounders (O.R: 13.6; 95 % C.I:1.5-126.2). Among patients in Child's class A, serum B12 level was ≤250 pg/ml in 14/35 NCIPH patients compared with 1/21 cryptogenic cirrhosis patients (O.R: 13.3; 95 % C.I: 1.6-111). CONCLUSION: Serum vitamin B12 level seems to be a useful non-invasive marker for differentiation of NCIPH from cryptogenic cirrhosis.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 08/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F) from inactive cortisone (E) (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1), or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR). In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone. In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa. Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may serve to limit hepatic inflammation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e29531. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Hepatology 12/2011; 54(6):2274; author reply 2274-5. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ADAMTS13 deficiency leading to excess ultralarge von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers and platelet clumping is typically found in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (a type of thrombotic microangiopathy). Idiopathic noncirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is a microangiopathy of portal venules associated with significant thrombocytopenia and predisposing gut disorders. To determine whether the portal microangiopathy in NCIPH is associated with ADAMTS13 deficiency. Plasma levels of ADAMTS13, anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies, and VWF were compared between cases (NCIPH patients) and controls (with chronic liver diseases of other etiology) matched for severity of liver dysfunction. Eighteen NCIPH patients [median (range) MELD score 12 (7-25)] and 25 controls [MELD score 11 (4-26)] were studied. ADAMTS13 activity was reduced in all 18 NCIPH patients and significantly lower than controls (median, IQR: 12.5%, 5-25% and 59.0%, 44-84%, respectively, P<0.0001) [normal range for plasma ADAMTS13 activity (55-160%)]. ADAMTS13 activity was <5% in 5/18 NCIPH patients (28%) and 0/25 controls (P=0.009). ADAMTS13 antigen levels were also decreased. Sustained low ADAMTS13 levels were seen in four NCIPH patients over 6 weeks to 11 months (highest ADAMTS13 level in each patient: <5%, 6%, 6%, and 25%), despite two patients having MELD score 12. Although nine cases had low titer anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies, there was no significant difference between cases and controls. Abnormally large VWF multimers were observed in 4/11 NCIPH patients (36%) and in 0/22 controls (P=0.008). Sustained deficiency of ADAMTS13 appears characteristic of NCIPH, irrespective of severity of liver disease.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2011; 56(8):2456-65. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2011; 54.
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    ABSTRACT: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare vascular liver disorder caused by thrombosis of the hepatic veins. In some patients, no known thrombophilic factor can be identified. This study aimed to identify novel factors that might play a role in thrombosis in BCS-patients by using a proteomic approach. The abundance of plasma clot-bound proteins was compared between nine BCS-patients and nine controls by using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. The protein with the most significant decrease in patients was identified by mass spectrometry. Plasma levels of this protein were measured and the results were validated in a large cohort of BCS-patients. A total of 26 protein spots significantly differed (p<0.001). The spot that decreased with the highest statistical significance in patients was identified by mass spectrometry as apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1). The mean level of apo A1 in the plasma of these BCS-patients (0.74 g/L) was also significantly lower than in controls (1.45 g/L, p=0.002). This finding was validated in a large cohort of 101 BCS-patients and 101 controls (0.97 g/L vs. 1.32 g/L, p<0.0001). There was no major correlation between plasma levels of apo A1 and various liver function tests. BCS-patients show decreased clot-bound protein abundance and plasma levels of apo A1. Decreased levels of apo A1 may play a role in the etiology of thrombosis in BCS-patients and possibly in other patients with venous thrombosis.
    Journal of Hepatology 01/2011; 54(5):908-14. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is generally regarded to have a benign prognosis. We have studied a cohort followed-up at a tertiary referral center and postulate that gut-derived prothrombotic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of NCIPH. We retrospectively analyzed prognostic indicators in 34 NCIPH patients. We also searched for associated gut diseases. Transplant-free survival in NCIPH patients from first presentation with NCIPH at 1, 5, and 10 years was 94% (SE: 4.2%), 84% (6.6%), and 69% (9.8%), respectively. Decompensated liver disease occurred in 53% of patients. Three (9%) patients had ulcerative colitis while five of 31 (16%) tested had celiac disease and on Kaplan-Meier analysis, celiac disease predicted reduced transplant-free survival (p=0.018). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, independent predictors of reduced transplant-free survival were older age at first presentation with NCIPH, hepatic encephalopathy, and portal vein thrombosis. Prevalence of elevated initial serum IgA anticardiolipin antibody (CLPA) was significantly higher in NCIPH (36% of patients tested), compared to Budd-Chiari syndrome (6%) (p=0.032, Fisher's exact test) and celiac disease without concomitant liver disease (0%) (p=0.007). We have identified prognostic factors and report progression to liver failure in 53% of NCIPH patients followed-up at our center. Our data supports a role for intestinal disease in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic portal vein occlusion leading to NCIPH.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2010; 56(1):227-35. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), thrombosis develops in the hepatic veins or inferior vena cava. To study the relationship between hypofibrinolysis and BCS, we measured plasma levels of fibrinolysis proteins in 101 BCS patients and 101 healthy controls and performed a plasma-based clot lysis assay. In BCS patients, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher than in controls (median, 6.3 vs 1.4 IU/mL, P < .001). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor levels were lower than in controls (13.8 vs 16.9 microg/mL and 0.91 vs 1.02 U/L, both P < .001). Median plasma clot lysis time (CLT) was 73.9 minutes in cases and 73.0 minutes in controls (P = .329). A subgroup of cases displayed clearly elevated CLTs. A CLT above the 90th or 95th percentile of controls was associated with an increased risk of BCS, with odds ratios of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.5) and 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-9.7), respectively. In controls, only PAI-1 activity was significantly associated with CLT. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of fibrinolysis proteins revealed no significant differences between cases and controls. This case-control study provides the first evidence that an impaired fibrinolytic potential, at least partially caused by elevated PAI-1 levels, is related to the presence of BCS.
    Blood 11/2009; 115(2):388-95. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The growing numbers of potential transplant recipients on waiting lists is increasingly disproportionate to the supply of cadaveric donor organs. The hope for the next 20 years is that supply will satisfy demand. This requires both a reduction in indications for the procedure and an increase in the transplants performed. A multi-pronged approach is needed to increase cadaveric organ donation, generating enthusiasm for donation among both the general public and hospital staff. Accurate assessment of marginal grafts with stringent criteria known to predict graft function will diminish wastage of organs. Methods of rehabilitating marginal grafts during extracorporeal perfusion will increase organ availability. Supply of non-heart beating donors can be greatly expanded and protocols developed with ethical consent to optimize their initial function despite warm ischemia. Splitting livers that fulfill selection criteria, thus providing for two recipients, should be universally applied with acceptable incentives to those units who do not directly benefit. A proportion of recipients, though not those transplanted for autoimmune disease, will be spared the side-effects of immunosuppression thanks to immune tolerance. Protocols for close monitoring of those patients for rejection during treatment withdrawal must be carefully observed. In addition to gene therapy, it is highly likely that hepatocyte transplantation will replace orthotopic grafting in patients without cirrhosis, especially for inherited metabolic diseases. It is much more difficult to envisage that heterologous stem cell transplantation or xenotransplantation will have clinical impact in the next 20 years, although research in those areas has obvious long-term potential.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2009; 24 Suppl 3:S124-31. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is hepatic venous outflow obstruction. What is known about the syndrome is based on small studies of prevalent cases. To characterize the causes and treatment of incident BCS. Consecutive case series of patients with incident BCS, enrolled from October 2003 to October 2005 and followed until May 2006. Academic and nonacademic hospitals in France, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Switzerland. Persons older than 16 years with definite hepatic outflow obstruction diagnosed by imaging. Persons with hepatic outflow obstruction due to heart failure, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, cancer, or liver transplantation were excluded. Signs and symptoms; laboratory and imaging findings; diagnosis; treatment; and overall, transplantation-free, and intervention-free survival. 163 incident cases of BCS were identified. Median follow-up was 17 months (range, 0.1 to 31 months). Most patients (84%) had at least 1 thrombotic risk factor, and many (46%) had more than 1; the most common was myeloproliferative disorders (49% of 103 tested patients). Patients were mainly treated with anticoagulation (140 patients [86%]), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (56 patients [34%]), or liver transplantation (20 patients [12%]), and 80 patients (49%) were managed noninvasively. Only 3 patients underwent surgical shunting. The survival rate was 87% (95% CI, 82% to 93%) at 1 year and 82% (CI, 75% to 88%) at 2 years. Treatment was not standardized across all centers, and data on important clinical variables were missing for some patients. Most patients with BCS have at least 1 thrombotic risk factor, and many have more than 1; myeloproliferative disorders are most common. One- and 2-year survival rates are good with contemporary management, which includes noninvasive therapies (anticoagulation and diuretics) and invasive techniques. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting seems to have replaced surgical shunting as the most common invasive therapeutic procedure. Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission.
    Annals of internal medicine 09/2009; 151(3):167-75. · 13.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,915.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Christian Medical College Vellore
      Velluru, Tamil Nādu, India
  • 1985–2014
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Christian Medical College & Hospital
      Ludhiana, Punjab, India
  • 1996–2013
    • University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Leicester
      • School of Medicine
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1983–2012
    • University of Birmingham
      • • Institute for Biomedical Research
      • • School of Biosciences
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University College London
      • Department of Haematology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1983–2007
    • The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2004
    • National University Hospital - NUH
      Singapore
  • 2001
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium