[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a semi-quantitative measure that seems to correlate with the degree of myelin loss and generally tissue destruction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to comprehensively assess the MTR of lesions and normal appearing (NA) tissue separately in the white matter (WM), the cortex, the thalamus and the basal ganglia (BG) and determine their relative contribution to disability. In this cross-sectional study 71 patients were included (59 with relapsing-remitting MS, 12 with secondary progressive MS). We used a three-dimensional MTR sequence with high spatial resolution, based on balanced steady-state free precession. Mean MTR was calculated for lesions and NA tissue separately for each tissue type. Lesional MTR was lower than normal-appearing MTR in WM, cortex and thalamus. In the regression analysis, MTR of cortical lesions (β = -0.23, p = 0.05) and MTR of WML (β = -0.21, p = 0.08) were related by trend to the expanded disability status scale. MTR of WML significantly predicted the paced auditory serial-addition test (β = 0.35, p = 0.004). MTR of normal-appearing tissue did not relate to any outcome. Our results suggest that MTR of lesions in the white matter and cortex rather than of normal-appearing tissue relates to disability in patients with MS.
Journal of Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7793-5 · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether nasal chondrocytes (NC) can be used to generate composite constructs with properties necessary for the repair of osteochondral (OC) lesions, namely maturation, integration and capacity to recover from inflammatory burst. OC grafts were fabricated by combining engineered cartilage tissues (generated by culturing NC or articular chondrocytes - AC - onto Chondro-Gide(®) matrices) with devitalized spongiosa cylinders (Tutobone(®) ). OC tissues were then exposed to IL-1β for three days and cultured for additional 2 weeks in the absence of IL-1β. Cartilage maturation extent was assessed (immune) histologically, biochemically and by delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) while cartilage/bone integration was assessed using a peel-off mechanical test. The use of NC as compared to AC allowed for more efficient cartilage matrix accumulation and superior integration of the cartilage/bone layers. dGEMRIC and biochemical analyzes of the OC constructs showed a reduced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents upon IL-1β administration. Cartilaginous matrix contents and integration forces returned to baseline up on withdrawal of IL-1β. By having a cartilage layer well developed and strongly integrated to the subchondral layer, OC tissues generated with NC may successfully engraft in an inflammatory post-surgery joint environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/jor.22865 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging.
Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI.
Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 μm(2)/ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 μm(2)/ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027).
Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicate an increased matrix organization of RT.
• MRI is used to assess morphology of the repair tissue during follow-up. • Quantitative MRI allows an estimation of biochemical properties of the repair tissue. • Differences between repair tissue and cartilage were more significant with dwDESS than T2 mapping.
European Radiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3490-5 · 4.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiologic and pathologic arterial tortuosity may attenuate blood flow pulsatility. The aim of this prospective study was to assess a potential effect of the curved V3 segment (Atlas slope) of the vertebral artery on arterial flow pulsatility. The pulsatility index and resistance index were used to assess blood flow pulsatility.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 11/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A4148 · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the availability of new and more accurate tumour treatment modalities such as high-intensity focused ultrasound or proton therapy, accurate target location prediction has become a key issue. Various approaches for diverse application scenarios have been proposed over the last decade. Whereas external surrogate markers such as a breathing belt work to some extent, knowledge about the internal motion of the organs inherently provides more accurate results. In this paper, we combine a population-based statistical motion model and information from 2d ultrasound sequences in order to predict the respiratory motion of the right liver lobe. For this, the motion model is fitted to a 3d exhalation breath-hold scan of the liver acquired before prediction. Anatomical landmarks tracked in the ultrasound images together with the model are then used to reconstruct the complete organ position over time. The prediction is both spatial and temporal, can be computed in real-time and is evaluated on ground truth over long time scales (5.5min). The method is quantitatively validated on eight volunteers where the ultrasound images are synchronously acquired with 4D-MRI, which provides ground-truth motion. With an average spatial prediction accuracy of 2.4mm, we can predict tumour locations within clinically acceptable margins.
Medical Image Analysis 07/2014; 18(5). DOI:10.1016/j.media.2014.03.006 · 3.68 Impact Factor