[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chard is used as an antidiabetic agent by the diabetic patients in Turkey.
The effect of chard extract [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)] on the antioxidant system and the expression of surfactant-associated proteins (SP) in the lungs of hyperglycemic rats were examined.
Hyperglycemia was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) provided intraperitoneally. Fourteen days after the rats were rendered hyperglycemic, the chard (2 g/kg/d), insulin (6 U/kg/d), and chard plus insulin (as mentioned above) were administered to rats for 45 d. On day 60, rats' lungs were removed. Oxidative stress parameters and SP expression were assayed.
The lungs of hyperglycemic rats were characterized by the induced lipid and protein oxidation, elevated myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase activities, decreased glutathione levels, and reduced tissue factor and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase). Chard treatment alone and chard treatment combined with insulin were capable of achieving a regression of pulmonary oxidative stress, by inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation, and restoring the antioxidant system of hyperglycemic rats. SP-A expressions were significantly unchanged in all groups, whereas pro-SP-C and SP-D expressions were reduced in hyperglycemic rats. Pro-SP-C and SP-D levels were increased by chard and insulin administrations alone and combined in hyperglycemic rats.
All treatments have a positive effect on the surfactant and antioxidant systems of the lungs of hyperglycemic rats. The best therapeutic effect was provided by treatment with chard extract alone in the compensation of hyperglycemic symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin U (vit U, S-methylmethionine) on oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis within the context of valproic acid (VPA)-induced renal damage. In this study, female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group I consisted of intact animals, group II was given vit U (50 mg/kg/day, by gavage), group III was given VPA (500 mg/kg/day, intraperitonally), and group IV was given VPA + vit U. The animals were treated by vit U 1 h prior to treatment with VPA every day for 15 days. The following results were obtained in vit U + VPA-treated rats: (i) the protective effect of vit U on renal damage was shown by a significant decrease in histopathological changes and an increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity; (ii) anti-oxidant property of vit U was demonstrated by a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and xanthine oxidase activity and an increase in glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities; (iii) anti-inflammatory property of vit U was demonstrated by a decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels, and adenosine deaminase activity; (iv) anti-fibrotic effect of vit U was shown by a decrease in transforming growth factor-β, collagen-1 levels, and arginase activity. Collectively, these data show that VPA is a promoter of inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis which resulted in renal damage. Vit U can be proposed as a potential candidate for preventing renal damage which arose during the therapeutic usage of VPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) neutralization on synthesis and secretion of activin A (Act-A) and betacellulin (BTC) from primary β cells and the importance of these relations for β-cell proliferation.
β Cells were isolated from euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced (75 mg/kg) hyperglycemic rats and treated with NGF neutralization antibody. The gene expression levels of Act-A and BTC in the primary β cells were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cellular and secreted levels of Act-A and BTC proteins were estimated using Western blot analysis.
Nerve growth factor neutralization (1) reduced β-cell proliferation, (2) decreased Act-A at gene expression and protein levels while increasing its secretion from β cells, and (3) increased BTC at gene expression level while mildly decreasing its cellular protein level and secretion from β cells. Nerve growth factor neutralization specifically affected β cells of hyperglycemic rats.
These findings indicate that NGF is an important regulator for the synthesis and secretion of Act-A and BTC from the β cells. Moreover, the results suggested that β-cell proliferation decreased through NGF neutralization is possibly related to decreased BTC and increased Act-A secretion from β cells of hyperglycemic rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protective effect of an aqueous extract of the shoots and leaves of Smilax excelsa L. against acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)induced toxicity and the changes in antioxidative defense activities in kidney of rats were investigated. Female Wistar rats were supplied with S. excelsa shoots and leaves aqueous extract once a day for 9 days (orally at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to renal injury induction through intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body wt, in a 20 % v/v olive oil solution) on the 10th day. 24 h after CCl4 intoxication serum and tissue biochemical and hispathological analyses were undertaken after sacrification under anesthesia. Administration of the extract reversed the antioxidant parameters which were impaired in CCl4 group, in a dose dependent manner and at a dose of 400 mg/kg of body weight the levels of almost all the parameters were almost back to normal Control group. Nevertheless, the extract did not completely improve the CCl4-induced degenerative changes observed microscopically in kidney tissue. The results of this study suggest that S. excelsa could protect the kidney tissue against CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, probably by increasing antioxidative defense activities.
Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 09/2013; 19(5). DOI:10.9775/kvfd.2013.9253 · 0.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion is a major problem which may lead to multiorgan failure and death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on apoptosis, cell proliferation, oxidative stress and the antioxidant system in intestinal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats and to determine if EGF can ameliorate these toxic effects. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury was produced by causing complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 60min followed by a 60-min reperfusion period. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of 150μg/kg human recombinant EGF 30min prior to the mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion. Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion caused degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, inhibition of cell proliferation, stimulation of apoptosis and oxidative stress in the small intestine of rats. In the ischemia/reperfusion group, lipid peroxidation was stimulated accompanied by increased intestinal catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, however, glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activities were markedly decreased. EGF treatment to rats with ischemia/reperfusion prevented the ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative injury by reducing apoptosis and lipid peroxidation, and by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. These results demonstrate that EGF has beneficial antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects on intestinal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chard is a plant used as an alternative hypoglycemic agent by diabetic people in Turkey. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanism of hypoglycemic effects of chard extract. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6-7 months old) were divided into five groups for this investigation: (1) control, (2) hyperglycemic, (3) hyperglycemic+chard, (4) hyperglycemic+insulin, (5) hyperglycemic+chard+insulin. Fourteen days after animals were rendered hyperglycemic by intraperitoneal injection of 60mg/kg streptozotocin, the chard water extract (2g/kg/day) or/and insulin (6U/kg/day) was administered for 45 days. Hypoglycemic effect of chard extract was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the fasting blood glucose and increased glycogen levels in liver of chard extract-treated hyperglycemic rats. Moreover, activity of adenosine deaminase, which is suggested as an important enzyme for modulating the bioactivity of insulin, was decreased by chard treatment. Immunostaining analysis showed increased nuclear translocation of Akt2 and synthesis of GLUT2 in the hepatocytes of chard or/and insulin-treated hyperglycemic rats. The oxidative stress was decreased and antioxidant defense was increased by chard extract or/and insulin treatment to hyperglycemic rats according to the decreased malondialdehyde formation, the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and increased glutathione levels. These findings suggest that chard extract might improve glucose response by increasing GLUT2 through Akt2 and antioxidant defense in the liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine whether ghrelin treatment has a protective effect on gene expression and biochemical changes in the stomach of newborn streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study, four groups of Wistar rats were used: control, ghrelin control, diabetic and diabetic+ghrelin. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of treatment for diabetes. The gene expressions of: somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin and the altered active caspase-3, active caspase-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were investigated in the pyloric region of the stomach and antioxidant parameters were measured in all the stomach. Although ghrelin treatment to diabetic rats lowered the stomach lipid peroxidation levels, the stomach glutathione levels were increased. Exogenous ghrelin caused an increased activities of stomach catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in diabetic rats. Numbers of somatostatin, cholecystokinin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactive cells decreased in the diabetic+ghrelin group compared to the diabetic group. Apelin mRNA expressions were remarkably less in the diabetic+ghrelin rats than in diabetic rats. The results may indicate that ghrelin treatment has a protective effect to some extent on the diabetic rats. This protection is possibly accomplished through the antioxidant activity of ghrelin observed in type 2 diabetes. Consequently exogenous ghrelin may be a candidate for therapeutic treatment of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a well-known mediator for maintaining the survival of neurons, while recent studies report that its absence induces apoptosis in cultured β cells of humans and rats. However, its relationship with other growth factors that have important roles in the survival and function of β cells such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NGF withdrawal on the synthesis and secretion of EGF, insulin with respect to β cell apoptosis in hyperglycemic rats.
β cells were isolated from euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats and treated with NGF neutralizing antibody for withdrawal of NGF in culture medium. NGF, EGF and insulin levels in cell lysates and secretion samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their gene expressions were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Apoptosis was quantitatively determined by cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments.
Nerve growth factor neutralization triggered β cell apoptosis. In addition decreased insulin, increased NGF and EGF were observed at gene expression and protein levels by NGF neutralization. Moreover, NGF withdrawal decreased secretion of these peptides from β cells. Although the alterations seemed to be similar under euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, NGF withdrawal more strongly affected β cells of hyperglycemic rats.
These important findings indicate that NGF is an important regulator for the synthesis and secretion of EGF and insulin from the β cells. Moreover, results suggested that NGF withdrawal causes apoptosis by decreasing EGF, NGF and insulin secretion from β cells of hyperglycemic rats.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 11/2012; 28(8). DOI:10.1002/dmrr.2339 · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Teduglutide is a long-acting synthetic analogue of human glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). GLP-2 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as normal physiology in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, possible cytoprotective and reparative effects of teduglutide were analyzed on a mouse model with lung injury induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and actinomycin D (Act D). BALB/c mice were divided into six groups: control mice (I), mice injected intraperitoneally with 15μg/kg TNF-α (II), 800μg/kg Act D (III), Act D 2min prior to TNF-α administration with the same doses (IV), mice injected subcutaneously with 200μg/kg teduglutide every 12h for 10 consecutive days (V), and mice given Act D 2min prior to TNF-α administration on day 11 after receiving teduglutide for 10 days (VI). The TNF-α/Act D administration made the lung a sensitive organ to damage. Mice lung subjected to TNF-α/Act D were characterized by the disruption of alveolar wall, induced pulmonary endothelial/epithelial cell apoptosis and expression of active caspase-3. These mice exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and activities of myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and xanthine oxidase, as well as reduced tissue factor and sodium-potassium/ATPase activities. Teduglutide pretreatment regressed the structural damage, cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation in mice received TNF-α/Act D. GLP-2 receptors were present on the cell membrane of type II pneumocytes and interstitial cells. Thus, teduglutide can be suggested as a novel protective agent, which possesses anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties, against lung injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by anomalies forming in carbohydrate, lipid, protein metabolisms and the incidence of this disease varies widely throughout the world. Zinc is an important element which is essential for life and is present in nature. In this study, the animals were divided into four groups. These groups were named as untreated; zinc sulfate; streptozotocin (STZ); STZ and zinc sulfate. STZ (65mg/kg) was dissolved in a freshly prepared 0.01M pH 4.5 citrate buffer and given with intraperitoneal injection in a single dose. Zinc sulfate (100mg/kg) was dissolved in distilled water and given to the animals by gavage at a daily dose for 60 days. The rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia. This study was aimed to investigate histological and biochemical changes of zinc supplementation on the kidney tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In the current study, histological and histochemical observations showed that the occurred degenerative changes decreased after giving zinc in the kidney tissue of diabetic group. Kidney glutathione (GSH) levels decreased and lipid peroxidation (LPO), nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG), urea and creatinine levels increased in diabetic rats. GSH levels increased, while LPO, NEG, urea and creatinine levels decreased in the kidney with administration of zinc to diabetic rats. As a result, we observed curative effects of zinc given to diabetic rats. We can say that zinc may be an important antioxidant for the treatment of secondary complications of diabetes in kidney tissue.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 08/2012; 27(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jtemb.2012.07.006 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methiocarb (MC) is a widely used carbamate pesticide in agriculture and health programs. Although the main molecular mechanism of carbamate toxicity involves acetylcholinesterase inhibition, studies have also implicated the induction of oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of acute MC exposure on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems, histological changes in Wistar rats and the protective effect of pretreatment with vitamin E and taurine. A total of 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups. Rats in group I were given corn oil, while those in group III were dosed with vitamin E (100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and in group V were dosed with taurine (50 mg/kg b.w.). Rats in group II were administered with MC only (25 mg/kg b.w., 1/4 of median lethal dose (LD(50))), while those in groups IV and VI were pretreated with vitamin E (100 mg/kg b.w.) and taurine (50 mg/kg b.w.) for 20 days, respectively, and then exposed to MC (25 mg/kg b.w.). The rats administered with MC showed significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde in the liver and kidney as an index of lipid peroxidation. Levels of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased, while activity of glutathione reductase remained unchanged in both the tissues after MC treatment. Mild degenerative histological changes were observed in liver tissue, while the changes in kidney tissue were more severe then liver after MC treatment. Pretreatment with vitamin E and taurine resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation and alleviating effects on antioxidant defense systems in both the tissues, while protective effects on the histological changes were shown only in kidney when compared with liver. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated that the acute MC exposure in Wistar rats caused oxidative damage on liver and kidney, which were partly ameliorated by the pretreatment of vitamin E and taurine.
Toxicology and Industrial Health 05/2012; 29(1). DOI:10.1177/0748233712446719 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the cholecystokinin, somatostatin and apelin mRNA levels, (ii) the changes in levels and localization of these peptides, (iii) relation between these peptides, (iv) antiapoptotic effects and (v) antioxidant effects of ghrelin. The rats were divided into four groups second day after birth. These groups were respectively treated with physiological saline, ghrelin (100μg/kg/day), streptozotocin (100mg/kg), ghrelin and streptozotocin. After four weeks, small intestine and blood samples were taken from rats. Cholecystokinin mRNA and peptide, somatostatin mRNA, release to duodenal lumen of apelin peptide and apelin mRNA signals decreased in ghrelin-treated diabetic rats compared to the diabetic group. There was no statistically significant difference among the four groups for somatostatin and apelin peptides. Caspase-3 signals were not observed only in diabetic group treated with ghrelin. Caspase-8 signals were increased while PCNA signals were decreased in diabetic group given ghrelin compared to diabetic group. Small intestine CAT, SOD, GP(x) and GST activities and GSH levels were decreased and LPO, PC levels were increased in diabetic rats. Administration of ghrelin to diabetic rats caused an increase in intestinal CAT, SOD, GP(x) and GST activities and GSH levels, while PC levels decreased. As a result, we observed positive changes in diabetic rats treated with ghrelin in both microscopic and biochemical studies. We can suggest that ghrelin may be an important hormone for the treatment of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In diabetes, cells and tissues are damaged due to the imbalance between production of free radicals and removal of them. The effective biologic antioxidants for oxidative stress such as α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and selenium are effective in diminishing oxidative damage such as membrane lipid peroxidation. The experiment aimed to investigate the oxidative stress occurring in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fraction of pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-diabetic mice and the possible effects of α-lipoic acid+vitamin E+selenium combination on oxidative damage and antioxidative system by using microscopic and biochemical methods. The mice were divided into five groups. These groups were treated by citrate buffer, the solvents of the antioxidants, combined the antioxidants [α-lipoic acid (50mg/kg), vitamin E (100mg/kg), selenium (0.25mg/kg)], streptozotocin (40mg/kg×5), combined the antioxidants and streptozotocin. The mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. In the experimental group given combined antioxidants following results were observed compared to diabetic group: increased percent insulin-positive cell area; decreased blood glucose levels; increased manganase superoxide dismutase activities and unsignificantly increased superoxide dismutase activities; unsignificantly decreased lipid peroxidase levels in both of fraction; unsignificantly decreased in mitochondrial fraction and unsignificantly increased in cytosolic fraction for catalase levels; not any alteration glutathione levels; not any activity in both of fraction for glutathione peroxidase. We can say that by taking the blood glucose levels and immunohistochemical results into account, the combination of triple antioxidants has a partly positive effect on diabetes. This positive effect could increase when trying different doses of combined antioxidant treatment.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 10/2011; 65(3). DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2011.08.012 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggested that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal activated a common apoptotic pathway. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible role of apoptotic Ras effectors RASSF1 and NORE1 in NGF reduction and TNF-α-related β cell apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Rats were divided into four groups: the first group was given saline and citrate buffer, the second group was injected 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), an inducer of NGF synthesis, the third group received STZ, and the fourth group was given both 4-MC and STZ. 4-MC (10 μg/kg) was administered by daily intraperitoneal injection for 10 days before the animals were rendered hyperglycemic by administration of single dose STZ (75 mg/kg). With 4-MC pretreatment to hyperglycemic rats the following results were noted: (i) Decrease in pancreatic NGF level was blocked, (ii) Increase in pancreatic TNF-α level and the number of TNF-α(+) beta cell in the islets were prevented, (iii) Increase in the number of β cell synthhesized apoptotic Ras effectors that RASSF1 and NORE1 was blocked, (iv) While pancreatic lipid peroxidation level decreased, antioxidant molecule glutathione and antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities increased, (v) Pancreatic caspase-3 activity and the number of cleaved caspase-3(+) β cells were decreased. These results strengthen the idea that TNF-α and reduction in NGF can activate a common apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these data display that new apoptotic Ras effector molecules RASSF1 and NORE1 play important role with oxidative stress in NGF reduction and TNF-α-related pancreatic β cell apoptosis in hyperglycemic rats. Furthermore, these findings suggest that 4-MC can prevent β cell apoptosis possibly through increasing NGF synthesis in hyperglycemic rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, it was aimed to investigate whether 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) could serve as an autocrine antiapoptotic agent by increasing nerve growth factor (NGF) in β cells of hyperglycemic rats. Rats were divided into four groups: the first group was given citrate buffer and saline, the second group was administered 4-MC, the third group received streptozotocin (STZ), and the fourth group was given both 4-MC and STZ. 4-MC (10 μg/kg) was administered by daily intraperitoneal injection for 10 days before the animals were rendered hyperglycemic by administration of STZ (75 mg/kg). With 4-MC pretreatment on hyperglycemic rats the following results were noted: (i) Increase in plasma glucose, β cell apoptosis and caspase-8 activation was prevented. (ii) Reduction of NGF+ and tyrosine receptor kinase A (TrkA)+ β cell number was blocked. (iii) p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR))+ β cell number was increased. These data suggest that 4-MC might exert its antiapoptotic actions through NGF/TrkA system which may block NGF/p75(NTR) activation in pancreatic β cells of hyperglycemic rats.