Norio Hori

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (13)33.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Many non-motor symptoms are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Of these, pain and olfactory disturbance tend to be common premotor symptoms. PD has been shown to exhibit abnormal central pain processing, although underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In order to investigate this further, we assessed PD patients by specific Aδ stimulation with intra-epidermal needle electrode and determined olfactory function. Methods: Forty-two patients (18 males and 24 females) with PD and 17 healthy control subjects (8 males and 9 females) were studied. A thin needle electrode was used to stimulate epidermal Aδ fibers, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded at the vertex. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Odor Stick Identification Test for Japanese (OSIT-J) and its relationship with pain-related SEPs was investigated. Results: There were no significant differences in N1 latencies or P1 latencies although N1/P1 peak-to-peak amplitudes were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in PD patients than in control subjects. In PD patients, there were significant correlations between N1/P1 amplitudes and disease duration (r = -0.35, p < 0.05), Hoehn-Yahr stage (r = -0.38, p < 0.05) and UPDRS part III (r = -0.42, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the OSIT-J scores correlated with SEP amplitude (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Pain processing in PD patients was impaired under specific nociceptive stimulation of Aδ fibers and significant correlation with smell dysfunction was detected. We suggest that this mechanism may involve the limbic system during PD pathology.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 07/2012; 19(1). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.06.020 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used accelerometry and visual examination by a neurologist to measure the intensity and frequency of hand tremor under resting, postural, writing, and walking conditions among patients with essential tremor with resting tremor (n=11) and Parkinson's disease (n=38). The intensity of essential tremor was markedly attenuated during walking relative to resting. The intensity and frequency of parkinsonian tremors were higher while walking than while resting. We suggest that assessment of the intensity and frequency of tremor during walking is clinically useful for differentiating between essential tremor with resting tremor and parkinsonian tremor, especially in the early stages, when the two conditions are often difficult to distinguish. Parkinsonian tremors are known to be enhanced during walking. Our clinical experience, as well as that of others, suggests that the intensity of essential tremor with resting tremor is markedly attenuated during walking.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 09/2011; 18(9):1224-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2010.12.053 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare pupillary autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We administered eye-drop tests to 40 MSA patients, 40 PD patients with similar disease duration, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Pupillary supersensitivity to a parasympathomimetic agent (0.05% pilocarpine hydrochloride) and to a sympathomimetic agent (0.02% dipivefrine hydrochloride) was examined by assessing changes in pupil diameter. Pupillary supersensitivity to a parasympathomimetic agent (0.05% pilocarpine hydrochloride) and to a sympathomimetic agent (0.02% dipivefrine hydrochloride) was examined by assessing changes in pupil diameter. Pupillary supersensitivity to 0.05% pilocarpine was greatest among the PD patients (PD -23.1 +/- 14.4%, MSA -12.4 +/- 11.5%, control -9.5 +/- 8.2%, p < 0.05) but was not correlated with disease duration. Pupillary sensitivity to 0.02% dipivefrine was significantly greater in the PD and MSA patients versus controls (PD 10.5 +/- 12.0%, MSA 11.8 +/- 11.0%, control 3.1 +/- 5.8%, p < 0.05). MSA patients had pupillary sympathetic dysfunction from an early stage, whereas in PD patients it tended to gradually accelerate as the disease advanced. In MSA patients, pupillary sympathetic sensitivity to 0.02% dipivefrine was correlated with the severity of orthostatic hypotension during a head-up tilt test and with the elevation of systolic blood pressure during a noradrenaline infusion test. In PD patients, pupillary sympathetic sensitivity to 0.02% dipivefrine was correlated with a reduction of the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio using delayed-phase iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. These data indicate that eye-drop tests can reveal differences in the progression of pupillary autonomic dysfunction in patients with MSA and PD.
    Clinical Autonomic Research 06/2010; 20(3):191-7. DOI:10.1007/s10286-009-0051-0 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the clinical features of a patient with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome with a mutation in the prion protein gene at codon 105 (GSS105) who presented with ataxia. Neurologic examination showed memory disturbance, dysarthria, extrapyramidal signs (bradykinesia and resting tremor) and ataxic gait without spasticity. Although GSS105 has been referred to as "spastic paraparesis-type GSS", the patient did not show spastic paraparesis or pyramidal signs, even 11 years after the onset of symptoms. Thus, the spectrum of the GSS105 phenotype varies among patients and requires further clinicopathologic elucidation.
    Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 06/2009; 111(7):606-9. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2009.03.008 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated pupillary postganglionic autonomic dysfunction and its relationship to visual disturbance in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Pupillary sensitivity was examined in relation to a parasympathomimetic agent [0.05% pilocarpine hydrochloride (PL)] and to a sympathomimetic agent [0.02% dipivefrine hydrochloride (DPE)] using infrared pupillography in 40 PD patients and 17 age-matched controls. Visual disturbances were evaluated as well, including blurring, photophobia, night blindness and involuntary eyelid closure in response to light. Pupillary supersensitivity to PL and DPE and their relation to visual disturbances were found to be significantly greater in PD patients than in controls (22.3 +/- 15.1 vs. 10.4 +/- 11.4%, P < 0.005, and14.5 +/- 14.5 vs. 4.9 +/- 8.7%, P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, pupillary sympathetic supersensitivity did not correlate with a reduction of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac accumulation. Patients with PD reported more blurred vision (P < 0.001) and involuntary eyelid closure in response to light (P < 0.05) than controls. Patients with supersensitivity to both PL and DPE complained more often of blurred vision than patients without supersensitivity (P < 0.05). Pupillary sensitivity to PL correlated significantly with a summed score for visual disturbance (P < 0.05, r = 0.417), but DPE sensitivity did not. PD patients have both parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic impairments affecting the pupil. Our findings demonstrate that parasympathetic dysfunction contributes significantly to visual disturbance in PD.
    Clinical Autonomic Research 02/2008; 18(1):20-7. DOI:10.1007/s10286-008-0453-4 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a sleep attack, which was induced by taking excessive levodopa and pergolide, in a 73-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease. At the onset of the sleep attack, her head suddenly sagged and sometimes hit the table, but she did not notice these symptoms. Her family noticed that this sleep attack occurred when she began to speak slowly. Her family recorded this attack with a video camera. This sleep attack resolved with control of her medication. This is the first report of video images of a sleep attack due to excessive levodopa and a dopamine agonist.
    Movement Disorders 01/2008; 23(2):288-90. DOI:10.1002/mds.21830 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, lower motor neuron disease caused by an aberrant elongation of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The main symptoms are weakness and atrophy of bulbar, facial and limb muscles, but sensory disturbances are frequently found in SBMA patients. Motor symptoms have been attributed to the accumulation of mutant AR in the nucleus of lower motor neurons, which is more profound in patients with a longer CAG repeat. We examined nerve conduction properties including F-waves in a total of 106 patients with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age at data collection = 53.8 years; range = 31-75 years) and 85 control subjects. Motor conduction velocities (MCV), compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), sensory conduction velocities (SCV) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were significantly decreased in all nerves examined in the SBMA patients compared with that in the normal controls, indicating that axonal degeneration is the primary process in both motor and sensory nerves. More profound abnormalities were observed in the nerves of the upper limbs than in those of the lower limbs. F-waves in the median nerve were absent in 30 of 106 cases (28.3%), but no cases of absent F-waves were observed in the tibial nerve. From an analysis of the relationship between CMAPs and SNAPs, patients were identified with different electrophysiological phenotypes: motor-dominant, sensory-dominant and non-dominant phenotypes. The CAG repeat size and the age at onset were significantly different among the patients with motor- and sensory-dominant phenotypes, indicating that a longer CAG repeat is more closely linked to the motor-dominant phenotype and a shorter CAG repeat is more closely linked to the sensory-dominant phenotype. Furthermore, when we classified the patients by CAG repeat size, CMAP values showed a tendency to be decreased in patients with a longer CAG repeat (> or =47), while SNAPs were significantly decreased in patients with a shorter CAG repeat (<47). In addition, we found that the frequency of aggregation in the sensory neuron cytoplasm tended to inversely correlate with the CAG repeat size in the autopsy study, supporting the view that the CAG repeat size differentially correlates with motor- and sensory-dominant phenotypes. In conclusion, our results suggest that there are unequivocal electrophysiological phenotypes influenced by CAG repeat size in SBMA.
    Brain 01/2008; 131(Pt 1):229-39. DOI:10.1093/brain/awm289 · 9.20 Impact Factor
  • Autonomic Neuroscience 12/2007; 137(1):105-105. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.08.013 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Autonomic Neuroscience 09/2007; 135(1):153-154. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.06.271 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Autonomic Neuroscience 09/2007; 135(1):107-108. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.06.182 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Autonomic Neuroscience 09/2007; 135(1):57-58. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.06.085 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Autonomic Neuroscience 09/2007; 135(1):46-46. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.06.063 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) often have clinically significant postprandial hypotension (PPH). To elucidate the cause of insufficient cardiac preload augmentation that underlies PPH, we recorded calf venous capacitance (CVC) by strain-gauge plethysmography, in 17 MSA patients and eight healthy controls before and after oral glucose ingestion. Among 17 MSA patients, nine who showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure exceeding 20 mmHg and were diagnosed with PPH. MSA patients without PPH showed a significant decrease in CVC and a significant increase in cardiac output after oral glucose ingestion, as did controls; those with MSA exhibiting PPH showed a significant increase in CVC and no significant change in cardiac output. The change in CVC correlated positively with the decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after glucose ingestion, and also correlated negatively with the increase in cardiac output. Physiologically, PPH is prevented by a decrease in venous capacitance, which increases circulating blood volume and cardiac output. In some MSA patients, failure of venous capacitance to decrease may induce PPH.
    Clinical Autonomic Research 03/2007; 17(1):20-5. DOI:10.1007/s10286-006-0378-8 · 1.49 Impact Factor